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takes the subjunctive mood, and 'quamquam' the indicative. The poets do not always follow this rule.

7. arbore] The poets often use the singular number with adjectives of quantity, and say, for instance, densa arbore,' 'multa arbore,' where in prose the plural would be used. 'Praenubilus' is not used elsewhere. It is literally 'very clouded,' which means here deeply shaded. "Lucus' is generally used, as here, for a sacred wood. See note in p. 2, v. 46.

8. Adspice, concedas] 'Look at it and you will allow it is the habitation of a god.' There was a religious appearance in the darkness of the wood. There was a rude old altar in it, where the pious offered their prayers and their incense to Juno.

11. tibia] The tibia' was a long instrument like the flageolet. It was often double, each part giving a different sound. It appears a tune was played upon this instrument, and after it was over the procession began, and passing through the streets of the town went to the grove. Garments were laid upon the ground over which the procession passed, as the Jews strewed theirs for our Saviour to pass over when he rode into Jerusalem. This is the meaning of velatas' (see v. 24). 'Hic' in this line should be 'huc' after It.'

14. Quas aluit] See above, v. 4.

15. nondum minaces] Their horns had not yet grown.

18. dominae] The mistress of the wood. The story Ovid refers to is not met with in any writer. He says Juno was flying, and that by a goat she was betrayed to her pursuer in the depths of a wood, which obliged her to abandon her flight. It is supposed she was flying from Jove before she became his wife.

21. index] The betrayer, that is, the goat. One of these animals was made a mark for boys to throw darts at, and whoever struck it first had the goat for his prize.

26. palla] This was the upper garment worn by women, corresponding to the toga of the men. 'Auratos pedes' means that they wore gold ornaments round their ancles.

27. sancto] This a participle from 'sancio.' It means 'settled, established,' as 'sancire legem' was 'to give effect to a law.' The women in this procession wore white dresses, and carried the sacred implements for sacrifice in baskets on their heads.

29. Ore favent] This means 'they are silent;' 'favere linguis' is used in the same way. It means to keep the mouth from uttering words of ill omen.

29. aurea pompa] Things beautiful or magnificent were commonly called aurea;' and if it be rendered 'golden,' as it must, the meaning will be understood.

30. Ipsa] Juno herself. Her image was carried behind the priestesses. The conjunction 'que' does not often come so late in the clause. It is generally attached to the first word, with which it must be taken in construing.

31. Argiva] Juno, under her Greek name Hera, was worshipped at Argos in the Peloponnesus from very early times. Ovid says the procession at Falerii is like those at Argos; and according to some ancient writers Falerii was built by Greeks. Ovid adopts that tradition, and says the founder was Halesus, a natural son of Agamemnon king of Mycenae in Argolis. Agamemnon on his return from Troy was murdered by his wife Clytemnestra and her paramour Aegisthus, and Ovid says Halesus fled from the scene of the crime and left his father's wealth behind him. He speaks of him elsewhere as being 'Atridae fatis agitatus' and giving his name to the Faliscan territory. (Fasti vi. 73.)

36. semper amica] 'Let them be ever favourable to me and to their people.' This is meant for a pious way of taking leave of the place.


On leaving Rome.-Page 9.

1. subit] Comes up to my mind.'

6. Ausoniae] Ausones was the name given by the Greeks to one of the earliest tribes of Italy. The name in later times came to be used, by the poets only, for the whole of that country, and here for the Roman empire. Tomi, the town to which Ovid was sent, was in Moesia, which was made a Roman province in the next reign, that of Tiberius. When Ovid went there it was beyond the limits of the Roman dominions. 'Finibus' is the ablative.

7. Nec mens nec spatium] 'I had neither heart not leisure.' 'Spatium' means 'spatium temporis.'

8. Torpuerant] His heart, he says, had grown dull with long suspense. He had been petitioning Augustus to pardon him, and after much suspense had been ordered to quit the city immediately; so that he had no time to make his arrangements and choose his slaves or a friend to accompany him, and get his clothes and other necessaries ('opis') for his exile.

