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stewards, your men creaturet, have had the insolence to erect themselves into your diSa-. tors! But you are all -now awake to the calls of liberty. And it is not doubted that the. worthy inhabitants of the ward of Farringdon Without, will unite with the worthy freeholders of Middlesex in manifesting their detestation of chamber elections.

A man who thus solicits a feat in the court of Aldermen, is not likely to desert his constituents when be shall have attained it. Tho' an Alderman, he will still consider himself as your brother-freeman; arid though a member of your upper house, he will scorn to conduct himself as a city lord. He abhors the idea of an arifiocracy. He will assert the consequence of every individual, and the interests and the freedom of the whole.

Let me add; there never was a period when the critical situation of this ward (by its extent and importance the first in this great city) so particularly called for the fuperinteadency of an able, an active, a disinterested magistrate. I shall touch but one single instance. The opening of the bridge at Black Friars, and the avenues leading to it, must intimately aftect the state of this district. But the spirit with which this interesting business is now conducted, is but too visible from the cruel depredations intended to be made oh that royal, venerable, and important foundation of Bridewell Hospital, scarcely excepting even the Cbapel, for the sake of affording some sort of accommodation and splendor to (lie place in -which the Scotch assemble (and which they call a Hill) on theoppofite side of Fleet Ditch.

In a word, Gentlemen, by electing Mr. Wilkes into this respectable-office, you will, in some measure, defeat the wicked purposes of an abandoned Administration. Should their unrelenting malice so far pcdvail as to deprive him of the feat he holds by the free voices of a'glorious county, he will in this city at least (by your favour) have a feat from which he can never be expelled in violation of the lews. He will here exert his genuine spirit in vindication of the rights and privileges, in redress of the grievances, in relief of the distresses of his fellow-citizens. And you, Gentlemen, will-have the honour of shewing to the whole world, that the friends of their country, however oppressed, however persecuted by arbitrary Ministers, will not fail of a certain refuge and reward in the horlest approbation and support of the freemen cj Loiidon. - • •

The fol.'otvinr Card has keen sent to an eminent Banker in rJeet-Street.

"Lord H 's moll respectful compli

"ments to Mr. H——, and bejs the favour "of him to exert his utmost influence to pre"vent Mr. WiHcr: btinj elects an ASdsr"-m»n."

Controversy. . 267

A few Sjteries addressed to the Worthy Inhabitants of Farringdon Ward Without, .. TS it not highly necessary, for the honour of ■ the city, to have its magistrates selected from those citizens, who are most diiUnguiihed for their opulence and character?

Is it not a dangerous precedent to chufe them from amongst the poor and profligate, and must it not reflect an everlasting stigma on the city, if they are once appointed from the bankrupts both in fame and fortune?

Without mentioning any other part of a certain candidate's circumstances, does he not at this moment owe near 2000I. in the veryward where he solicits to be electeAAlderman j did he not lately discharge debt, by the honourable offer of half a crown in the pound? «

Is the libeller upon record the most proper guardian of the public peace? Is the blasphemer convicted, the most likely to shew an example for religious duties to his fellowcitizens? ...

Is it not a daring- arrogance in a criminal, now suffering the sentence of the laws, so aspire at being a magistrate in the, very city, where his guilt is so universally known, and to desire that, from the confines of a prison, we shall immediately make him a principal minister of justice?

Would any man, who merits the name of a good citizen, trust the care of the laws, where he would refuse to trust the care of his property; and is there even a strenuous advocate for a certain candidate, who would now credit him in a sum of forty-five pounds'?

What connection has a certain candidate with, or what interest had he in the city when he was at large, and able to keep -a house, was the city the place of his residence; and is it not well known, that his view in the present election, is more to extricate himself out of difficulties, than to do the city any real services?

Will it not reflect greatly upon the understanding of the city, to become the tool of i desperate partizan, who so far from feeling any remorse for the brood which his inflammatory spirit has already-caused to be shed, is still destroying the general tranquillity by his seditious publications?

If he is elected, and should reside amongst US, after his imprisonment, is it nut likely that he will Be a perpetualfirebrand in the city councils, and if he should nor, will nut ths Ward of Farringddri Without, be virtually cestitute of an Alderman?

'Who are the people that canvas for him? Are they men of known-property in the ward, or men of distinguilhM reputation out of it?

Is not one of them a despicable Bellows, vrho is incessantly blowing up the-flames of public discord j and is not another of them a

Clerical Clerical Incendiary, who is a disgrace to all religion, and a pest to all societies?

