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English liberty depended now on the perse to that town, equal to what was suffered there verance and virtue of America.

by the India company; it follows that such During the whole, my time was otherwise exceeding damage is an injury done by this much taken up, by friends calling continually government, for which reparation ought to be to inquire news from America: members of made. And whereas reparation of injuries both houses of parliament, to inform me what ought always (agreeably to the custom of all passed in the houses, and discourse with me nations savage as well as civilized) to be first on the debates, and on motions made or to be required before satisfaction is taken by a remade; merchants of London and of the manu- turn of damage to the aggressors; which was facturing and port towns on their petitions, the not done by Great Britain in the instance Quakers upon theirs, &c. &c., so that I had abovementioned ; I the underwritten, do thereno time to take notes of almost any thing fore, as their agent, in the behalf of my counThis account is therefore chiefly from recol- try and the town of Boston, protest against lection, in which doubtless much must have the continuance of the said blockade: and I been omitted, from deficiency of memory; but do hereby solemnly demand satisfaction for what there is I believe to be pretty exact; ex- the accumulated injury done them, beyond cept that discoursing with so many different the value of the India company's tea destroypersons about the same time, on the same sub ed. And whereas the conquest of the Gulph ject, I may possibly have put down some of St. Lawrence, the coast of Labrador and things as said by or to one person, which Nova Scotia, and the fisheries possessed by passed in conversation with another. A little the French there and on the banks of Newbefore I left London, being at the house of foundland, so far as they were more extended lords, when a debate in which lord Camden than at present, was made by the joint forces was to speak, and who indeed spoke admira- of Britain and the colonies, the latter having bly on American affairs, I was much disgusted, nearly an equal number of men in that service from the ministerial side, by many base re- with the former; it follows that the colonies flections on American courage, religion, un- have an equitable and just right to participate derstanding, &c. in which we were treated in the advantage of those fisheries: I do therewith the utmost contempt, as the lowest of fore, in the behalf of the colony of the Massa mankind, and almost of a different species chusetts Bay, protest against the act now unfrom the English of Britain; but particularly der consideration in parliament, for depriving the American honesty was abused by some that province, with others, of that fishery (an of the lords, who asserted that we were all pretence of their refusing to purchase British knaves, and wanted only by this dispute to commodities) as an act highly unjust and avoid paying our debts; that if we had any injurious: and I give notice, that satisfacsense of equity or justice, we should offer pay- tion will probably one day be demanded for ment of the tea, &c. I went home somewhat all the injury that may be done and suffered irritated and heated; and partly to retort upon in the execution of such act: and that the inthis nation, on the article of equity, drew up justice of the proceeding is likely to give such a memorial to present to lord Dartmouth, be- umbrage to all the colonies, that in no future fore my departure; but consulting my friend, war, wherein other conquests may be mediMr. Thomas Walpole upon it, who is a mem- tated, either a man or a shilling will be obber of the house of commons, he looked at it tained from any of them to aid such conand at me several times alternately, as if quests, till full satisfaction be made as aforehe apprehended me a little out of my senses. said.

B. FRANKLIN. As I was in the hurry of packing up, I re “ Given in London, this 16th day of quested him to take the trouble of showing it March, 1775.” to his neighbour lord Camden, and ask his advice upon it, which he kindly undertook to

To Dr. Franklin. do; and returned it me with a note, which

“ Dear Sir, I return you the memorial, here follows the proposed memorial.

which it is thought might be attended with “ To the Right Honourable the Earl of, contribute to exasperate the nation.

dangerous consequences to your person, and Dartmouth, one of his Majesty's principal

“I heartily wish you a prosperous voyage, Secretaries of State.

a long health, and am, with the sincerest reamin Franklin, Agent of the gard, your most faithful and obedient serProvince of Massachusetts Bay.



Lincoln's Inn Fields, “Whereas an injury done, can only give

16th March, 1775." the party injured a right to full reparation; or, in case that be refused, a right to return Mr. Walpole called at my house the next an equal injury; and whereas the blockade day, and hearing I was gone to the house of of Boston, now continued nine months, hath lords, came there to me, and repeated more every week of its continuance done damage fully what was in his note; adding, that it

"* A Memorial of

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was thought my having no instructions direct-place-his philosophical works; but the foling me to deliver such a protest, would make lowing general reflections connected thereit appear still more unjustifiable, and be deem- with, by this friend of the human race, may, ed a national affront: I had no desire to make with propriety, be here introduced. matters worse, and, being grown cooler, took - Navigation, when employed in supplying the advice so kindly given me.