9. legendi] Legendorum' must be understood for 'servorum,' as 'legendi' belongs to 'comitis.' The older Latin writers used the gerund with the case that the verb it belongs to would take; for instance, they would say 'legendi servos,' 'legendi comitem.' In later writers we more commonly find legendorum servorum,' 'legendi comitis.' This, however, applies only to gerunds from transitive verbs (verbs which take the accusative), if we except the four reflective verbs 'utor,' 'fruor,' 'fungor,' 'potior.' (Key's

Lat. Gr. § 1287.) Properly speaking the gerund is a neuter substantive formed from a verb, and is declined in all the cases of the noun: as, N. faciendum, G. faciendi, D. faciendo, Acc. ad faciendum, Abl. a faciendo.

13. animi nubem] He was stupefied by the severity of the sentence, and a cloud had come over his mind, which however the pain of his grief dispelled, and when he came to his senses he bade farewell to his friends, who once were many, but now in his disgrace were but one or two ('unus et alter'). 'Modo' means of late.' It is a word of measure, the ablative of 'modus,' and when referring to time it limits the time to a short space. 17. Uxor amans] See p. 7, v. 1 n. As to 'indignas,' see p. 5,

v. 3 n.

19. diversa] Far away.' His daughter's name was Perilla as well as his wife's. She was married and absent at this time in Africa. Certior esse,'' certior fieri,' are used commonly for 'being informed.'

22. intus] Indoors, he says, there was all the appearance of a noisy funeral. At funerals mourners were hired to wail for the dead, and doleful music was played.

23. Femina virque] The singular is used for the plural. See note on p. 5, v. 56.

23. funere] He speaks as if his departure were his funeral. 25. quum caperetur] 'While it was being taken.'

28. equos] P. 5, v. 56.

29. ab hac] By her light.' The Capitolium was an enclosure containing temples of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, on one of the hills of Rome. Near to this was Ovid's house. But he says that neighbourhood was of no use to him. 'Lares' was the name given to the good spirits of a family that were supposed to watch over each house (see p. 3, v. 7 n.). The poets used the word 'lar' to signify the house itself.

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32. Jamque] From henceforth.' 'Jam' is a word of time referring to the past, present, or future: 'jam feci' means 'I have just done;' 'jam facio,' 'I am at this moment doing;' 'jam faciam,' I shall presently do.' It also combines present and future, meaning 'from this very time forward,' as here.

33. Quirini] This is a name of Romulus, the origin of which is uncertain. It is commonly derived from Cures, a town of the Sabines.

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34. Este salutati] This is equivalent to 'receive ye my farewell;''salve!' (the usual word for greeting, with which 'salutare' is connected), and vale!' (the usual word on parting), having the same meaning, 'be thou well.' 'Salutem dicere' was used for greeting or parting.

35. clipeum post vulnera]' Clipeum' is the proper word, not 'clypeum;' as in the text. It is sometimes written 'clupeum;' as lacrima' is written lacruma,' but never lacryma,' much

less 'lachryma,' in good мss. This is a proverb, meaning to do a thing too late, as it is too late to lift one's shield after the blow has been struck. Ovid means to say, 'though it is too late to defend my conduct now that my banishment is ordered, yet do ye, O gods! deliver that banishment from the burden of the emperor's displeasure, by telling him how I was deceived, lest he count that for a crime which was only an error in judgment.' This is the difference between 'culpa' and 'scelus' (v. 38).

39. Ut quae sentitis] He addresses the gods as if they knew his innocence, and prays that what they know the author of his punishment (Augustus) may know too; for he could be at least not miserable if that divinity, as he calls Augustus, were pacified.

42. ante Lares] Images of the Lares were set up in the atrium, the front sitting-room of a house, near the fireplace. Here Perilla prostrated herself and prayed to the Lares and kissed the fireplace, in which the fire was now extinguished because the master of the house was leaving it. 'Focus' was a fixture of stone or brick, usually in the middle of the room, on which wood was laid. 45. Penates] See p. 3, v. 7. There were images of the Penates in the penetralia or inner court of most houses. These she also prayed to. The Penates are described as turning their faces away from her prayers, which were not destined to prevail ('non valitura'). p. 2, v. 45 n.

