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8. molliter esse] 'To continue pleasantly in my studies.'

9. celebrare] This word signifies to frequent,' which means to resort frequently to a place or to go there in crowds. The adjective 'celeber,' with which this verb is connected, is another form of 'creber,' and means 'frequent, numerous.'

10. rura paterna] Ovid was born at Sulmo, a Sabine town in the country of the Peligni. Here his father, who was of good family, had a small estate, which Ovid inherited.

11. dominae] The Roman poets used 'domina' for 'a wife,' and that is the meaning here. Ovid had two grandchildren through his daughter Perilla, who was married twice and had a child by each marriage. A preposition ('in') is rarely separated by a word which it does not govern ('securus') from that which it does ('patria'), and this must not be imitated. 'Securus' is 'without care,' the prefix 'se' signifying separation.

14. ponere dignus] The prose writers did not use 'dignus' with the infinitive, but would have said here 'dignus eram qui ponerem.' He says he was justified in so ordering the years of his old age (hos annos').

16. Sarmaticis] See above, p. 15, v. 40. 'Exposuere' means 'have landed me.' The word applies to unloading a ship.

18. dissoluantur] The poets when it suited their convenience used the old form, in which v appears as a vowel.

19. palmas] Victories.' A palm-branch was given to the victors in horse and chariot races.

21. emeritis] Mereri' is properly to earn,' and 'stipendiis,' pay,' being understood, it means to serve in the army.' Emeritis annis' means 'when the years of his service are ended, and he is discharged.'

22. Ponit ad antiquos] 'He hangs up the arms he bore in his former home.' For antiquus' see p. 1, v. 10 n., and for ‘Lares' p. 3, v. 7.

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24. jam rude tempus erat] 'Rudis' was a cudgel or wooden sword, which was given to the gladiators when they were discharged from their work. The phrase 'rude donari' so came to mean to be released from farther labour;' and so Ovid uses it. 'Jam' means 'ere now' in this place. See note on p. 10, v. 32. 25. ducere caelum] He means to breathe a foreign air.' 'Duco' is used in many ways, as before observed (p. 15, v. 43). Its meaning is to draw,' and to draw in the breath is to breathe.

26. Getico] See p. 17, v. 14 n.

27. modo]Lately,' see p. 12, v. 93. Vacuos' means 'idle, free from care.'

32. Mollia] See v. 8.

33. lustris] Every five years new censors were appointed at Rome, officers whose principal duty was to make registers of the citizens, of their rank and property, and of the public revenue

and property. At the end of their period of office, one of them offered sacrifice of a sow, a sheep, and a bull, as a purification on behalf of the people of Rome. This was called 'lustratio' or 'lustrum;' and because it took place every five years, that period was called 'lustrum.' Ovid says he has now passed ten 'lustres,' or fifty years, without a single stain. But he had put away two wives, and was not a good liver either. The reason given for his banishment was the publication of a very licentious book.

35. metis] He says his chariot broke down when he was close to the winning post. The metaphor is taken from the circus, in which chariot-races were held. At each end there were set up three conical posts. The chariots starting from one end turned round the posts at the other and came back to those they had left. These posts were called, from their shape, 'metae,' which means the cones of a fir-tree.'

37. illum] That is, Augustus. He flatters him in a very abject way, but he gained nothing by doing so.


41. Boreo] This is a Greek adjective, and the penultimate syllable is a diphthong. Axis,' which is properly the imaginary line on which the earth turns, is taken also to mean the sky; and 'sub axe Boreo' is 'under a northern sky.'

42. terra sinistra] The western is the left shore to one coming from the south.

43. Delphi Dodonaque] These places possessed the most famous oracles of all antiquity; the one was in Thessaly, and belonged to Apollo; the other in Epirus, dedicated to Zeus (Jupiter).

44. videretur] This is wrongly printed 'viderentur' in the


45. adamas] See p. 19, v. 14. He goes on again to make Augustus equal to Jove, vv. 46, 48, 50, 52.