And will the inhabitants of FarringdonWith•ut, suffer such men as these to dictate to them? Will they receive an Alderman from these hands, and fly to a jail for their magistrate, when they have so many men of character and consequence among themselves .'—Forbid it honour —Forbid it (hame —Forbid it every thing that can be dear to good and spirited citizens.—Public Ledger, Jan. 1.

To tbt Worthy Inhabitants of the Ward of Farringdon Without. Gentlemen, VOUR Votes, Interest, and Poll (ifrteedA full) are requested for CHARLES VERB, Esqj Citizen and Goldsmith (Deputy of this Ward) to be your Alderman, in die room of Sir Francis Gosling, Knight, deceased; being a gentleman zealously affected to our happy constitution both in church and state, and a steady asserter of the rights and privileges of his fellow citizens.

To the Worthy and Independent Inhabitants of

the Ward of Farringdon Without. li/sR. Vm's postscript to his advertisement, * on the fifth of February 1767, when he proposed himself a candidate for Cripplegate Ward.

N. B. « Mr. Vere generously offers, if the "inhabitants think him worthy of their "choice (at this time of distress) to give "jive hundred pounds to be distributed to "the poor housekeepers of the Ward." Remarks. Tf the inhabitants had thought him worthy, they would have chosen him without a bribe. If Mr. Vere had thought worthily of them, he would not have offered a bribe.

If Mr. Vere had been generous, or even charitable, knowing the distress of the time, and haviug five hundred pounds to spare for that purpose, he would have given it to the poor, without any condition.

But the inhabitants of Cripplegate Ward did not think him tvorthy; and Mr. Vere's generosity and charity did not induce him, in that time of distress, to give his five hundred pounds to that or any other Ward.

To the Worthy Inhabitants of the Ward of Farringdon Without, Gentlemen, T JPON the pressing and repeated solicitations *^ of Mr. Bromwich, and many others of the Common-Council and Inhabitants of this Ward, I was prevailed on to give my concurrence to their printing an address to you for succeeding our late worthy Alderman. But as for a long time 1 declined making you a ten

der of my services, so upon hearing that Mr. Bromwich is proposed by several gentlemen, I do now, for the peace of the Ward, resume my first intentions, with many thanks to those friends who thought me in any degree worthy to succeed so respectable a magistrate. I am, Gentlemen, with great respect, Fleet-Street, Your humble servant,

De*.$x, 1768. CHARLES VERE.

To the Worthy, Free, and Independent Inhabitants of the Ward of Farringdon Without.

Genti.em EN,

TT gives me no small mortification to find, that noble, generous-spirited man Mr. Vere, has resigned standing a candidate lor Alderman of your Ward | he is a man you all must acknowledge was treated with contempt at the late election at Cripplegate, and for no other reason perhaps, but that he appeared too generous, when he humanely proposed to appropriate five hundred pounds to the use of the poor, at a time of great distress, if they thought him worthy of their choice; Mr. Vere did not meet with his desired success; but undoubtedly that -worthy man bestowed the five hundred pounds on the poor, in hopes that God would reward him, though the city refused him that savour.—Now he hat humbly resigned (by the defirt or order of his betters) in favour of Mr. Bromwich, Paper-hanger to his majesty, who, undoubtedly will make proper acknowledgment for the mighty favour, and use his endeavour to promote his friend to the high office of being Chinaman to the King. Mr. Bromwich is likewise, I am informed, as proper a person for a magistrate as Mr. Vere, and ought to come doubly recommended to the city, as being his majesty's servant, and every inhabitant ought to give, without the least hesitation, his vote to a person of Mr. Bromwich's consequence.

In opposition to Mr. Bromwich, the renowned John Wilkes, Esq; puts up for that high honour; what has be to recommend him? nothing but his boasted sincerity, and ridiculously standing in opposition to our most excellent ministers. Can a man in confinement, bound in chains, and threatened with the most severe punishments, because he would mistakenly advance Truth and Liberty, deserve your favour? O, no! his sufferings can never be an advocate for his advancement in the city. The honesty of his principles, the delicacy of his wit, and the soundness of his understanding, will not avail him, when the rich man stands before him. Who shall complain when his invectives against Bribery and Corruption are merely fictitious, and proceed from a desire of inflaming the passions of the people? But the people are the best judees if those complaints are groundless or no! I am always reFarringdoi

olced. when I see a spirit of liberty exert itelf among any set or denomination cf-my CQuntrymeri. I please myself with the hopes it will grow more diffusive, and beceme fashionable in the whole city, as well as the ward of Farringdon Without; and thus you will chuse the man best fitting for the high office of Aluerman.

