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Tibullus wrote love-poetry, and so Cupido is supposed to attend his funeral, with his quiver reversed (just as our soldiers reverse their muskets at funerals), his bow broken, and his torch unlit ; his wings droop, and he beats his breast; his hair hangs loose and is wet with his tears, while he sobs loudly. Cupido is commonly represented with a bow and quiver and a lighted torch, representing the fire of love. See p. 26, v. 40.

13. Fratris in Aeneae] Aeneas was one of the leaders of the Trojans who escaped from Troy after it was taken by the Greeks and went to Italy. His son Iulus went with him. Aeneas was supposed to be the son of Venus, and so Cupido was his brother. The common story is, that Aeneas did not die, but was carried to heaven alive. Ovid follows a different legend here, and speaks of Cupido following in Aeneas' funeral procession from the house of his son Iulus, which might be at Lavinium in Latium.

16. juvenis] This youth's name was Adonis, who was much beloved by Venus. He was killed by a boar when hunting, and Venus was inconsolable at his death.

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17. At sacri vates] He says, 'we poets are called sacred,' and supposed to be under the care of the gods, and even by some to have divine power,- and yet Tibullus is dead, he means to say. 18. Sunt qui] There are those who think,' some think. These words are often used together, and they take the subjunctive mood after them when no particular persons are referred to, and the indicative when particular persons are meant.

19. Scilicet] This is compounded of 'sci and licet,' 'you may know.' It means 'surely.' Importuna' means 'cruel.' 'Sacra' are things set apart for religious use: all other things are 'profana,' 'common, not sacred.' So death reduces everything which is 'sacrum' to the condition of 'profanum,' 'common.'

21. Ismario] See p. 1, v. 7. Orpheus was a poet of Thrace (p. 4, 32). He was supposed to be the son of Oeagrus king of Thrace and Calliope one of the Muses, but neither royal father nor goddess mother could keep him from death, nor his music, with which he could move forests and tame wild beasts. He was torn to pieces by the women at the orgies of Bacchus.

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23. Aelinon] This is a Greek word signifying a 'lament.' Orpheus' father is here said to have sung a lament for him in the woods, to the accompaniment of his harp, which Ovid calls invita,' reluctant,' that is, unwilling to make music through sorrow for Orpheus.

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25. Maeoniden] Homer, who is so called from Maeonia, an ancient name for Lydia in Asia Minor. Homer was supposed by some to have been born at Smyrna, the chief town of Lydia. Ovid says that all poets drink from Homer as from a perpetual fountain. Pierian waters' is a phrase for poetry; Pieria, a tract of country between Macedonia and Thessaly, being the fabled land of the Muses.

27. Averno] Avernus was the name given by the ancients (and still retained) to a lake in Campania in Italy. The waters, which were very deep, sent forth noxious vapours, the lake being formed in the crater of a volcano. For this reason it was supposed to be one of the ways down to the lower regions. Therefore Ovid says the last day, or the day of death, has sunk Homer below the dark waters of Avernus. Only his poems (he says) have escaped the funeral pile.

29. Durat opus vatum] He says the fame of the Trojan war, which is the theme (literally work) of poets, lasts, that is in their poems. There were many other Greek poets besides Homer who wrote about the Trojan war, but their poems are not extant. They were called Cyclic poets because their poems professed to fill up the cycle or round of events connected with the Trojan war and left untold by Homer.

30. tela retexta] Penelope the wife of Ulysses, during her husband's absence at the siege of Troy, and ten years' wandering afterwards, was beset by many suitors, and in order to get rid of them she declared she could not make up her mind to marry again till she had finished a robe she was weaving. To put off the time further she undid by night what she had woven by day. For this reason the deception she practised is called nocturnus dolus.'

31. Nemesis, Delia] These were mistresses of Tibullus mentioned in his poems. Cura' and amor' have the same meaning


34. Sistra] Ovid asks of what use their piety and their chastity had been to Nemesis and Delia. They had been wont to sacrifice to Isis, an Egyptian goddess, who was also worshipped at Rome. In her worship it was usual to shake instruments called sistra' (from a Greek word to shake), such as the Egyptians used. The Latin name is crepitaculum,' a rattle.' Ovid here imitates four lines of Tibullus (i. 3, 23 sqq.).

