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Who dainties love, shall beggars prove—fools-make feasts, and wife j men eat them.
Buy what thou hast no need of, and e'er long thou shalt fell thy necessaries.
At a great pennyworth pause a while; the bargain, by straightening thee in thy circumstances, may do thee more harm than good.
Many have been ruined by buying good pennyworths—'tis foolisti to lay out money in a purchase of repentance; wise men learn by others harms, but fools hardly by their cwn.
Silks and fattins, scarlets and velvets, put out the kitchen-fire.
The artificial wants of mankind are more numerous than the natural; and for one poor person, there are an hundred indigent.— A child and a fool imagine twenty (hillings, and twenty years, can never be spent— but always taking out of the mealtub, and never putting in, soon comes to the bottom—and when the well is dry, they know the worth of water.
If you would know the value of money, go and try to borrow some; for he that goes a borrowing, goes a sorrowing.
Fond pride of dress is sure a very curse,
E'er fancy you consult, consult your purse.
Pride is as loud a beggar as want, and a great deal more saucy.
'Tis easier to suppress the first defire, than satisfy all that follow it.
Great estates may venture more,
Pride breakfasted with Plenty, dined with Poverty, and supped with Infamy.
By getting in debt, you may in time lose your veracity; for the second vice is lying: the first is running in debt, and lying generally rides upon debt's back.
Poverty deprives a man of all spir rit and virtue.
'Tis hard for an empty bag ta stand upright.
Some when they have got their bargain, think little of payment; but creditors, poor Richard tells ns, have better memories than debtors; and likewise creditors are a superstitious sect—great observers of set days and times—and that those have a short Lent who owe money to be paid at Easter.
For age and want, save while you may,
*T iseasier to build two chimnies, than to keep one in fuel; so rather go to bed supperless, than rife ia debt.
•Experience keeps a dear school; but fools will learn in no other, and scarce in that; for it is true, we may give advice, but we cannot give conduct: however, remember, they that won't be counselled, cannot be helped; and if you will not hear Reason, she will certainly one day rap ym knuckles.
To VOL. I. or
The Oxford Magazine;
Resteclions on the Trial of the Re<v. Mr. Samuel John/on, in the Court of King's Bench, for a Libel, with an Anecdote of the Lord Chief Justice Jefferiks.
TH E R E is not an exclamation more frequent in the mouths of Christians, as well as political writers, than, that their own times are the worst that ever happened! The whole stream of history is a continued refutation of this opinion. But we read and are blind. The distresses of our forefathers do not make so strong an impression upon us as our ewh. We only read concerning theirs, and we soon forget them: we feel our own, and we keep the sensation alive by meditating upon it aftei wards. The oppofers of a ministry have generally been martyrs; and the pens, which were used to . wound their enemies, have too frequently proved weapons to wound themselves. Not only the out-lines of the lives of patriots have shewn a strong resemblance between them; but likewise their features, and the fliades of their portraits have heightened the similitude. I was struck with this thought lately on perusing the life of the rev. Mr. Samuel Johnson, who figured as a patriot in the reign of Charles and James II.
The ministry indeed treated him, as ministers do all their opponents—as a traitor to his king and an enemy t* Vol. h
his country. He was a friend and chaplain of the lord Russcl, who died a martyr by the hands of papists; and he was also a great friend to Iibewy, as appears from his writings against passive obedience. He had composed a piece on this subject, which was printed and entered at Stationers hall in 1683. I do not know whether, according to our modern ideas of terms, this might not be called pubr li/hing. But as it was suppressed and concealed, it could not be termed so in his time without a bull, if not a contradiction.
He was indeed carried before the privy council and examined by the lord keeper North, who asked him "whether he was the author of a book called Julian's Arts and Method to extirpate Christianity?" Having answered in the affirmative, he was interrogated, " Why, after a book had been so long entered at Stationers hall, it was not published?"—To this he replied, " that the nation was in too great a ferment to have the matter further debated at that time."—Upon this he was ordered to produce one of those books to the council, that it might be published if they approved of it. But h»
I i answered,
'answered, " that"/}/ liad suppressed gust 16S3, in the thirtf-ufth year of
the books himself; so that they were His majesty's reign. L. Jenkins.