necessary provisions to a country in want, The evening before I left London, I receiv- and thereby preventing famines, which were ed a note from Dr. Fothergill, with some let- more frequent and destructive before the in

ters to his friends in Philadelphia. In that vention of that art, is undoubtedly a blessing to note be desires me to get those friends, "and to mankind. When employed merely in

two or three more together, and inform them, transporting superfluities, it is a question that whatever specious pretences are offered, whether the advantage of the employment it they are all hollow; and that to get a larger afforde, is equal to the mischief of hazarding field on which to fatten a herd of worthless so many lives on the ocean. But when emparasites, is all that is regarded. Perhaps it ployed in pillaging merchants and transportmay be proper to acquaint them with David ing slaves, it is clearly the means of angBarclay's and our united endeavours, and the menting the mass of human misery. It is effects. They will stun at least, if not con- amazing to think of the ships and lives risked vince, the most worthy, that nothing very fa- in fetching tea from China, coffee from Aravourable is intended, if more unfavourable ar- bia, sugar and tobacco from America, all which ticles cannot be obtained." The doctor in the our ancestors did well without. Sugar emcourse of his daily visits among the great, in ploys near one thousand ships, tobacco almost the practice of his profession, had full oppor- as many. For the utility of tobacco, there is tunity of being acquainted with their senti- little to be said; and for that of sugar, how inents, the conversation every where turning much more commendable would it be, if we upon the subject of America.

could give up the few minutes gratification afforded once or twice a day, by the taste of

sugar in our tea, rather than encourage the Here Dr. Franklin's own narrative closes, cruelties exercised in producing it. An emiand the editor resumes the continuation of nent French moralist says, that when he con

siders the wars we excite in Africa to obtain During the passage to America, Dr. Frank- slaves, the numbers necessarily slain in those lin not only occupied himself in writing the wars, the many prisoners who perish at sea preceding narrative of his noble efforts to pre- by sickness, bad provisions, foul air, &c. in pent a war, which the rapacity and infatua- the transportation, and how many afterwards tuon of the British ministry utterly defeated, die from the hardships of slavery, he cannot but he likewise employed himself in making look on a piece of sugar without conceiving experiments and observations on the waters it stained with spots of human blood! had of the ocean, by means of the thermometer, in he added the consideration of the wars we cader to ascertain the exact course of the make to take and retake the sugar islands gulph stream; by the knowledge of which, from one another, and the fleets and armies mariners might hereafter avoid or avail them- that perish in those expeditions, he might seives of its current, according to their various have seen his sugar not merely spotted, but destinations.*

These experiments and ob- thoroughly dyed scarlet in grain! It is these servations will be found in their appropriate wars that made the maritime powers of Eu

rope, the inhabitants of London and Paris, pay "It is ascertained by Dr. Franklin's experiments, dearer for sugar than those of Vienna, a thou& alph stream, by the warmth of the water, which is sand miles from the sea; because their sugar auch greater than that of the water on either side of costs not only the price they pay for it by the crown the stream to get out of it as soon as possible; pound, but all they pay in taxes to maintain end it to the eastward, endeavour to remain in it. the fleets and armies that fight for it.”


the subject

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AFTER a very pleasant passage of about six “The congress met at a time when all weeks, Dr. Franklin arrived within the Capes minds were so exasperated by the perfidy of of Delaware, was landed at Chester, and general Gage, and his attack on the country proceeded by land to Philadelphia, where people, that propositions for attempting an every mark of respect, attachment, and vener- accommodation were not much relished; and ation was shown him by his fellow-citizens; it has been with difficulty that we have carthe very day after bis arrival he was elected ried in that assembly, another humble petition by the legislature of Pennsylvania, a delegate to the crown, to give Britain one more chance, to congress.

one opportunity more of recovering the friendShortly after, he thus notices the then state ship of the colonies; which however I think of the colonies, in a letter of May 16, 1775: she has not sense enough to embrace, so I

conclude she has lost them for ever."*
To Dr. Joseph Priestley.
“PAILADELPHIA, May 16, 1775.

* Never was a prediction more completely verified. “ DEAR FRIEND,—You will have heard be- Dr. Franklin, and to which an answer was refused to

The following is a copy of the petition referred to by fore this reaches you, of a march stolen by the be given. regulars into the country by night, and of TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY their expedition back again. They retreated

Most Gracious Sovereign, twenty miles in six hours.