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37. Vive pius] Live pious, yet though pious thou shalt die; attend to sacred rites, yet while doing so death shall drag thee from the temple to the tomb.' Bustum' is properly the place where the body has been burnt; but it is used for the tomb, which is properly sepulcrum.' The real root appears in 'com-burere,' com-bustus.'

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39. jacet ecce] 'Jacere' is used before in the sense of lying dead' (p. 2, v. 20). Ecce' is properly the imperative mood of a verb ecco,' which is not found in use, but is connected with oculus,' the eye.'

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40. urna] See note on 'rogo,' v. 6.

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44. sustinuere]Had the heart for: quae' refers to the flames of the funeral pile (flammae rogales).

45. Erycis] Eryx was a mountain in the western part of Sicily, now called Monte S. Giuliano. On the top of it Venus had


a famous temple, from which she was called Erycina. She is said to have turned away her face from the sight of Tibullus' death, 'Arces' may be rendered heights.' or something of that sort. It properly means defences (from a Greek root), and so the commonest meaning of 'arx' is a citadel, but it is often applied to hills.

46. Sunt quoque qui] See above, v, 18.

47. Phaeacia tellus] This is a name given by the poets to the island of Corcyra (Corfu). Tibullus accompanying a military expedition to the East, was taken ill at Corcyra, and obliged to come back to Rome, where he soon died. Ovid says this was better than if he had died and been buried as a stranger (ignotum) in Corcyra, whose soil he calls vile, because the Phaeacians, whom later poets identified with the Corcyreans, were described by Homer as a people chiefly given to eating and drinking,

49. Hinc] Hine' means originally from this place.' It may consequently mean from this cause,' as it does here, that is, from his dying at Rome, and not in Corcyra.

50. ultima dona] It was usual for the mourners to throw flowers and locks of hair upon the body as it was burning (p. 1. 5). 51. in partem doloris] To share her sorrow.'

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52. inornatas dilaniata comas] The perfect participles of passive verbs are often used like deponent participles, and they must be translated accordingly: having torn her neglected hair.' 53. priorque] That is, Delia, who was his first love. v. 32.

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See 56. ignis] While I was your flame,' as we also say for one that is loved. She says he was more fortunate in his love for her: You lived while I was your love'; but now he has died.

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57. dolori] Let my loss be thy sorrow.' The Romans used the dative, as a grief to thee,' where we should say 'thy grief.' For this dative may be substituted 'pro' with the ablative, or 'in loco' with the genitive ('for' or 'in the place of'). The nominative or accusative may be used. But the dative softens the phrase. 'Sunt reliquis documentum' is, they are a lesson to the rest. Still, by way of brevity, the dative is often translated precisely as the accusative or nominative would have been, i. e., without 'as.'

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59. e nobis] Of us,' that is, of mortals. Nomen et umbra,' ' a name and a shadow,' that is, things without life or reality. 'Umbra' here must not be confounded with corporis umbra' below, v. 65.

60. Elysia valle] See p. 2, v. 49 n.

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62. docte Catulle] Catullus and Calvus were poets who were born about the same year, 84 B.C. They died about the same time, when Tibullus was a child. They were not forty years of age. The word juvenis' was applied to men of middle age, therefore Ovid speaks of Catullus' juvenilia tempora,'' manly

P. 7, 8.] Procession at the Festival of Juno.


temples.' The ivy was used for the poets' crown, particularly the lyric poets, and Catullus wrote lyric poetry as well as other kinds. He was learned in the Greek language, and imitated the Greek poets. Therefore he is called doctus.' Ovid says he and Calvus will come forward to meet their brother poet when he goes down to the shades below.


64. Tu quoque] He says Gallus also will meet Tibullus. He was a distinguished poet. He was also high in favour with Augustus; but for some offence against his patron, the nature of which is not known, he was banished from Rome, and in his grief he destroyed himself. Ovid says if the charge of having wronged his friend was false, he was too prodigal of his blood and life.

