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without a funeral.' He means he was carried out by his friends

like a corpse.

89. tenebris narratur obortis] 'Darkness coming over her,' that is, she fainted.

93. Se modo] Now she wept for her own desertion, now for the desertion of the Penates: 'desertam' must be understood after 'se.' 'Modo' is used as an adverb, but is properly the ablative of' modus,'' measure.' In reference to time it means a short measure of time, 'now' or 'very lately' (see p. 9, v. 13 n.). 'De' in composition ('deplorasse') often has the effect of strengthening the word it is compounded with (p. 3, v. 10).


98. Respectuque tamen] 'She did not die through regard for

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99. Vivat et] These words are repeated after the parenthesis, quoniam sic fata tulerunt.' He wishes that she may live and help him with her influence in his absence. He thought she might plead with Augustus for his pardon.

A stormy Voyage.-P. 12.

1. custos Erymanthidos Ursae] There was a mountain in Arcadia named Erymanthus, and Erymanthis Ursa is equivalent to the Arcadian Bear, which is explained on p. 10, v. 48. The Great Bear is here meant, and the custos or guardian was the Little Bear, called Arctophylax or Arcturus, from Greek words signifying 'guardian of the Bear.' It had this name from its position in front of Ursa Major.

2. suo sidere] Arcturus sets on the 11th December, when stormy weather is commonly met with. In describing the effects of the seasons the poets usually connect them with the constellations that rise or set at the time, that is, rise or set when the sun sets. 'Sidus' is a constellation, as 'stella' is a star. In prose when ‘suus' precedes its noun, it is emphatic. In poetry that is not always the case.

3. Ionium] The Ionian sea lay between Italy and the southern part of Greece, and must be passed on the way to the Euxine. Ovid most probably crossed Italy and embarked at Brundusium

on the eastern coast.

4. metu] Through fear of the wrath of Augustus he was obliged to brave the danger of the sea.

5. Me miserum] Wretched man that I am.' This is elliptical, as all exclamations are, because they represent sudden emotions. Ecce me miserum,' 'look at me poor wretch,' would be a complete sentence.

6. vadis] See p. 31, v. 19 n.

7. recurvae] This belongs to both. See p. 51, v. 651, about


the form of a ship, and the figure at the end of the notes. The poets often use adjectives in the singular number agreeing with one substantive when they apply to more than one.

8. verberat unda deos] Images of gods were carried in the stern of ships.

9. Pinea texta sonant] The pine-timbers groan.' See p. 3, v. 2. The timbers are called texta,' from 'texo,' to weave or join together.


10. Adgemit] He says the ship itself groans in harmony with his sorrows. "Carina, the ship's bottom,' is commonly used by the poets for the ship itself.

12. Jam sequitur victam] 'Now follows the beaten ship, not directs it with his skill,' that is, he lets it go where it will, and goes with it. Navita' is the shipmaster, which is its proper meaning, though it is sometimes used for any sailor.

14. rector] This word is generally used for a steersman, and the ship being likened to a restive horse, 'rector' is therefore used here where a rider or driver is meant. Cervicis rigidae frena,' the reins of its rigid neck,' means the reins which should turn its neck, which however is too stubborn to be turned.

16. Aurigam] This is a charioteer; and as 'rector' is used for a driver, though it is commonly applied to a pilot, auriga' is used for a pilot to keep up the illustration. 'Vela dedisse rati' means to let the ship drive. 'Dare' is 'to put,' 'to give' being a derived sense. 'Vela dare,' therefore, is 'to set sail.' See p. 23, v. 7.

17. Aeolus] This was the reputed ruler of the winds, which he was supposed to keep shut up in a cave in one of the islands called after him Aeoliae Insulæ,' north of Sicily. He let loose such as he pleased or as Neptune required. Quodnisi' is but if Aeolus does not -.' He says, if the wind does not change, the ship will be carried back to Italy, a place he must not approach again. 'Jam' is henceforward. (See above, p. 10, v. 32.)

