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like a very hand as in Xerxes, Xenophon.
Y, the form of this letter is borrowed from the Saxon alphabet, wherein it is expressed with a dot over it thus y.. Its found is generally like an i; the Goths use it in the fame manner, and their character for it resembles our capital Y. It never occurs in the middle of words, unless in such, as are derived from the Greeks, as in Jystem. Hence some, who are fond of affecting superior knowlege, among which we may reckon the Scots, pronounce these words, as if written with a u, as system, is by them pronounced sustem. At the end of a word this letter sounds like an e, as in city, pity, integrity. It has been much questioned whether this letter be a vowel or a consonant; they who insist upon its being a vowel fay, that the fame found which we expiess by the initials, our Saxon ancestors, in many instances, expressed by the vowel e, as eon-er, which is sounded your; and by the vowel;', as iiv sounded yew, and iong, sounded young: they add, that in the word yen; the y has precisely the same sound with /' in the word -view; now as the i is acknowleged to be a vowel in the latter, they ask how the y can possibly be a consonant in the former, when it has the very fame found ? Its initial sound, fay they, is generally like that of ee nearly; it is formed by the opening of the mouth without any motion or contact of the parts;
and, in a word, has every property
of a vowel, and not one of a consonant. In reply, we are told, that when_y foflows a consonant, it is a vowel; when it comes before either a vowel or a diphthong it is a consonant. That it may have this doubleproperty may be perceived from the different pronounciation of y in city, and in ye, young or yield: To this may be subjoined the observation made with respect to iv; that it follows a vowel without any hiatus, or difficulty of utterance, as in rosy youth, -vastly yellow : wherein the difference of founds between they at the end and that at the beginning cannot escape notice*
Z, the usual name for this letter, izzard, indicates its found, which is . that of s hard; it has the fame relation to s as v to f, being a thicker and coarser expression of it; and is uttered by a closer compression of the palate by the tongue than the s is, as in freeze, graze.
Thus we have finished our remarks upon the English alphabet, and in beginning with simple sounds and the elements of words, have imitated the progress of nature in her attempts after speech; the infant at first utters simple sounds; he then unites them into syllables, from syllables he proceeds to words, and from words to sentences. My next shall treat of syllables. I am, Yours,
The Nymph of Diana
Traversed alone the soades of the Idalian groves, consecrated to Diana, where the goddess frequently chaced the timid dear; and happened to be hunting that very day. The joyous sound of the horns resounded afar, and struck my ears, when 1 immediately saw, on the summit of a rock, one of her nymphs pui suing
From the German. a doe. Sometimes I saw her at a distance from her game in the deep vallies; sometimes with her javelin in her hand, close at its heels: of a sudden the bleeding animal jumped into the valley close at my feet, and the nymph also appeared before me.
Her brilliant, but darted on all sides angry looks: she fixed her eyes on me the moment (he perceived me ! Her tresses hung loosely on her stioulders and neck: lhe appeared to me majestic as Juno; with her right hand she shook a javelin, in her left she held a bow. I trembled at the sight of this haughty beauty, and with a timid air held down my eyes: for while I perceived a javelin in her hand, I was afraid of offending by an indiscreet look. At length I address'd her in these words. "Be not displeased, most beautiful nymph, to see me so confounded! An unexperienced youth, I am a subject of the Cytherean goddess; I have never before beheld the menacing eyes of a nymph, nor bows or arrows in the hands of a fair one. Among us no frowning beauty is ever seen, or if a fair one is by chance angry, she resembles the fun in Spring shining through a cloud: her mouth, formed only to give and receive kisses, is capable of sighs alone, not threats. Thus no nymphs are so happy as those of the Cytherean queen! It is incredible, fair nymph, what a pleasure the kiss of a young man occasions! For whatever pleasures you can name, I can, by the charm of a kiss, introduce into a fair one's heart. Your neck is like alabaster, beauteous nymph, it is incomparable." I spoke, and immediately this nymph, so terrible, smiled: her fair bosom heaved with a sigh: her looks lost their former fierceness, and of a sudden ihe seem
0/ the Arundelian Marbles. Cj fierce, eyes ed to repent of her disdainful carriage, " Give me alsoa kiss," said she, reclining against a tufted pine;- I gave her a kiss, and pressed her to my bosom. "Ah," cried she, "oh youth, never, no never did I experience such delight! ah one more kiss; twenty! an hundred more!" "Lead me into thy grot," replied I, "and I will cause you to taste inexpressible pleasures!" " I dare not, amiable youth! Diana would be angry with me." Affrighted I locked up, and perceived Diana herself. ** Who is this young man?" said the haughty goddess!" He isLove," replied the subtle nymph; "I catched him, as he was running after the game to scare it away. I have cut off his wings, and thrown his quiver into the sea: shall I throw him into the waves also?" " No,'' answered the goddess; "lead him to your grot, and confine h'm closely; in the evening, when I return from the chace, I will fend him back to his mother, that he may wound no more of my nymphs.'' She spoke, and quitted us. "Poor credulous goddess! Love will certainly escape this evening: for who is more cunning than the untractable son of Venus? But I am sure the nymph will frequently rove about these be;ch trees, to endeavour to catch me by Diana's order; and if she sometirms succeeds, alas! I sh.ill always make my escape in the evening.
