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June 15, 1750. Your favour of the 17th of May was sent me to London, where I then was, and yet am till to-morrow, when I return to Prior-Park. I am greatly Aattered by your thoughts of Julian: because I know the sincerity of your professions. Some people of consideration would persuade me to take to task at the end of Julian a chapter of one Hume' on Miracles,' in a rank atheistical book called Philosophical Essays ;' and as the subject of the second part may be a little ticklish, perhaps it may be prudent to conciliate warm tempers by such a conclusion.

I was very sincere in the hint, which you are pleased to call advice, of my last letter ; as I am in saying that I do not know of any thing which your abilities and application are not capable of. You are very good to enquire after my motions. I shall be in town either in June or July. Towards the decline of the summer I have some thoughts of taking a journey into Lincolnshire. If I do, I may take Northampton in my way, and will take my chance of finding you at home. As to the · Disquisitions,' I will only say, that the temper, candour, and charity, with which they are wrote, are very edifying and exemplary. I wish success to them as much as you can do ; but I can tell you, of certain science, that not the least alteration will be made in the Ecclesiastical System. The present Ministers were bred up under and act entirely on the maxims of the last ; and one of the principal of his * was, 'not to stir what is at rest.' He took a medicine for the stone, that killed him t; and on his death-bed he said,' he fell by the neglect of his own maxim.' Those at the head of affa find it as much as they can do to govern things as they are, and they will never venture to set one part of the Clergy against another; the consequence of which would be, that, in the brigues of political contests, one of the two parties would certainly fall in with the Faction, if we must call it so, against the Court. Your truly divine labours are not only more excellent, but will certainly prove more fruitful. But, above all, I join with your friends in encouraging you to a subscription; which I make no doubt will turn out a considerable benefit. Books of infinitely less importance have lately done so. And I ardently wish that one who has deserved so greatly of our common Christianity may not have the whole of his reward to wait for in another life. To understand that all your good family are well, gives me extreme pleasure. My truest respects to all; and particularly to the young gentleman who is beginning his studies. I must now begin to call him my learned Friend; and have sent him a magnificent Edition, which no money will buy (I mean they are not to be sold) of the · Essay on Man,' and Essay on Criticism. Believe ine to be ever, with the truest esteem,

Your most affectionate friend and brother, W. WARBURTON."

* Sir Robert, first Earl of Orford of that name.
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“ Dean


Prior Park, Aug. 25, 1750. « I thank you for the very accurate extract you sent me. Your sentiments of those dirty rascals who are concerned in all our monthly trash * are surely very right and just. They set up these papers to publish their own trash, or other people's for money.

« Mr. Allen would himself hare acknowledged your obliging Letter to him of the 20th; hut a disorder occasioned by bile makes him incapable of attending to any thing but to the discharge of it. With regard to that trifling favour you mention at the back of your Letter, I will tell you how the case stands. The revenue of the Post-office is in two branches : one of which Mr. Allen farms; the other is in the hands of the Crown: with regard to the latter, Mr. Allen is indulged the privilege of franking his own letters. In this he is scrupulously exact, and confines the indulgence he has to his own family. He makes a point of conscience and honour of it; and the rather, for the scandalous abuse of this privilege, that is now almost universal. Besides, as he has almost every year occasion to write to some Member or other, complaining of their scandalous abuses of this privilege (which he hardly restrains by threatening to complain to Parliament) he cannot, in common discretion, give any handle to them by committing the like abuse, though in a low degree; for, franking more than a man's own and family letters is a gross abuse of this privilege, which Mr. Allen has never yet trangressed.