49. vitio] Vitium' means a defect of nature.' The ancients believed that a man was born fortunate or otherwise. He says, though part of his misfortunes arose from the fault of his birth, more of his ruin was caused by the wrath of the divinity (Augustus).

52. emeruisse] 'To deserve well of, to earn the favour of." "Virum' is generally used, as here, for more than an ordinary man, though we have no word that expresses the meaning always. 'Vir' is derived from the Greek word 'heros,' which properly signifies a warrior.'

A Quarrel.-P. 23.

2. Lethaeis] See above, p. 14, v. 36.

3. vincetur] Shall be won.' In the last page we had 'victa

est clementia' in a different sense: 'his clemency was overcome.' The word is connected originally with 'vincire,' 'to bind.' 4. Fac modo te pateat] Only make it to appear.' • Fac pateat,' cause that it appear,' is the Latin idiom, without 'ut,' though 'ut' is sometimes expressed. Fac modo te damnes,' in the next line, is 'take care that you condemn yourself.'

6. Tisiphonaea] The Romans and later Greeks believed in the existence of three goddesses who especially punished crime. The Latins called them 'Furiae.' One of these was named Tisiphone, and the adjective formed from her name means guilty, that is, worthy of the punishment of Tisiphone.

7. Sin minus] But if it be otherwise, then he says his pain will be obliged to put on its armour, that is, he will be obliged to persecute his slanderer, or expose him. 'Duo' is an old form of do,' which is 'to put;' and 'induo' is 'to put on.' 'To give' is only a derived sense of 'do;' it means to put into a person's hand.

9. Sim licet] Granted that I am.' 'Licet,' which is generally treated as an adverb, is a verb. See p. 5, v. 53 n. 'Ut' is not commonly used in this phrase any more than with 'fac' (above, v. 4).

10. istuc] To that place where thou art' (Rome). See p. 1,

v. 8 n.

11. jura] Ovid had not lost his rights as a Roman citizen (see p. 16, v. 41 n.); so he could prosecute him in a court of justice.

14. quercus adusta] He likens himself to an oak scorched by lightning. But he says such oaks often recover their verdure, and he may recover his fortunes.

15. vindictae] This is a legal term, and means an action for compensation for some wrong sustained. He says if he has no power to bring an action against him, the Muses will give him their help. He will expose him in verse. As to Pierides, see p. 6, v. 26 n.

17. Ut Scythicis habitem] This is like 'sim licet,' above; and he might have said 'habitem licet' with the same meaning as 'ut habitem,' 'suppose that I do live.'

18. proxima signa] By the constellation nearest to his sight he means the Bear (p. 10, v. 48 n.). He says it is a dry constellation, which he explains elsewhere (Trist. iii. 4, 47):

"Proxima sideribus tellus Erymanthidos Ursae
Me tenet; adstricto terra perusta gelu."

'The land that lieth nearest to the Arcadian Bear possesseth me; a land dried up with binding frost.' The stars are called 'signa,' as they are signs of the seasons, guides to the sailor, and so forth. When God made them, he said, "Let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years."

19. praeconia] Praeconium' is a proclamation, properly by a 'praeco' or 'crier.'

22. Testis et Hesperiae] And of the voice from the west there shall be witness in the east.' The voice from the west is his own, which he says shall go forth to the east, and all over the world, to proclaim the baseness of his enemy.

26. Perpetuae crimen] Thou shalt be blamed by posterity for ever.' Perpetuus' means that which goes on without interruption ('per, patior,' 'to endure to the end').

27. cornua sumsi] 'I have not yet taken the horn,' that is to blow the signal of attack; the phrase for which is 'bellicum canere,' or 'signum canere,' or simply 'canere;' to give the signal for retreating is 'canere receptum' or 'recepţui' (v. 31, where the plural 'receptus' is put for the singular).