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65. si qua est modo corporis umbra] If only there be any shadow of the body.' The ancients believed that the spirits of the departed lived in unsubstantial bodies, which the Romans called umbrae' or 'imagines,' that is, the shadows or images of the true bodies. But many educated Romans of Ovid's time affected to disbelieve a future existence, as Ovid throws doubts upon it here.

Description of a Procession at the Festival of Juno at


1. Faliscis] Falerii was a town of Etruria, about thirty miles north of Rome. The inhabitants were called Falisci, and here Ovid calls the town by that name. It had a small territory about it which was cultivated with gardens and rich in pasture. Ovid was married three times. His first two wives he divorced. The third, who was born at Falerii, was named Perilla. To her he was as much attached as a sensualist could be, and lived with her many years, till his exile. See p. 10, v. 17.

2. Camille] Furius Camillus was a Roman general and several times dictator. In the year B.C. 394 he reduced the town of Falerii, the inhabitants of which were at war with Rome.

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3. Casta] Here this means 'holy.' Celebris' means 'crowded, having the same root as the word 'creber,' 'frequent,' close together.' Indigenam bovem' is a calf bred in the place,' and fatted for the yearly sacrifice (see v. 14). Falerii was particularly celebrated for the worship and a temple of Juno.

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5. Grande morae pretium] It is well worth the time to be acquainted with the rites: the knowledge will be an equivalent for the time spent (morae pretium).



6. praebet] Quamvis' in the prose writers of Ovid's time takes the subjunctive mood, and 'quamquam' the indicative. poets do not always follow this rule.

7. arbore] The poets often use the singular number with adjectives of quantity, and say, for instance, densa arbore,'

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multa arbore,' where in prose the plural would be used. 'Praenubilus' is not used elsewhere. It is literally very clouded,' which means here deeply shaded. Lucus' is generally used, as here, for a sacred wood.

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8. Adspice, concedas] Adspice' is the imperative 'look,' 'see' but the meaning is, if you would look at it, you would allow that it is, etc.' There was a religious appearance in the darkness of the wood. There was a rude old altar in it, where the pious offered their prayers and their incense to Juno.

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11. tibia] The tibia' was a long instrument like the flageolet. It was often double, each part giving a different sound. It appears a tune was played upon this instrument, and after it was over the procession began, and passing through the streets of the town, went to the grove. The streets (vias velatas) were either covered with an awning, or the houses were decorated with tapestry or hangings suspended over the doors and from the windows.

14. Quas aluit] See above, v. 4.

15. nondum minaces] Their horns had not yet grown.

18. dominae] The mistress of the wood, The story Ovid refers to is not met with in any writer. He says Juno was flying, and that she was betrayed by a goat to her pursuer in the depths of a wood, which obliged her to abandon her flight. It is supposed she was flying from Jupiter before she became his wife.

21. index] The betrayer, that is, the goat. One of these animals was made a mark for boys to throw darts at, and whoever struck it first had the goat for his prize.

24. veste jacente] With trailing garment.' The dress was long enough to rest on the ground, and would sweep the ground when the person walked. So Ovid says in another place to a woman, Thy dress is too long, and rests (jacent) on the ground: tuck it up.'

26. palla] This was the upper garment worn by women, corresponding to the toga of the men. 'Auratos pedes' means that they wore gold ornaments round their ancles.

27. sancto] This a participle from sancire.' It means' settled, established,' as 'sancire legem' was ' to give effect to a law by a penalty.' The women in this procession wore white dresses, and carried the sacred implements for sacrifice in baskets on their heads.

29. Ore favent] They are silent;' favere linguis' is used in the same way. It means to keep the mouth from uttering words

of ill omen.

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29. aurea pompa] Things beautiful or magnificent were commonly called aurea;' and if it be rendered golden,' as it must, the meaning will be understood.

30. Ipsa] Juno herself. Her image was carried behind the priestesses. The conjunction 'que' does not often come so late in

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