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19. Nam procul Illyriis] Ships sailing from the eastern coast of Italy tried to make the opposite coast of Illyricum, and so to coast to the southward, that they might not be out of sight of land longer than necessary. A wind from the north-east probably prevented Ovid's ship from pursuing that course and drove her down to the south, so that she came back within sight of the projecting coast of Calabria. The common form is 'Illyricum.' But Illyria' is used, and also 'Illyriae,' in the plural, as here.

21. contendere] This verb means 'to stretch or strain,' and so is applied to one who is in haste and strains his muscles to run. 22. deo] That is Augustus, whom he calls a god, p. 10, v. 40, and elsewhere. 'Illa' means the ship.

23. Dum loquor] While he was speaking to the ship, and bidding her not struggle for the forbidden land but obey the

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commands of Caesar. Repelli,' 'to be driven back' to Italy. 'Increpuit,' 'dashed against.' This sense is derived from the noise of the water against the ship's side.

26. Jovem] This also means Augustus, whom his flatterers represented as Jove's vicegerent upon earth.

27. subducite morti] 'Steal from death my weary life.' Verbs of separation commonly govern the dative case. Words compounded with 'sub' often get the signification of secrecy, fraud, and so forth; sub' having the force of suppression. He adds to his prayer,' if only he who is dead can be not dead.' He means he is as good as dead, as he said when he left his home (p. 12, v. 87).

A faithless Friend.-P. 13.

1. In caput alta suum] This was a proverbial way of speaking derived from the Greeks.

5. praepostera] This is properly hind-foremost, but is used for monstrous and irregular things. He means, all things in nature that are out of course shall go by rule.

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8. de quo] Which may not be believed.'

13. jacentem exsequias] He speaks of himself as one dead and buried. (See p. 2, v. 20, as to 'jacere;' and as to 'exsequias,' see p. 1, v. 2.)

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17. Quid fuit ingenti] Why was it so hugely difficult,' a thing of huge difficulty (mole'). Alloquii' is 'conversation,' and so comes to mean sympathy or comfort.

20. Pauca tamen] He thinks he might at least have pre-. tended to feel for him. 'Pauca verba' after 'queri,' which is not a transitive verb, is called a cognate accusative (see p. 3, v. 8). It means 'to utter a few words of complaint.'

21. ignoti] Strangers.'

22. publicaque ora sequi] 'To follow the public voice,' that is, to express sorrow, as the people did, for his banishment. Publicus' is a contracted form of 'populicus,' from 'populus,' and 'publica ora' is 'the mouth of the people.'

23. Denique lugubres vultus] ‘In short, to look upon my sad face, which thou wert never to see again, on that last day, and while it yet might be.'

28. signa] This is in apposition with 'lacrimas.' 'Dare lacrimas' is to shed tears.'

29. Quid nisi convictu] 'What (he asks) would have been the case if I had not been bound to you by the ties of fellowship and strong reasons? What if we had not shared our sports and our serious hours together?' He means, ' could you have been more cold ?'

33. dumtaxat] This word, which means 'only,' contains the

root 'tag' of 'tango,' 'to touch:' it is literally till it touches,' which is a limitation; and the word so comes to have this meaning, as 'modo' does. See p. 12, v. 93 n.

34. Adscitus toties] 'So oft admitted to every kind of sport.' 36. Lethaeis] Lethe was supposed to be a river in the lower regions, the waters of which when drunk caused forgetfulness of the past. He asks if all his friend's professions have been carried away by the winds or the river Lethe.

37. Quirini See above, p. 10, v. 33.

39. Ponti] The Pontus Euxinus was sometimes called merely Pontus. Ovid wrote from the left, that is the western, shore of the Euxine (p. 22, v. 42).