29. Circus adhuc cessat] The Circus Maximus at Rome was a large building in which public games were held; among others, the hunting of beasts, baiting of bulls, &c. Ovid says 'the Circus (i.e. the spectators) is still in suspense (that is, the sport has not begun), but the bull is scattering the sand,' &c. The floor was strewed with sand, and was therefore called 'arena' (see p. 20, v. 31). He means by this, he is ready to attack his adversary, like the bull in the arena waiting for the fight.

31. Hoc quoque] He means the threatening attitude that he has assumed is more than he had wished to assume.


Phyllis to Demophoon.


The story says that Demophoon a prince of Athens, son of king Theseus, returning from the Trojan war, was driven on the coast of Thrace, and was hospitably entertained by Sithon king of that country. He married the king's daughter Phyllis, and had occasion to go to Attica soon after. Being absent longer than he intended, which she says was only a month (v. 4), he appeared to Phyllis to have abandoned her. She therefore killed herself; but before she did so, she is supposed to have written him this letter.

(The Argument prefixed to the text should be frequently referred to, to show the connection of the parts, and so also with the next poem.)

1. Rhodopera] Rhodope was a mountain range in Thrace, and this adjective is equivalent to 'Thracian.'

4. pacta]' Was promised.' 'Paciscor' contains the same root, 'pag,' as 'pango,' to fasten,' and means an agreement that is fixed.

6. Actaeas] This is equivalent to Atticas,' from the first king of Athens, Actaeus. Sithonis unda' is the waters that wash the coasts of Thrace, from king Sithon, Phyllis' father. 9. lenta fuit] 'Hope too lingered.'

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10. invita nunc et amante] Now even though thy mistress is unwilling they torture her;' 'they' means the suspicions she is unwilling to admit, 'quae credita laedunt.'

13. Thesea] Theseus was his father.

See Introduction. 15. Hebri] The Hebrus was the great river of Thrace. It is now called the Maritza. As to 'vada,' see p. 31, v. 19.

18. devenerata] Earnestly praying.' See 12. 93 n. 'Focis' is equivalent to 'aris.' See p. 10, v. 42.

23. jurata] She means the gods he swore by that he would

return soon.

26. carere] This belongs to both clauses.

28. demeruisse] 'To have won you' (see p. 22, 52 n.). She says, if her only fault was loving him too well, she might have won his love by that fault.

30. pondus et instar] 'The weight and fashion.' (See p. 16, v. 21, about 'instar.')

32. plurimus] 'Frequent.' He had often called God to witness his faith.

33. Hymenaeus] The god of marriage. 'Socios in annos' means for years of union."

34. sponsor et obses] The surety and the pledge.' 'Sponsor' is one who undertakes, generally for another. 'Obses' is most commonly a hostage given by a conquered enemy as a pledge for his good behaviour; but it is used for any pledge. She says, Hymenaeus, whom he had so often invoked, and in whom she trusted, had become thereby the bail for his fulfilling his contract of marriage.

38. avum] She means Neptune, who, according to the opinion of the Athenians, was the founder of Theseus' family.

39. mihi facientia tela] The expression 'mihi facientia' ('profiting me') has been explained before (p. 16, v. 23). By the 'tela' she explains herself to mean the bow of Cupid, by which Demophoon's heart had been won, and the torch he carried (see p. 5, v. 8). When she says that these 'instruments' were too favourable to her, she means that she had been happier, as it has proved, without them. Telum' in its original sense is a missile weapon, and applies to 'arcus' more than to 'faces.' But it is also used for any instrument.

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41. Junonem ue toris] Juno was the special protectress of women, and so was supposed to preside over marriages. For this reason she was called Pronuba, 'nubo' signifying to put on a veil,' and so 'to marry.' 'Maritus' is here an adjective.

42. mystica sacra deae] The goddess whom the Greeks called Demeter and the Romans Ceres had a festival at which the

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