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queen, etc.

III. ii. 56. Cardinal Campeius. The dramatists here abandon Holinshed, who expressly states that Campeggio took a formal leave of the King. BoswellStone suggests that this idea comes from Foxe, according to whose account Campeggio 'craftily shifted hym self out of the realme before the day came appointed for determination, leauing his suttle felow behynd hym to wey with the king in the meane time.' III. ii. 69-71. Katharine no more Shall be call'd

Holinshed (1587), p. 929: 'It was also enacted the same time that queene Katharine should no more be called queene, but princesse Dowager, as the widow of prince Arthur.'

III. ii. 86. Duchess of Alençon. This is an anachronism, since Margaret, Duchess of Alençon, was married to Henry d'Albret, King of Navarre, January, 1527.

III. ii. 100. A spleeny Lutheran. According to Foxe, and the Elizabethan tradition, Anne Boleyn was an enthusiastic champion of the Protestant Reformation.

III. ii. 107 S. d. Enter King, reading of a schedule. This incident never happened to Wolsey, but, as Steevens first pointed out, Holinshed chronicles one like it that did happen to the Bishop of Durham in 1523. After Wolsey's fall, however, an elaborate inventory of the contents of Hampton Court was made by the King's order.

III. ii. 167-172. My sovereign, etc. The English here is careless, but the meaning is obvious. My sovereign, I confess that your royal favors, which were showered upon me daily, have been more than my earnest efforts could requite; your favors went beyond any man's endeavors; my endeavors have always come short of my desires, but they have kept pace with my ability.

III. ii. 189-191. Should, not from duty, but from a supreme love, belong to me above all men.

III. ii. 193. that am, have, and will be. This, the reading of the Folio, has been the cause of more emendation than any line of the play. Yet in all probability the line is as the authors wrote it. The expression is elliptical with the forms of the verb ‘labour' omitted. The passage in full means: 'I do profess, that for your highness' good I ever laboured more than for my own good: that I am labouring, have laboured, and will be labouring.'

III. ii. 232. Asher-house. A curious error, because Asher (or Esher) House was the official residence of the Bishop of Winchester and at this time the Bishop of Winchester was Wolsey himself. Of course, the authors meant by ‘Bishop of Winchester' Stephen Gardiner, but he did not become Bishop until 1531, after Wolsey's death. Wolsey did go to Asher, according to Holinshed.

III. ii. 296. Worse than the sacring bell. In the Roman Catholic service, the sacring bell is rung at the elevation of the Host during the Mass, or before the Sacraments when they are carried through the streets. There is no historical truth to this particular accusation, although Wolsey's life was not chaste.

III. ii. 311. First, that, etc. This list of accusations is taken from Holinshed.

III. ii. 344. Chattels. Theobald's emendation for the Folio reading, Castles, taken from Holinshed's enumeration: 'to forfeit all his lands, tenements, goods, and cattels.'

III. ii. 372. he falls like Lucifer. Isaiah 14. 12: ‘How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning!

III. ii. 450. Thou fall'st a blessed martyr. This line is prophecy, after the event. Cromwell, who from his suppression of the monasteries was considered to be a supporter of the Reformation, was executed in 1540.

III. ii. 456-458. Had I but serv'd my God, etc. This, the most quoted passage in the play, is adapted from Holinshed (1587, p. 917): 'Master Kinston (quoth the cardinall) I see the matter how it is framed: but if I had serued God as diligentlie as I have doone the king, he would not haue given me ouer in my greie haires.'

IV. i. S. d. The locality of this scene is inferred from the scene itself. The coronation took place June 1, 1533.

IV. i. 4. At our last encounter. The two gentlemen last appeared in II. i., when Buckingham came forth after his trial. Historically twelve years separated these two events.