Dec. 31. LEONORA.

Monday, 'Jan, 2, 1769. To the Worthy Inhabitants of the Ward of Farringdon Without. Gentlimin,

A T the obliging desire of many respectable inhabitants of this opulent ward, I have presumed to offer myself a candidate to succeed the late very worthy Sir Francis Gosling, as your Alderman; and I take this public manner of soliciting your suffrages at the wardmote, which is to be he'd this day at St. Bride's Church, for the election of a new magistrate. Honoured, hewever, as I am, with the recommendation of foMnany conf.derable constituents,-! sliould still think it too great a temerity tdrequest the distinction of your voice, if I was not cdrtfcious of a real attbilion lo deserve it. I have been a member of your ward above" thirty years, and I have been your representative in the Common-Council above twelve. During these periods, my study has been to discharge the duues of a good citizen aud an honest man, to the utmost of my abilities j and I trust tkat the knowledge you have had of my past conduct, will give you some generous impressions- in favour of my-future behaviour;—I do not, Gentlemen, here address your- prejudices, but your reason; —I do not apply myself to the .warmth of ycur persons, but to the candour of your hearts;—-1 have no object in view but the advancement of your welfare. On this basis only I build my hopes of success in the present opposition, and 1 aoubt not but the same wisdom, w-hich has hitherto directed your proceedings, will, on this occasion, distinguish between the evident friends, and the manifest enemies of. your prosperity. The men who endeavour to blast ypur peace can have no regard for your happiness; nor can thole entertain a disinterested zeal for your honour, who ofRcioufly obtrude themselves from ether wards to dictate what magistrate you shall chuse in your own.

Ths reputation of your ward, Gentlemen, was never mere at flake than at this critical period, and the question is simply, Whether you will be governed by strangers, or ruled by yourfclves? Whether you will neglect the recommendation of those whose welfare is immediately blended with your Ul Ii,ire, or listen to the voice of those to whom ytur prosperity must be whollv indifferent? Vof. I.'

Controversy, 269

Many who have importuned you in favour of the other candidate, so far from having votes, have not even the privilege of being citizens; yet, with a very extraordinary mo-" defty, they endeavour to force an Alderman • upon you, and^ to rescue you from what they cail the tyranny of your own inhabitants, they arrogantly claim a right of governing you despotically themselves.

Rouze, Gentlemen, to a just fense of , own importance, asd spurn with indignation the arguments of those, who, under the specious mark of restoring the liberty of your ward, are really desirous of treading you into staves. Let it not be recorded, that the inhabitants of so extensive a part of this great city, • were made the instruments of faction, and cheated out of their good fense by a few designing men, who aim at a dishonourable eminence by disturbing the peace of society. Be, as you have ever been, Gentlemen, careful-of your reputation. This will be a certain criterion for your decision; and let this decision either frustrate or crown my wisties, I shall eternally remain, with unalterable attachment and regard, Gentlemen,

Your faithful friend,

And feilow-citizen,


To the Worthy Inhabitants of the Ward of Farringdon Without.

Gentlemen, Jan* 2.

rPHE methods taken to oppose th? election of Mr.Wil Kee, are of a most scandalous nature, and bear that black complexion, whkh is ib apparently visible in the faces cf

all his enemies.

The stiff-necked China-man, by his own advertilement, betrays his weakness, and exposes the follv of those who prevailed on him to be a candidate.—A happy instrument of mere insignificancy !—Struck with thephrtnzy of pompous pride, he struts a god in his own dear opinion, while humble men lauj;h at this Gulliver in LVMput, and pity him as a token of their charity.

Next comes, with lusty stride, and noble vacancy of look, a Paper-hanger, to o.Ter you his services, without one mark of abilities, or any other claim for your ni-tice, -than by his being under the royal employment in the way of—hanging— his papers.