40. Scythiae Sarmaticisque] Scythia included all the nations north of the Danube and Euxine, and Sarmatia was the name for the present Russian empire in Europe, so far as it was known to the Romans. The names were however used without much discrimination for the northern nations, who were but little known to the Romans till they appeared in later times as their conquerors.

42. ferri semina] Iron ore he calls seeds of iron.

43. ducenda] 'Ducere' is used in a great variety of senses. Here it is to drain.' In the same sense it is applied to cups of wine.

45. At mala nostra] 'But if all I have said were true, that thou wert born a barbarian, with veins of flint and heart of iron and nursed by a tigress, yet wouldst thou not be so indifferent to my misfortunes as now.' This is what he means.

46. non agerere reus] 'Thou wouldst not be charged by me as guilty of cruelty.' 'Agere' and 'reus' are legal terms; the first meaning to prosecute or bring an action as we say, the other a defendant or prisoner on his trial.

48. Ut careant numeris]' That the first times are out of tune,' that is, that his friend had not done what he ought at first. "Numeri' in the plural is used for time or tune in music. Fatalibus damnis' means the losses sent upon him by fate, as distinguished from that which he suffered through the unkindness of his friend. 50. Officium] 'Kindness,' 'attention.'

The Exile's Misery.-P. 15.

1. Triptolemi] Triptolemus was said to have been born at Eleusis near Athens, and to have invented the plough and the art of cultivating the ground. Demeter, the goddess of fruits and corn, called Ceres by the Romans, gave him a chariot drawn by dragons, with which he went about the world teaching mankind the art of husbandry.

2. ignotam] The powers of the earth were not known till it was cultivated, and the seed was rude or unartificial until it was skilfully used. 'Misit' means here 'cast.'

3. Medeae] Medea was the daughter of Aeetes king of Colchis, and became the wife of Jason, whom she helped to secure the golden fleece (see p. 3, 2 n). She went with him to Corinth, where Jason deserted her and married the daughter of the king, whereupon she murdered her own children and his new wife, and fled from Corinth to Athens in a chariot drawn by winged dragons through the air.

5. jactandas] 'Proud wings,' wings to be boasted of. Perseus was the son of Acrisius king of Argos. He is said to have possessed himself of certain sandals with wings attached to them, which he afterwards gave to Hermes (Mercury), who is usually represented in pictures and sculptures with wings on his feet. Daedalus, a noble Athenian, was said to have made himself wings, with which he escaped from the power of Minos king of Crete, and flew over the sea to Sicily.

13. Si semel optandum est] If you must wish once for all.' 'Augustum' is an adjective, and a title conferred by the senate on Octavianus, when he was made princeps or emperor, B.C. 27. His successors had the same title. He again speaks of him as a god.

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14. Et quem] And to him whose godhead thou hast felt pray duly as to a god.' 'Deum' belongs both to 'sensisti' and to precare.' Precor' takes an accusative of the person as well as the thing prayed for. Rogare' does the same, v. 20.

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16. Det reditum] Suppose he grants thee to return, thou wilt straightway have wings. The permission of Augustus would be as effectual as the chariots and wings Ovid had been wishing for. Protinus' is a shorter form of porro tenus,' 'right on.? The subjunctive is commonly used without 'si' to express a supposed case.


19. Forsitan hoc olim] 'It may be that hereafter when his anger has satiated itself, he may be asked for this (permission to return), though even then with anxious mind,' that is, with fear lest he should refuse.

21. Quod minus] 'That which is less meanwhile is the worth of a mighty boon.' 'Instar' is a substantive signifying likeness, and also worth or amount. It is not a preposition, as some

grammars represent it.

23. faciunt] He means the climate, the water, the soil, and the air do not agree with him. To make for a person' in English is to be good for him, to be for his advantage, and 'facio' has that meaning sometimes.

27. Ut tetigi]'Ever since I reached the Euxine sleeplessness hath troubled me.' This is the English idiom. The Latin is that which appears in the text. As to 'Ponti,' see p. 15, v. 39.

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