But, ye loves, erect trophies to the powerful conqueror, who has subdued one of the nymphs of Diana."
Of the Arundelian Marbles.
TH E Arundelian, or Parian, marbles, which make one of the greatest curiosities in the university of Oxford, are very valuable chronological tables of ancient times, and begin with the Attic æra. They
were made by some learned Athenian, 263 years before Christ. But, by some mistake, they place the destruction of Troy twenty-five years' too high; and, in consequence of that error, all the historical facts,
both both preceding nd after it, till the 1561. This is twenty-one years
time of the annnal archons, are also later than the marbles place himr
placed twenty-five years too high, for they reckon 1021 years from
We must, therefore, if we would Cecrops to Pisistratus, and place
make a proper use of these marbles, Cecrops in the year 1582 before
in times before the taking of Troy, Christ. This testimony of Isocrates
and to the annual archons, reckon so is an ancient and forcible evidence,
many years as are set down in them that the epoch of the marbles is fixed
preceding the destruction of Troy; too high.
and these years, reckoned with the The many omissions of reigns and
true æra of Troy, or 1183 before archons in the marbles mew, that
the Christian æra, will always give they were not extracted from any
the true time of the historical facts public ancient records; but from
before the Trojan æra; as we may some ancient writers; from whom,
deduct twenty-five years, when we also, many curious historical facts,
compute facts mentioned in these not relating to the Athenian history,
marbles to the time of the annual are inserted. The facts are all
archons. But if we reckon all the adapted to the times of the kings,
years set down in them, with the ad- or archons of Athens, in which they
dition of 263 years to the Christian happened, and from the time of the
æra, we (hall,, with regard to the annual archons, they are the most
greater part at least, reckon twenty- authentic records extant: and, upon
five years too much. the whole, form a most valuable re
This is abundantly evident from main of chronological antiquities,
the concurring testimonies of histo- They seem to have been engraved
rians and chronologers. Isocrates in Paros, when Altyanactes was ar
(Orat. Panathen. p. 454) reckons chon there, as it is mentioned in the
the Athenian constitution to have beginning of them; at least, they
subsisted, from its first establishment were engraved on marbles brought
by Cecrops to the tyranny of Pi- from that ifland.
sistratus, and the time of Solon, Thus have I given you some re
not less than a thousand years. Now marks on this celebrated, remain of
Pisistratus seized upon the govern- ancient assiduity, and flatter myself
ment of Athens, in the year before 'you will give this paper a place ia
Christ 561, according to the marbles: your next number, which will greatly
and therefore, by the reckoning of oblige, Your's, &c.
Isocrates, Cecrops began to reign in Oxford, ''. ji n
Attica, in the year before Christ July 26, 1768. ''
A Description of the Copper-Plate, entitled, the Siege of IVaruoick-Casth.
ACertain number of fellows of the college, properly delineated, with large wigs, and Death as their president. A certain number of licentiates, with Folly as their leader. The combatants, with proper ammunition, and arms, such as lancets for swords, syringes for guns, pestles, &c. the licentiates are distinguished as Scotsmen, that country having furnished England with the greatest part of them. The other particulars require no explanation.