47. nox praecipitata] The setting of night.' This means that the night was coming to an end. Night falling with us means night coming on, because the shadows appear to fall upon the earth. The ancient poets represented night as declining down the western sky as the light came up the eastern. 'Praecipitare' is 'to cast head foremost' (prae, caput).

48. Parrhasis Arctos] Parrhasia was a town in Arcadia. Arctos is the Greek for a bear, and is the name of the two northern constellations, the Greater and Lesser Bear, also called by the Greeks the waggons; and by the Romans, Septentriones or Seven Oxen. The Little Bear was called Bootes and Arcturus. The fable is, that Callisto, daughter of Lycaon king of Arcadia, was turned into a bear, and her son Arcas pursuing her in that form also became a bear, and they were transferred to the skies. From their connection with Arcadia, Arctos is called Parrhasis.

48. Versaque ab axe] The axis on which Arctos is said to turn is what we call the polar star, which seems to remain stationary while the other stars turn round it. Versa ab axe' means turned away from the axis,' that is, to the side opposite to that on which they were at the beginning of the night.


52. Vel quo festines] When he saw any one hastening the preparations for departure, he bade him consider whither he was in such a hurry to go, and what a home they were going from.

54. Ah quoties] He often pretended, when they would have

him make haste, that he had fixed in his own mind upon a particular hour as being most propitious for departure. But this was ⚫not true, and only an excuse for delay. The ancients thought to ascertain, by omens and in other ways, the times that were favourable and unfavourable for beginning a journey.

60. pignora cara] Pignora,' which means pledges,' and should be so translated, is often used for children, as strengthening the love of husband and wife. It is also used as here (but more rarely) for all near relations.

61. Scythia] The Romans, without much discrimination (especially the poets) called the nations north of the Danube Scythians. The situation of Tomi, to which Ovid was going, is not accurately known, but it was probably in the region called Scythia Minor, on the west shore of the Euxine or Black Sea, not far from the mouths of the Danube.

62. utraque justa mora] Each is a just cause for lingering,' namely, that he is going to a barbarous place, and that he is leaving Rome.

66. Thesea] Theseus king of Athens had a friend named Peirithous. Many stories are told shewing their attachment, which, like that between Orestes and Pylades, mentioned before (p. 1, v. 15 n.), became proverbial. Ovid therefore says the hearts of his friends were united to his own with a fidelity like that of Theseus.

68. In lucro] Ovid says the hour's delay that was allowed him was so much in the way of luck or gain, as it enabled him to take leave of his friends.

70. proxima quaeque] All that was nearest to my heart.'

72. Lucifer] The planet Venus when it appears as a morning star was called Lucifer (lux, fero), as introducing the day. The Greeks called it Phosphorus in the same sense (p. 5, v. 56).

80. exsulis exsul] This word is derived from the same root (sed-) which is in 'sedes,' a 'home or habitation.' 'Exilium' is another form of 'ec-sidium,' as 'consilium,' with which consul' is connected, is of 'considium,' 'a sitting together or council.' So 'praesul,' ' a president,' is connected with 'praesidium.'

81. ultima tellus] That farthest land,' namely, Scythia, to which her husband was going.

84. Pietas haec mihi Caesar erit] She says her love shall be to her a Caesar: as Augustus Caesar had ordered her husband into exile, so her love should order her. Natural affection the Romans called 'pietas,' as it is obedience to the law of God. Therefore Aeneas was commonly called 'pius' for his dutiful conduct to his father Anchises, especially in carrying him on his shoulders from Troy when it was taken.

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86. dedit victas] Dare manus' means 'to yield,' that is, to give the hands to the victor to be tied. Perilla yielded to expediency. 87. Egredior] 'I went out-or rather it was to be carried out

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