We your majesty's faithful subjects of the colonies “ The governor had called the assembly to of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island propose lord North's pacific plan, but before and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, the time of their meeting, began cutting of Kent, and Sussex on Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, throats. You know it was said he carried the North Carolina, and South Carolina, in behalf of our sword in one hand, and the olive branch in selves and the inhabitants of these colonies who have

deputed us to represent them in general congress, enthe other; and it seeing he chose to give treat your majesty's gracious attention to this our them a taste of the sword first.

humble petition

The union between our mother country and these “He is doubling his fortifications at Boston, colonies, and the energy of mild and just government and hopes to secure his troops till succour ar- produced benefits so remarkably important, and affordrives. The place indeed is naturally so de- that the wonder and envy of other nations were ex fensible, that I think them in no danger. “ All America is exasperated by his conduct, the most extraordinary the world had ever known.

Her rivals, observing that there was no probability and more firmly united than ever. The breach of this happy connexion being broken by civil dissenbetween the two countries is grown wider, sions, and apprehending its future effects, if left any

longer undisturbed, resolved to prevent her receiving and in danger of becoming irreparable. such continual and formidable accessions of wealth and “ I had a passage of six weeks, the weather strength, by checking the growth of those settlements

from which they were to be derived. constantly so moderate that a London wherry

In the prosecution of this attempt, events so un; might have accompanied us all the way. I got favourable to the design took place, that every friend home in the evening, and the next morning to the interest of Great Britain and these colonies, was unanimou chosen by the assembly, a seeing an additional force and exertion immediately delegate to the congress now sitting.

given to the operations of the union hitherto expe. • In coming over I made a valuable philosorienced, by an enlargement

of the dominions of the

crown, and the removal of ancient and warlike enephical discovery, which I shall communicate mies to a greater distance. to you when I can get a little time. At present most glorious and advantageous that ever had been

At the conclusion, therefore, of the late war, the am extremely hurried. B. FRANKLIN.”

carried on by British arms, your loyal colonists, having And to the same friend he wrote some contributed to its success, by such repeated and strenu

ous exertions, as frequently procured them the distin: weeks after

guished approbation of your inajesty, of the late king,


In the same letter he adds, “ My time was in a state of defence; which committee holds never more fully employed. In the morning till near nine, when I am at the congress, and at six, I am at the committee of safety, ap- that sits till after four in the afternoon. Both pointed by the assembly to put the province these bodies proceed with the greatest unaand of parliament, doubted not but that they should be notwithstanding the sufferings of your loyal colonists, permilied, with the rest of the empire, to share in the during the course of this present controversy, our blessings of peace, and the emoluments of victory and breasts retain too tender a regard for the kingdom from conquest.

which we derive our origin, to request such a reconWhile these recent and honourable acknowledg. ciliation as might in any manner be inconsistent with ments of their merits remained on record, in the jour. her dignity or her welfare. These, related as we are nals and acts of that august legislature, the parlia to her, honour and duty, as well as inclination, induce ment, undefaced by the imputation or even the sus. us to support and advance; and the apprehensions that picion of any offence, they were alarmed by a new now oppress our hearts with unspeakable grief, being system of statutes and regulations, adopted for the ad once removed, your majesty will find your faithful sub ministration of the colonies, that filled their minds jects on this continent ready and willing at all times, with the most painful fears and jealousies; and, to as they have ever been, with their lives and fortunes, their inexpressible astonishment, perceived the danger to assert and maintain the rights and interests of your of a foreign quarrel quickly succeeded by domestic majesty, and of our mother country. danger, in their judgment, of a more dreadful kind. We therefore beseech your majesty, that your royal

Nor were these anxieties alleviated by any tendency authority and influence may be graciously interposed in this system to promote the welfare of their mother to procure us relief from our afflicting fears and jea country; for though its effects were more immediately lousies, occasioned by the system beforementioned, felt by them, yet its influence appeared to be injurious and to settle peace through every part of your do to the commerce and prosperity of Great Britain. minjons; with all humility submitting to your ma.