These two fore'd-meat halls were sent for your choice, but certainly are a great reflection on the Court of Aldermen; as every man must think- it a disgrace that such an ama-.^'ivr number of wifi heads in that respectable Court, should ever be disturbed with the nonsense of a swell'd Deputy, or the more solemn impertinence of the heavy-ey'd Eromivicb,

Mm u The

The day is arrived, when you are to give the most glorious proof of your love of LiBerty, and to grace this city with one of the noblest ornaments of the past and present age.—Let the tongue of clamour roar with discontent; let Aldermen murmur, Deputies look foolish, poor Ccmmon-Cuuncil-Men tremble, and serious Citizens run mad.—Let all these direful horrors happen, but never let them shake your firm resolution of electing the man in whom you can confide for the safety of your rights and liberties.—Pclicj'C me, there are some creatures of unsort:vir.g tempers, whose minus are poifjned v. iiii the rancour of prejudice, and whole implacable revenge is fixed on eternal hate.

I hope, by your aid, to fee Mr.Wjuij your Alderman.—I expect, in course of time, to behold him chi<-f magistrate of this great city j and I finally wish, from my heart, that by His assistance, the several Courts of Aldermen and Common-Council-Men, may be cleaned and purified against that happy year when he will be your Lord-Mayor.


To the Worthy and Independent Inhabitants of

the Ward of Farringdon Without. HTHE inhabitants of the Ward of Farringdon » Without cannot reasonably be angry with Mr. Brcmivich for offering himself a candidate, when it is considered that Mr. Brormvich, as Paper-Hanger to his Mayfly, must not refuse to obey the orders of the Board of Works.But it is apprehended, that the orders issued by the Ei aid of Works to the inhabitants will not meet with the fame ready compliance to elect him; because the Honest Freemen are net all Paper-Hangers to his Majesty, and therefore are not under the lame necessity of electing, as Mr, Browwhb is of being, a candidate.

to the Worthy Inhabitants of the Ward of Farringdon Without.

CiHTMMtN, Jan.i. A False and scandalous paper having been

distributed by the friends of Mr.W Hkes (iviih tl cir usual regard to truth) in order to prejudice me in your favour; I do declare that 1 never had, directly or indirectly, any fort of request or direction from the Board of Works, or other person, any ways relating to the election of an Alderman for this respectable ward, or any other election whatsoever. And if ll.e Reverend Mr. Hor N E will cnqrirc of his own brother, who has the honour of serving the royal family, under the direction of anjther board, he will be informed, that neither his bx»;ber, or his father, who also served the royal sarpily, ever received any vtders or directions respecting any public election. THOMAS BROMWICH.


Sir, Monday Noon, Jan.i.'

T This momeat receive the very extraordinary* appeal with which you honour me, and am most sincerely sorry to be able to contradict you.

My father did often in his life receive orders and instructions about elections which he never obeyed.

My brother-in-law, who has some hundreds a year in the Customs, and some few more as Librarian to her Majesty, did, la ft general election, canvass personally with Sir William Beauchamp Proctor.

I have answered you, Sir, as I will every man, however insignificant, who calls upon tne in his own name j though I know not what right you have to talk to the public of my family or private connexions; as little, I believe, as I should have to rake up the of the dead, or enquire from whose hands you received your first wife, or examine the domestic arrangement between yourself and your partner. JOHN HORNE.

To the Worthy Inhabitants of the Ward of Farringdon Without. Gentlemen, piNDING the sense of the ward to be so much in savour os John Wilkes, Esq; I declined the poll, not being willing to give any unnecefiary trouble to my friends; rhexefore beg y,ou will accept my sincere thanki for the favour intended, and am, Centlemen, Your most obliged humble servant, Jan.t. THOMAS BROMWICH.

To the Worthy Inhabitants of the Ward of Farringdon Without. Gentlemen, Freemen, and Fellow Citizens, T AM truly grateful to you for the honours this day receive in being elected Alderman of this, large, opulent, and respectable ward. Every power I derive from that high office, shall be employed in the preservation of the rights of the livery of London, and of all the freemen of this great metropolis. After the primary duty I owe to the county of Middlesex, I /hall consider the claim which you now have upon me, as demanding the utmost exertion of my poor abilities. I promise you a faithful and zealous attachment to your service, a diligent attendance on your business, and a steady attention to the interests of our ward.