“ Mr. Allen thinks that those of the Ministers who opposed the Brief + did it on some such considerations as these: That the immense debt, which the late War has accumulated, was much infamed by the subsidies and pensions paid to the German Princes, who are grown rich by it; and that the flourishing Protestant Churches in Germany are much abler to assist their distressed Brethren, and under closer obligations, than this Kingdom, oppressed with taxes and the public calamity of the distemper amongst the horned cattle. Besides, the King of Prussia, the Protector of the Protestant Interest in Germany, is the richest and most powerful Prince in Europe, has got most by the War, and is nearest hand to lend his assistance. But the people of the Continent think Great Britain inexhaustible, and must supply all the expences there, both for support of Liberty and Religion. These, he supposes, may be the sentiments of the Ministry; and if they suspect that the people may think with them, they will not be disposed to give the public sanction to this charity. - Mr. Allen hopes that when your Proposals are printed we shall see them. He joins with me in our best wishes

* Dr. Warburton, though he himself sometimes condescended to assist in the publishing of monthly trash, was tremblingly alive to those sbafts of criticism whichibe affected to despise. — “Warburton bad great powers, and wrote with more force and freedom than the Wits to whom be succeeded: but his faculties were perverted by a paltry love of paradox ; and rendered useless to mankind, by an unlucky choice of subjects, and the arrogance and dogmatisin of his temper." Edinb. Rev. Sept. 1816, p. 8. + For the distressed Protestants in Germany.


for your happiness ; and I am, dear Sir, with the truest affection, your most faithful servant and brother, W. WARBURTON." “ DEAR SIR,

Prior Park, Sept. 2, 1751. “ Your kind letter gave me, and will give Mr. Allen, great concern ; but for ourselves, not you. Death, whenever it happens, in a life spent like yours, is to be envied, not pitied; and you will have the prayers of your friends, as Conquerors have the shouts of the crowd. God preserve you; if he continues you here, to go on in his service; if he takes you to himself, to be crowned with glory. Be assured the memory of our Friendship will be as durable as my life: I order an enquiry to be made of your health from time to time: but if you fatigue yourself any more in writing, it will prevent me that satisfaction. I am, dear Sir, your most affectionate friend and brother, W. WARBURTON."


Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. “ MY GOOD LORD,

Prior Park, March 9, 1766. I confess, that to trouble your Lordship with any interruption, at this season, is doing like the Pharisees of old, who drew men of the Sanhedrim off from the weightier matters of the Law, judgment, mercy, and good faith, to give their attention to mint, anise, and cummin. But, I am about framing, in my life-time, a small Theological Lecture at Lincoln's Inn : and, that Society not being incorporated, I have a good pretence to put it into the hands of Trustees, who are to chuse their successors. I shall be glad to be honoured with the names of the two Lords Chief Justices and Mr. Yorke, as those of my own appointment; and have applied to them for this leave, as I now do to your Lordship. I presume that one or both of them may have acquainted you with my project; and, on that presumption, will conclude, that I have the honour to be, with the highest regard and attachment, my Lord, your Lordship's most faithful and obedient humble servant,


* The remark made by Dr. Stukeley in this Volume, p. 55, is thus contirmed in Bp. Newton's account of his own Life:

“ When Dr. Warburton was made Bishop of Gloucester, he desired his friend Dr. Newton to preach his Consecration Sermon; which service was performed at Lambeth on January 20, 1760; and the Sermon, as usual, was printed by Archbishop Secker's order. It was somewhat extraordinary, that he who had Lord Hardwicke and Lord Mansfield for his friends should be made a Bishop by the means of Mr. Pitt; but Mr. Pitt at that time represented the City of Bath, where he was brought in by the interest of Mr. Allen, whose niece Mr. War

A part only of this Letter has appeared in print. The wbole is now copied from the Original, communicated by my late truly benevolent friend, Jobo Eardley-Wilmot, Esq