IV. i. 15. Of those that claim. By long custom the right to perform the various services is vested in certain families. Holinshed (1587), p. 930:

'In the beginning of Maie, the king caused open proclamations to be made, that all men that claimed to doo anie seruice, or execute anie office at the solemne feast of the coronation by the waie of tenure, grant, or prescription, should put their grant three weeks after Easter in the Starre-chamber before Charles duke of Suffolke, for that time high steward of England, and the lord chancellor and other commissioners. The duke of Norfolke claimed to be erle mershall, and to exercise his office at that feast; the erle of Arundell claimed to be high butler, and to exercise the same; the erle of Oxford claimed to be chamberlaine; the viscount Lisle claimed to be pantler; the lord Aburgauennie to be chief larderer; and the lord Braie claimed to be almoner, and sir Henrie Wiat knight claimed to be ewrer. All these noble personages desired their offices with their fees.

‘Beside these, the maior of London claimed to serue the

queene with a cup of gold, and a cup of assaie of the same, and that twelve citizens should attend on the cupboord, and the maior to have the cup and cup of assaie for his labor: which petition was allowed. The five ports claimed to beare a canopie ouer the queens head the daie of the coronation with foure guilt belles, and to haue the same for a reward, which to them was allowed. Diuerse other put in petie claimes which were not allowed, bicause they seemed onlie to be doone at the kings coronation.'

IV. i. 27. Dunstable. The court was held at Dunstable Priory, in Bedfordshire, six miles from Ampthill Castle, a royal residence.

IV. i. 34. Kimbolton. In the fall of 1535 Katharine at her own request had been removed to Kimbolton Castle in Huntingdonshire, then belonging to the Wingfield family. The Folio spells the word 'Kymmalton.'

IV. i. 36 S. d. The Order of the Coronation. The details of this procession, which is the reason for the scene, are taken from Holinshed. But they are somewhat changed to suit the stage. Thus the Earl of Surrey carries the rod with the dove, instead of the Earl of Arundell, and the Duke of Norfolk the staff of marshalship, instead of Sir William Howard, probably, as Wright suggests, to avoid introducing two new characters. Possibly to avoid confusion in the personages, the Earl of Oxford, then High Chamberlain, who carries the crown on a cushion, is also omitted.

The 'Collars of Esses' were so called because the links in the chains were in the shape of the letter S.

The 'Cinque-ports, Dover, Hastings, Romney, Hythe and Sandwich, have the privilege of sending representatives to carry the canopy at the coronation. Cf. note on IV. i. 15.

IV. i. 62 ff. The 'third Gentleman' is obviously introduced to give an account of the coronation to the audience. The details of the scene follow Holinshed, as usual.

IV. i. 94. York-place, where the feast is held. After Wolsey's fall, York-place, the official residence of Wolsey as Archbishop of York, was annexed to the property of the Crown, and became the royal palace of Whitehall. It served as a royal residence until it burned in 1697. Only the banqueting hall still remains, now on Horseguards Ave. The coronation feast, however, was not held in Whitehall; as Holinshed correctly states, it was held in Westminster Hall. The confusion in the play may have arisen from the fact that in Holinshed there is also a long detailed account of the procession escorting the Queen from the Tower to Westminster. At the end of that, the first procession, he states that Anne 'withdrew herself with a few ladies to the Whitehall and so to her chamber.'

IV. i. 101. Stokesly and Gardiner. John Stokesly was made Bishop of London in 1530; Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester in 1531. As Gardiner was considered an enemy of the Reformation, he was ‘no great good lover' of Cranmer. Thus l. 104 prepares for the first scene in Act V.

IV. i. 108. Thomas Cromwell. Cromwell was made a member of the Privy Council in 1531 and Master of the Jewel House in 1532.

IV. ii. 6, 7. Cardinal Wolsey, Was dead. For dramatic reasons the death of Wolsey precedes that of Katharine by only a short interval. Historically, Wolsey died November 29, 1530, whereas this scene would have occurred in January, 1536.

IV. ii. 9. tell me how he died. This account is condensed from Holinshed (1587), p. 917.

IV. ii. 31. So may he rest, etc. Katharine's characterization of Wolsey is, point by point, taken from Holinshed (1587), p. 922. “This cardinall (as yo may perceive in this storie) was of a great stomach, for he compted himselfe equall with princes, & by

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