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VICTORIAN AGE.

PRINCIPAL WRITERS.

NOVELISTS. Edward Bulwer, Lord Lytton (1805-1873). Voluminous and popular novelist and dramatist; author of "Eugene Aram" (1831), "The Last Days of Pompeii” (1834), “Last of the Barons " (1843), "The Caxtons" (1849), “My Novel" (1853), etc. "The Lady of Lyons" and "Richelieu" are two of the best modern dramas.

Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield (1804-1881). Statesman and novelist; author of "Vivian Grey" (1827), "Coningsby" (1844), "Lothair" (1870), "Endymion" (1881), and many others.

Charles Kingsley (1819-1875).

Clergyman, poet, and novelist; author of "Alton Locke" (1849), "Hypatia" (1853), “Westward Ho " (1855), Hereward the Wake" (1866), etc.

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Frederick Marryat (1792-1848). Novelist of nautical adventure, who is unsurpassed in his sphere. "Peter Simple," "Jacob Faithful,” and "Mr. Midshipman Easy" are perhaps his best. Other novels are "The Phantom Ship" (1839), “Masterman Ready” (1841), “The Privateersman" (1844), and many more.

Anthony Trollope (1815-1882). One of the most voluminous of all novelists; author of "The Warden" (1855), "Barchester Towers " (1857), "Framley Parsonage " (1860), "Can You Forgive Her" (1864), "Phineas Finn" (1869), etc.

Charles Reade (1814-1884). Author of "Peg Woffington" (1852), "It is Never Too Late to Mend" (1856), "The Cloister and the Hearth" (1861), etc.

Wilkie Collins (1824-1889). Author of numerous novels, among which are "The Woman in White" (1860), "No Name" (1862), "The Moonstone" (1868), “Man and Wife" (1870), etc. Some of his novels have been dramatized.

Robert Louis Stevenson (1845-1894). Novelist of the new romantic school; author of "Virginibus Puerisque" (1881), "Treasure Island"

(1883), "Prince Otto" (1885), "Kidnapped" (1886), "The Master of Ballantrae" (1889).

Dinah Maria Craik (1826-1888). Author of many novels, preeminent among which are "John Halifax, Gentleman" and "A Life for a Life" (1859). Others are "Mistress and Maid" (1863), “A Noble Life" (1866), "The Woman's Kingdom" (1869), etc.

POETRY. Arthur Hugh Clough (1819-1861): "The Bothie of Tober-na-Vuolich" (1848) and "Depsychus" (1862). A poet of doubt, who "has neither the strength to believe nor the courage to disbelieve.”

Lord Lytton ("Owen Meredith ") (1831-1892). Statesman, novelist, and poet; author of the following poetical works: "Clytemnestra" (1855), "The Wanderer" (1859), “Lucile" (1860), "Fables in Song," and several others.

William Morris (1834-1896).

Novelist and poet. His principal poetical works are "The Defence of Guinevere" (1858), "The Life and Death of Jason" (1867), “The Earthly Paradise" (1868-1871), "Love is Enough" (1873).

Algernon Charles Swinburne (1837-).

Poet, dramatist, and critic; author of "Atalanta in Calydon: a Tragedy" (1865), "Poems and Ballads" (1866), "Siena: a Poem" (1868), "Songs Before Sunrise" (1871), "Poems and Ballads" (1878), "Songs of the Spring Tides" (1880), and many others.

Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882). Artist and poet; author of "The Blessed Damozel" (1848), "Sister Helen" (1851), "Early Italian Poets" (1861), “Poems" (1870-1882). Rossetti, Swinburne, and Morris are the chief representatives of the romantic spirit in the poetry of the Victorian Age.

Henry Austin Dobson (1840-). Poet and critic; author of "Vignettes in Rhyme” (1873), “Proverbs in Porcelain” (1877), "At the Sign of the Lyre" (1885), etc.

Andrew Lang (1844-). Poet and prose writer; author of "Ballads in Blue China" (1881), “Rhymes à la Mode" (1884), "Ballads of Books" (1888). Among his prose writings are "Custom and Myth" (1884) and Myth, Ritual, and Religion" (1887).

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Edwin Arnold (1832-). Sanskrit scholar, editor, and poet; author of "The Light of Asia" (1878), “Pearls of the Faith” (1882), “The Song Celestial" (1885), and “The Light of the World" (1891).

William Watson (1844-). Poet, and author of "The Prince's Guest" (1880), “Wordsworth's Grave" (1889), and "Poems" (1892).

History. -- George Grote (1794-1871). Member of Parliament, an extreme Liberal in politics, and author of an excellent “ History of Greece" (1846-1856), and intended as an antidote to Mitford.

Connop Thirlwall (1797-1875). Bishop of St. David's, and author of a “ History of Greece" (1835-1847), likewise written from a Liberal point of view. This work, as well as that by Grote, is standard.