We shall decline the ungrateful task of describing jesty's wise consideration, whether it may not be exthe irksome variety of artifices, practised by many of pedient for facilitating those important purposes, that your majesty's ministers, the delusive pretences, fruit your majesty be pleased to direct some mode, by which less terrors, and unavailing severities, that have from ihe united applications of your faithful colonists to the time to tiine been dealt oui by them, in their attempts throne, in pursuance of their common councils, may to execute this impolitic plan, or of tracing through a be improved into a happy and permanent reconcilia. series of years past, the progress of the unhappy differ. tion; and that in the mean time, measures may be ences between Great Britain and these colonies, that taken for preventing the further destruction of the have flowed from this fatal source.

lives of your majesty's subjects; and that such statutes Your majesty's ministers, persevering in their mea. as more immediately distress any of your majesty's sures, and proceeding to open hostilities for en forcing colonies may be repealed. them, bave compelled us to arm in our own defence, For by such arrangements as your majesty's wisdom and bave engaged us in a controversy so peculiarly can form for collecting the united sense of your Ame. abborrent to the affections of your still faithful colo rican people, we are convinced your majesty would re. nists, that when we consider whom we must oppose in ceive such satisfactory proofs of the disposition of the this contest, and, if it continues, what may be the colonists towards their sovereign and parent state, consequences, our own particular misfortunes are ac. that the wished-for opportunity would soon be restored counted by us only as parts of our distress.

to them, of evincing the sincerity of their professions, Knowing to what violent resentments, and incura. by every testimony of devotion becoming the most ble animosities, civi discords are apt to exasperate dutiful subjects and the most affectionate colonists. and inflame the contending parties, we think ourselves That your majesty may enjoy a long and prosperous required by indispensable obligations to Almighty God, reign, and that your descendants may govern your doto your majesty, to our fellow-subjects, and to our minions with honour to themselves and happiness to selves, immediately to use all the means in our power, their subjects, is our sincere prayer. not incompatible with our safety, for stopping ihe

JOHN HANCOCK. further effusion of blood, and for averting the impend.

New Hampshire,

John Dickinson, ing calamities that threaten the British empire.

John Langdon,

George Ross, Thus called upon to address your majesty, on affairs

Thomas Cushing.

James Wilson, of such momeni to America, and probably to all your

Chas. Humphreys. dominions, we are earnestly desirous of performing

Massachusetts Bay. E. Biddle. this office, with the utmost deference for your majesty:

Samuel Adams, and we therefore pray, that your majesty's royal mag.

John Adams,

Delaware County nanimity and benevolence may make the mosi favour.

Rob. Treat Paine. Cæsar Rodney, able construction of our expressions on so uncommon

Tho. M'Kean, an occasion. Could we represent in their full force, the

Rhode Island

Geo. Read sentiments that agitate ihe minds of us your dutiful

Step. Hopkins, subjecta, we are persuaded your majesty would ascribe

Sam. Ward,

Maryland. any seeming deviation from reverence in our lan.

Eleph. Dyer,

Mat. Tilghman, guage, and even in our conduct, not to any reprehen.

Tho. Johnson, jun., sible intention, but to the impossibility of reconciling


Wm Paca, the usual appearances of respect with a just attention

Roger Sherman,

Samuel Chase, to our own preservation, against those artful and cruel

Silas Dean.

Tho. Stone. enemies, who abuse your royal confidence and au. thority, for the purpose of effecting our destruction. Attached to your majesty's person, family, and go.

Nero York

Virginia vernment, with all the devotion that principle and

Phil. Livingston,

P. Henry, jun., affection can inspire, connected with Great Britain by

Jag. Duane,

Richard Henry Lee, the strongest ties that can unite societies, and de.

John Alsop.

Edmund Pendleton, ploring every event that tends in any degree to weaken

Prancis Lewis,

Benj. Harrison, then, we solemnly assure your majesty that we

Job Jay.

Thos. Jefferson. not only most ardently desire the former harmony be.

R. Livingston, jun., tween her and these colonies may be restored, but that

Lewis Morris,

North Carolina. a concord may be established between them, upon so

Wm. Floyd,

Will. Hooper, firun a basis as to perpetuate its blessings, uninter Henry Wisner.

Joseph Hewes. rupted by any future dissensions, to succeeding genera. lions in both countries, and to transmit your majesty's

New Jersey.

South Carolina. Dame to posterity, adorned with that signal and last.

Wil. Livingston,

Henry Middleton, ing glory, that has attended the memory of those illus.

John De Hart,

Tho. Lynch, trious personages, whose virtues and abilities have Rich. Smith.

Christ. Gadsden, extricaied states from dangerous convulsions, and, by

J. Rutledge, securing happiness to others, have erected the most Pennsylvania,

Edward Rutledge. noble and durable monuments to their own fame.

Benj. Franklin,
We beg leave further to assure your majesty, that Philadelphia, July 8, 1775.