burton most

burton had married. He was promoted to the Bishoprick of Gloucester from the Deanery of Bristol, where Mr. Allen had laid out a good deal of money in repairing and new-fronting the Deanery-house, and had not quite completed it when the Dean was made Bishop. However, such was Mr. Allen's generosity, that he was willing to finish what he had begun; but inquired first who was likely to succeed to the Deanery. It was supposed to lie between Dr. Squire and Dr. Tucker, and Mr. Allen asked what sort of men they were ; and the Bishop answered in his lively manner, that the one made Religion his Trade, and the other Trade his Religion. Dr. Squire succeeded to the Deanery of Bristol, where Mr. Allen completed his intended alterations, and Dr. Tucker was soon after made Dean of Gloucester. It was true that Dr. Tucker had written upon Trade and Commerce with more knowledge and intelligence than any Clergyman, and with as much perhaps as Sir Josiah Child or any Merchant : but he has also written very well upon other subjects more properly belonging to his profession. He had the pen of a ready writer ; but it was apt sometimes to run away with him, and wanted judgment to curb and restrain it. He had strong and lively parts, and with many of the excellencies it is no wonder that he had also some of the failings of every great genius. He was too an excellent Parish-priest, and an exemplary Dean in keeping his residence, and performing his duty, in managing the Chapter estates, in living hospitably, in repairing and improving his house, and in adorning and beautifying the church and the church-yard. In these things he merited well, and had many good qualities: but it is to be lamented, that he had not the respect for the Bishop, which was really due to his personal character as well as to his higher station, so that there was not that friendship and harmony between them, which ought always to subsist between the Bishop and the Dean of the same Cathedral. They were both men of great virtues, but they were both also men of strong passions. Both were irascible, but the Bishop was more placable and forgiving, the Dean longer bore resentment. There was also some misunderstanding between Dr. Warburton and another friend of Dr. Newton, who was suspected of having assisted Mr. Edwards in his' Canons of Criticism, which was the smartest pamphlet that ever was written against Dr. Warburton. This produced a coolness between them, but proceeded no farther. Hawkins Browne was then in a decline, and died soon after the time that the other was made Bishop; 80 that Dr. Newton's joy for the promotion of one friend was damped by his concern for the death of another."

The following very animated and impartial portraiture of Bp. Warburton, dated Feb. 12, 1785, is transcribed from a Letter of Dr. William Cuming, of Dorchester, to Dr. Lettsom.

Many years ago I read over the polemical and critical works of the late Dr. Warburton; and from the perusal I conceived a

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most unfavourable opinion of the man ; so stiff and conceited in opinion ; so dictatorial in his sentiments, treating every one who thought differently from himself with the most sovereign cortempt. It is above thirty years ago that Ralph Allen, of Priorpark, first came to pass about three months in the summer annually at Weymouth ; his niece, Mrs. Warburton, was always of the party. She was elegant in her person, possessed of an excellent understanding, great politeness, and a most engaging naiveté in conversation. I had been introduced 10 Mr. Allen's acquaintance soon after his first arrival, and was always professionally employed in the family. After a few years, the Bishop, whom I had never seen, came to pass a month of the summer with Mr. Allen at Weymouth. I was soon after sent for, to attend some one in the family. After having visited my patient, Mrs. Warburton took me by the hand, and led me to the diningroom, where we found the Bishop alone. She presented me to him with Give me leave, my Lord, to introduce to you a friend of mine, to whom you and I have great obligations, for the care he has repeatedly taken of our son.' He received me courteously enough, but I own to you I felt an awe and awkward uneasiness. I determined to say but little, and to weigh well what I said. We were left alone it was an hour to dinner-he soon engaged me on some literary subject, in the course of which he gave me the etymology of some word or phrase in the French language, with a' Do not you think so?" i ventured to dissent, and said I had always conceived its origin to be so and so: to tnis he immediately replied, Upon my word I believe you are in the right: nay, 'tis past a doubt ; I wonder it never struck me before.” Well, to dinner we went: his Lordship was easy, facetious, and entertaining. My awe of hiin was pretty well dissipated, and I conversed with ease. Soine time after dinner, when he was walking about the room, he came behind me, tapped me on the shoulder, and beckoned me into an adjoining room. As soon as we entered, he shut the door, seated himself in an armed chair on one side of the fire-place while he directed me by his hand to one on the opposite side. My fit immediately returned : I expected to be catechised and exainined; but it was of short duration. He said, he was happy in this opportunity of asking the opinion and advice of a gentle. man of my character respecting some complaints he had felt for some tirne past, and which he found increasing. On this my spirits expanded; I did not fear being a match for his Lordship on a medical subject. He then began to detail to me the complaints and feelings of those persons addicted to constant study and a sedentary life. As I mentioned several circumstances which he had omitted in his catalogue, and which he immediatelv acknow ledged, I gained his confidence He was sensible I was master of my subject. It is a good political maxim, Docti sunt doctè tractardi.' I explained to him the rationale of his complaints, and shewed him the propriety of the diet, exercise, and regimen,

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