Henry Hart Milman (1791-1868). Dean of St. Paul's, and author of a “ History of the Jews" (1829), “ History of Latin Christianity" (1854). In addition to his excellent histories, he edited Gibbon, and published a few poems.

James A. Froude (1818-1894). Essayist and historian ; author of a “ History of England” (1856-1869), “The English in Ireland” (1871-1874), “Short Studies on Great Subjects" (1867), “Life of Carlyle" (1884). One of the most interesting of historians, but sometimes inaccurate.

Edward Augustus Freeman (1823-1892). A voluminous historian; author of “ A History of Architecture" (1849), “ History of the Saracens" (1856), “ History of the Norman Conquest” (1867-1879), “Growth of the English Constitution" (1872), and many other works, all distinguished for careful statement.

W.E. H. Lecky (1838–). Philosophic historian ; author of " Leaders of Public Opinion in Ireland” (1861), “ History of Rationalism in Europe" (1865), “ History of European Morals" (1869), and a “ History of England in the Eighteenth Century" (1878-1890).

John Richard Green (1837-1883). Clergyman, and author of “Short History of the English People" (1874), “ History of the English People” (1878-1880), a work in four volumes, and “The Making of England” (1882). All are admirable works.

Thomas Arnold (1795-1842). Clergyman, head-master of Rugby, and author of five volumes of sermons, an edition of Thucydides, and a “ History of Rome” in three volumes.

Sir Archibald Alison (1792–1867). Lawyer and historian ; author of History of Europe" (1839-1859), "Life of the Duke of Marlborough" (1847), etc. His • History of Europe" is interesting rather than profound.

SCIENCE and PhilosoPHY. - Charles Darwin (1809-1882). Eminent naturalist; author of “ Journal of Researches (1839-1845), “Origin of Species" (1859), “ Descent of Man" (1871), etc. His writings have exerted an immense influence on modern thought.

Herbert Spencer (1820-). The ablest of evolutionist philosophers; author of "Principles of Psychology" (1855), "First Principles " (1862), "Principles of Biology" (1867), "Principles of Psychology" (1872), "The Study of Sociology" (1872), etc.

Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895). Biologist, lecturer, and essayist; author of "Oceanic Hydrozoa" (1859), "Man's Place in Nature" (1863), "Lay Sermons" (1870), “Introduction to the Classification of Animals" (1877), "Science, Culture, and Other Essays" (1882), etc. He has done much to popularize scientific knowledge.

John Stuart Mill (1806-1873). Editor, essayist, and philosopher; author of a "System of Logic" (1843), "Political Economy" (1848), Representative Government" (1860), “Subjection of Women" (1869), "Examination of Hamilton's Philosophy" (1865), etc.

Sir William Hamilton (1788-1856). One of the ablest Scotch metaphysicians; author of "Discussions in Philosophy, Literature, and Education" (1853), "Lectures on Metaphysics and Logic," published after his death.

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Hugh Miller (1802-1856). Geologist and able writer; author of "Old Red Sandstone" (1841), "Footprints of the Creator," "My Schools and Schoolmasters," and "Testimony of the Rocks," the last being an attempt to reconcile geology and Genesis.

GREAT REPRESENTATIVE WRITERS.

THOMAS BABINGTON MACAULAY.

CHARLOTTE BRONTÉ.

WILLIAM MAKEPEACE THACKERAY.

CHARLES DICKENS.

GEORGE ELIOT.

ROBERT BROWNING.
ALFRED TENNYSON.

THOMAS Carlyle.
MATTHEW ARNOLD.
JOHN RUSKIN.

ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING.

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VICTORIAN AGE.

Grandeur of the age-Inventions - Notable era- Scientific investigation Practical tendencies - Educational advancement - Periodical press - International relations - Political progress - Social improvement — Religion and philanthropy - Creative and diffusive literature Essay writing History Fiction - Realism and romanticism Poetry THOMAS BABINGTON MACAULAY CHARLOTTE BRONTÉ -WILLIAM MAKEPEACE THACKERAY — CHARLES DICKENS GEORGE ELIOT-ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING ROBERT BROWNING - ALFRED TENNYSON-THOMAS CARLYLEMATTHEW ARNOLD JOHN RUSKIN.

VIII.

(1832-1900.)

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It may be safely claimed that upon the whole there has been no grander age in the history of the world. It may lack, as some are disposed to claim, the aesthetic culture of the Age of Pericles, the great martial spirit of ancient Rome, the lofty ideals of the age of chivalry. But as we compare the conditions of the present day with those of any period of the past, who can doubt the fact of human progress? The world has grown into a liberty, intelligence, happiness, and morality unknown at any previous time. To be sure, the golden age has not been reached; that lies, and perhaps far distant, in the future. Many evils in society, in the state, and in the church need to be corrected. But the advancement during the present century, and particularly during the reign of Queen Victoria, has been marvellously rapid.

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