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nimity, and their meetings are well attended. gress at length began to be uneasy, not knowIt will scarce be credited in Britain, that men ing how it would be possible to redeem so can be as diligent with us, from zeal for the large a sum; and some of its members havpublic gool, as with you for thousands per ing waited upon Dr. Franklin in order to con

Such is the difference between un- sult him upon this occasion, he spoke to them corrupted new states, and corrupted old ones." as follows: “Do not make yourselves un

It was about this time that Dr. Franklin happy; continue to issue your paper money addressed that memorable and laconic epistle as long as it will pay for the paper, ink, and to his old friend and companion Mr. Strahan, printing, and we shall be enabled by its means (then king's printer, and member of the to liquidate all the expenses of the war. British parliament for Malmsbury,) of which In October, 1775, Dr. Franklin was apa fac-simile is given.

pointed by congress, jointly with his colThe following proposed Introduction to a leagues colonel Harrison and Mr. Lynch, a resolution of congress, (not passed) drawn committee to visit the American camp at up by Dr. Franklin, is also fully expressive Cambridge, and in conjunction with the comof his warm feelings and sentiments at that mander in chief, (general Washington,) to period.

endeavour to convince the troops, whose term

of enlistment was about to expire, of the Whereas the British nation, through great corruption of manners and extreme dissipation and profusion, necessity of their continuing in the field, and both private and public, have found all honest resour: persevering in the cause of their country. ces insufficient to supply their excessive luxury and

He was afterwards sent on a mission to prodigality, and thereby have been driven to the prac. tice of every injustice, which avarice could dictate or Canada, to endeavour to unite that country to ra pacity execute: and whereas, not satisfied with the the common cause of liberty. But the Canamillions of the hunan species, they have lately turned dians could not be prevailed upon to oppose their

eyes to the West, and grudging us the peaceable the measures of the British government.* enjoyment of the fruits of our hard labour, and virtu. The ill success of this negotiation was sup extort the same from us, unler colour of laws regulat posed to be occasioned in a great degree by ing trade; and have thereby actually succeeded in religious animosities, which subsisted between draining us of large gums, to our great loss and detri: the Canadians and their neighbours; some of ment: and whereas, impatient to seize the whole, they have at length proceeded to open robbery, declaring by whom had at different times burnt their places a solemn act of parliament, that all our estates are of worship. theirs, and all our property found upon the sea divisible among such of their armed plunderers as shall take the On his return from Canada, Dr. Franklin, same; and have even dared in the same act to declare; under the direction of congress, wrote to M. towns, and murder

of innocent people, perpetrated by Dumas, the American agent in Holland, urgtheir wicked and inhuman corsairs on our coasts, ing him to sound the several governments of previous to any war declared against us, were just Europe, by means of their ambassadors at the the commandments of God, (which by this act, they Hague, as to any assistance they might be presume to repeal) and to all the principles of righi, disposed to afford America, in case of her manifesting themselves to be hostes humani generis

. Britain, and declaring herself an independen! every

other nation, savage as well as civilized; thereby eventually breaking off all connexion with And whereas it is not possible for the people of Ame.

nation. rica to subsist under such continual ravages without making some reprisals,

This decisive measure was now generally Therefore resolved,

agitated throughout the colonies; though it

is certain that at the beginning of the difAffairs having now assumed a most serious ferences, the bulk of the people acted from no aspect, it was necessary for the Americans to fixed and determined principle whatever, and adopt proper and efficacious means of resist- had not even an idea of independence; for all ance. They possessed little or no coin, and the addresses from the different colonies were even arms and ammunition were wanting. filled with professions of loyalty towards their In this situation, the adoption of paper money sovereign, and breathed the most ardent became indispensably necessary, and Dr. wishes for an immediate reconciliation. Franklin was one of the first to point out The congress deeming it advisable to know the necessity and propriety of that measure. the general opinion on so important a point, Without this succedaneum, it would have took an opportunity of feeling the pulse of the been impossible to have made any other than people, and of preparing them for the declaraa feeble and a short resistance against Great tion of independence, by a circular manifesto Britain. The first emission, to the amount of three hands competent to print in French and English should

* It was directed that a printing apparatus and millions of dollars, accordingly took place on accompany this mission. Two papers were written the 25th of July, 1775, under a promise of and circulated very extensively through Canada ; bar exchanging the notes against gold or silver that it was found not more than one person in five in the space of three years; and towards the hundred could not read. Dr. Franklin was accustomed end of 1776, more than twenty-one millions to make the best of every occurrence, suggested that if

it were intended to send another mission, it should be additional were put in circulation. The con- a mission composed of schoolmasters.

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