From you, Gentlemen, I entreat on every occasion a full and early communication of whatever you judge of consequence to the prosperity of the ward, as well as to the wrlfare of this free city, and the support of hi trade snd commerce, which are of the utmost impotence to its own friatness, and to the

whole ■whole kingdom. I will always take a publicipirited, decided, and disinterested part; and I doubt not of support and ailistance in all my undertakings, for they shall be directed solely by a regard to the interests of the people of England, of this city in general, and our ward in particular. The near relation, in wHfth I now Hand to you, will, I hope, furnish me with frequent opportunities of knowing your sentiments in our common concerns, and every Gentleman of the ward shall have an

Remarks oit the Trial of Thomas Knight for the Murder of Robert Ball.

If I

•afy access, where they have lodged the- power* for the just exercise us which, I shall think myself in all instances accountable to my constituents. I am, Gentlemen, Freemen, and Fellow-Citizens, with gratitude and respect, your affectionate and obedient humble servant, JCw'. Bench Prison f0HN WILKES. SVIonuay, J an. 2, 1709. J

N. 6. On the closing of the Poll (which did not last two hours) the numbers were for Mr. Wilkes 255, Mr. Bromwich 69.

To the E D 1 T o R s of the

A S the fighting gentry of this metropolis may conclude from the acquittal of Thomas Knight, who was tried at the last Old Bailey Sessions, for the wilful murder of Robert Ball, in a boxing match, that such killing is justifiable, and not murder by the law of England, I beg leave to make some juridical remarks on that trial, in order to obviate the danger and fallacy of such conclusion.

The evidence appears to stand thus in the Sessions Paper.

There being a deficiency in a club-reckoning at a public house, the landlord complained of it to the chairman of the club, who ought to have seen that it was right; the deceased said it was a very bad thing, so words arose; the prisoner took the chairman's part; the prisoner bragged and said, he could lick the deceased; the deceased said, what signifies what he lays? Said one Anderson to the deceased, I will back you if you will fight him; then another would back the prisoner for half a guinea; they aggravated the deceased, and he said he would fight a guinea to half a guinea. The bet was made, and they agre.d to meet the next day by ten o'clock, or lose their money; they came and fought the next day. They fought first and lait about two or three and twenty minutes; the first onset lasted about six or seven minutes; the prisoner then had the worst of it, in the opinion of the witness. They set to again, and there was a fall j and the deceased could not get up any more, he was left behind; he never spoke after, and died on the same day the battle was sought.

The prisoner being informed of the death of the deceased, sa:d, "D—n bit eyes, I should nr. have fought, unless 1 had thought of Ulling of him.'*

The prisoner slid nothing himself in his own defence, but produced witnesses to prove that the deceased had many offers to make up the quarrel, but refused j on this evidence the Jury acquitted the prisoner.

In every cafe of homicide upon provocation, how great soever it be, if there is sufficient time for passion to subside, and for reason to interpose, such homicide will be murder.

Upcrj this f rinciple, deliberate fighting at


boxing, if death ensue, is in the eye of the law murder, for fighting or boxing is generally founded in deep revenge; and though a person should be drawn into a boxing matcbt not upon a motive so criminal, but meerly upon the punctilio of what the fighting gentry falsely call honour, it will not excuse j for he who deliberately seeketh the blood of another upon a private quarrel, acteth in defiance os all laws, both human and divin1, whatever his motive may be.

It will be murder, if the combatants appoint to fight the next day, or even upon the fame day, at such an interval, as that the passion might have subsided.

In every charge of murder, the facl of kUs~ fag being first proved, all the circumstances of accident, necessities or infirmity, are to be satisfactorily proved by the prisoner, unless they arise out of the evidence produced against him j for the Jaw presumeth the fact to have been founded in malice, until the contrary appeareth i and very right it is, that the law should so presume. The defendant in this instance standeth upon just the fame foot that every other defendant doth; the matters tending to justify, excuse, or alleviate, must appear in evidence before he can avail himself of them. t

In every cafe, wheic the point turneth upon the question, whether the homicide was committed wilfully and malicioufly, or under circumstances justifying, excusing, or alleviating y the matter of fact, viz. whether the fuels aU /edged by w.iy of juflifcation, excuse, or eilleviathn are true, is the proper-and only province of the jury. But whether upon a supposition of the truth of facts, such homicide be justified, excused, or alleviated, must be submitted to the judgment of the court.

For the construction the law putteth upon facts slated and agreed, or found by a jury, is in this, as in all other cafes, undoubted by the proper province of the court. In cafes of doubt and real difficulty, it is commonly recommended to the jury ro state facts and circumstances in a special verdict. But where the law is dear, the jury, under the direction, of the court in point of Utv, matters of fact being still left to their determination, may* M in z. ac*

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