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their projects and designs with more address and policy than open force and plain downright violence. Those disciples of Machiavel, Richlieu, and Mazarine, refined upon and improved the maxims of their masters so far, that they had the art, even whilst they were signing of treaties, and caressing each other after the most endearing manner, to carry on underhand a scheme of proceedings, which looked another way. The more we reflect upon those dark times, the more we are at a loss what to infer from them; for all things seemed to be intricate, and the Arcana Imperii, the mysteries of state, were veiled with so thick a cloud, that they were screened not only from vulgar view, but even from the eyes of those, who pretended to be sharper sighted than others.

“ And, in truth, the historian, who undertakes the history of those times, finds himself in a sort of labyrinth, out of which he can hardly get without a friendly clue to lead him through the maze. Nay, memoirs and letters, which can give him the clearest light into these matters, will afford him but little help, unless he has judgment enough to distinguish, and integrity enough to deliver nothing but what is truth, or at least that, which looks most like it. For, amidst those heaps of secret histories, private letters, &c. which have been published, by men of several and contrary parties, one cannot tell where to fix, nor whose relation to credit; since they contradict one another so often in relating matters of fact; and that both sides of a contradiction cannot be true, is a maxim or axiom granted on all hands.”*

• Works of the Learned, 1700, 4to. Vol. II. p. 673.

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That Sir William Temple was a scholar, bis works sufficiently testify; and that he was an able statesman, these letters will evince. They are not mere formal letters, and letters of compliment; but such as carry in them a discovery of the secret springs of action under one of the most subtle reigns that England ever knew. There is contained in them an account of all the chief transactions and negotiations, which passed in Christendom, during the seven years, in which they are dated; viz. The War with Holland, which began in 1665. The treaty between King Charles II. and the Bishop of Munster, with the issue of it; the French Invasion of Flanders in 1667; the Peace concluded between Spain and Portugal by King Charles's Mediation; the Treaty at Breda; the Triple Alliance; and thc Peace of Aix La Chapelle. In the Second Part are contained, The Negotiations in Holland, in consequence of those alliances, with the steps and degrees, by which they came to decay: the journey and death of Madame: the seisure of Lorraine by the French, and his Excellency's recall; with the first unkindness between England and Holland, upon the Yatch's transporting his lady and family: and the beginning of the Second Dutch War in 1672. By these it appears,“ how faithful a minister Sir William was in the discharge of his trust to his master; how just a sense he had of the affairs and state of Europe, and how true a friend he was to the particular interest of the English nation."*

As to the first volume of Lord Arlington's Letters, most of them are written upon the same subject with those of Sir W. Temple, and, being compared together, may give the reader an insight into the secret and obscure management of affairs during, that space of time. *

• Works of che Learned, 1791, Vol. III. p. 492.


The second volume carries us to the transactions on the other side the mountains, being sent to the several ambassadors, that resided successively in Spain for ten years together, and containing in them a piece of history, of which the world had hitherto had but imperfect accounts. Here are the original papers relating to the transactions then on foot, besides the particular treaties between Spain and Portugal, England and Spain, and Spain and Holland. In short, here is the best history of all the transactions of our ablest ministers in Spain and Portugal from 1654 to 1674: and from thence the true springs may be observed, upon which most of the great affairs of Europe turned at that time.t

Works of the Learned, 1701, Vol. II. 674.

+ Ibid III. 249. The titles of the following volumes relative to this period may be added here.

1. Original Letters and Negotiations, of Sir Richard Fanshaw, the Eard of Sandwib, tbe Earl of Sunderland, and Sir William Godolphin, wberein divers matters between the bree Crowns of England, Spain, and Portugal, from the gior 1553 10 1678, are set in a clear light. 2 vols. 8vo. 1724.

2. Si Ricbard Bulstrode's Letters written to the Earl of Arlington, Envoy at tbe Court of Brussels fi om King Cbarles II. containing tbe most i

remorkable Iransactions torb in Court and Cump, during bis Ministry, particularly i be famous tattle of Senejf, lercvcen ibe Prince of Orange and the Prince of Conde.

Svo. 1712.

3. O iginal Letters from King William the Third 10 King Charles II. Lord Arling on &c. translated, wiib an account of bis reception at Middleburgh, and bis Speech upon that occasion. 8vo. 1704.

4. The Marquis of Clanricarde's Memoirs, containing several original Papers sed Letters of King Charles II. Quen Molber, the Duke of York, &c. relating to ibe Duke of Lorrain, and the Irisb Commissioners, 1722. 8vo.

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Art. V. The General History of Spain from the first peopling of it ly Tubul, till the death of King Ferdinand, who united the Crowns of Custile and Arragon; with a continuation to the death of King Philip III. Written in Spanish, by the R. F. F. John de Mariana. To which are added two Supplements; the First by F. Ferdinand Camargo y Salcedo; the other by F. Basil Varen de Soto; bringing it down to the present reign. The whole translated from the Spanish, by Captain J. Stevens. London. Printed for R. Sare, F. Saunders, and T. Bennet, 1699. Fol. The History contains pp. 563. The Supplements, pp. 91.

The reputation of Mariana, the original author of this history, is sufficiently established. It first appeared in Latin, and was dedicated to Philip II. King of Spain: he afterwards translated it into Spanish; and put it under the protection of Philip III. It begins at the first peopling of the world by the posterity of Noah; and is brought down by Mariana to the end of Philip III's reign.

The history is divided into thirty books. The last twenty books comprehend the history of Spain from the time of the invasion made by the Almohades to the death of King Ferdinand, who united the crowns of Castile and Arragon; a period of 303 years.

In the whole work there are, besides matters of fact related candidly and fairly, several political and useful reflections made by the author on several important transactions. To this he has added a compendious supplement from the year 1515 to the year 1621. F.


Ferdinand Camargo y Salcedo, Preacher and Historiagrapher of the order of St. Augustin, bas carried the history down to the year 1649; and from thence F. Basil Varen de Soto, once Provincial of the Regular Clergy, has continued it down to the year 1669.*

This translation of Captain Stevens still retains its reputation, and bears a considerable price.


Art. VI. Additional extracts from Hawes's Pas

time of Pleasure. See Cens. Lit. Vol. III. P. 225.

The author having, in the preceding chapter, digressed from the tale, in order to introduce “a comendation of Gower, Chaucer, and Lidgate,” thus continues. We must, however, premise that the hero, “ Graund Amoure," is now in the castle of Doctrine, that he has been reccived by Grammar, Logic, and Rethoric, and is now about to enter the chamber of Arithmetic.

Chapt. xv.
“ Now in my boke, ferder to procede,

To a chambre J wente, replete wyth rychesse,
Where sat Arysmatryke, in a golden wede

Lyke a lady pure, and of great worthynes;

The wallcs about, dyd full well expres,
Wyth golde depaynted, euery perfyte nombre
To adde, detraye, and to deuyde asonder.

The rofe was paynted, with golden beames,

The wyndowes cristall, clerely claryfy de

• Memoirs, ut supr. 1699, Vob I. p. 565,

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