now his own private thoughts, for To Anthony Church, keep
which he was not accountable to any cr of his majesty's prt
power upon-earth.1'- son at the Gatehouse.'"-"'
The council dismissed him at that The constancy which this gentletime, but sent for him thrice after- man (hewed when before the privy wards, pressed the seme thing, upon council ii similar to that of a modern him, and received the seme answers; patriot, when examined by the seupon which account they committed cretaries of state. The observation him to the Gatehousc, by the fellow- Mr. Johnson made in. his desence, ing curious warrant. though agreeable to the dictates of "Sir Leoline Jenkins, knight, reason and common fense, would not one of his majesty's most ho- have been admitted as valid among nourable privy council, and the prosefibra of modern law; " he principal secretary cf state." said he had surpressed the books WHEREAS Samuel Johnson, . himself,-so that they were now his clerk, hath (as appeared! by in- private thoughts, for 'which he iuas formation upon oath)' caused three not accountable to any power u£:n thousand copies of a certain book, earth." This was not admitted jncalled Julian's Arts to extirpate deed by the ministrv in those days ^ Christianity, &c. to be printed, \ncr- n°r has it "been admitted by those, dtr to thepulliski::g thereof, and had who have 'been at the helm in bur's: the said three thousand copies in his "> far all ministries have been alike, custody, and hath delivered the fame It is not a little pleasant to find the to a friend, to be kept until hesoall ministry in Johnson's days sufteejing see it fit time for the publishing that this bock was treasonable, though thereof, and refuscth upon his e,'- they had not seen a line of it. But mination to produce any of the ministers are affected much in the find printed copies, or to discover same mariner as the renowned Don where or in whose custody the fame Quixote—ihe imagined every thing ire. And whereas it isyÆvsuspecl- he saw to be an enchanted castle; ed that the said book is a 'treasonable a"d they suspect every writing they" book, and intended to be published ZX. read, nay even that which'they hare' such time or times, as it shall be of tot seen, to be treasonable. The mini-' dangerous consequence to the public ft^rs in Johnson's days seem even to] peace to doit: these are therefore, have surpassed their successors; for in his majesty's name, to will and re-, though they did not know a single quire you to take the body of the sentence of his book, they roundly said Samuel Johnson into your cus- asserted that it would be of dangerous tody in his majesty's prison of the consequence to the public peace 'whenever Gafehouso, and him safely to keep *' was published. They were indeed there, until he discover the said CO- mistaken; but it is no new thing to pies; to the end that if they be trea- &y that of a ministry. finable, they may be effectually pro- Poor Johnson was to be kept in ceeded upon nnisupprrssed, or he the csose custody, till he discovered the laid Samuel Johnson be otherwise de- copies he had printed; and if they livered by due course of law. And so»u!d have proved to be treasonable, for so doing this shall be your war- they were then to be proceeded upon rant. Given under my hand and and suppressed. But they had been seal at Whitehall, the 3d day of Au- faprtjfed before by the author him-'
Rcf.eSions on the Trial cf the Rev. Mr. Samuel Jchnfin. 2^7 same house, and upon a fresh search the messenger sound the second place, but missed the third. The ministry, being thus disapppinted, had recourse to promises, and a considerable sum, besides the favour of the court (for the ministry at that time could bribe, as well as threaten) was offered for one of the cqpies, to the person in whose hands, they were supposed to. be—but it was nobly refused.
Our author was consequently bailed by two of his friends in a bond of a 1000/. and himself in another of the same sum; and all the measures of the court to procure a copy of his book being frustrated, the prosecution was dropped.
Bjit the matter did not rest here;— Johnson was afterwards brought to a trial in the King's Bench on February 11, 1683-4; t'le prosecution being begun and carried on by the interest of the duke of York. Upon the tryal, Mr. Wallop, f Johnlon's counsel] urged; " That he had offended against no law of the land; that the book taken together was in*, nocent, but any treatise might be made criminal, if dealt with, as those who drew up the information had. dealt with this." , However, the ordinary course oflaw was observed, and the information was grounded, as usual'in such cases, upon some obnoxious passages extracted frorn the book. , ^ On the other hand, the lord chief justice Jefferies upbraided Mr. Johnson, for meddling with what did not belong to him, and told him, with a sneer, that he would give him a text, which was, let every man study to be quiet and mind his own business—tO, this Mr. Johnson replied—that he did mind his own business, as sn Englishman,, when he wrote that book. , •
After this expression of the judge, the reader need not be informed that Mr. Johnson w;ts cast. His sentence 1 i z wa»
self;- and therefore what need was there for their proceeding upon them? And if they had not proved treasonable after the proceeding of the ministry, what recojnpence or indemnification was to have been made to Johnson for his false imprisonment, and the calumny he suffered from the bare suspicion of treason? These are questions, which will not admit of an easy answer. They are questions which shew the vast difference between those, who were in the administration then, and those who have been at the helm in our remembrance.
I cannot help taking notice that the rev. Samuel Johnson had more faithful friends than our modern patriot. His friends never deserted him, but the friends of the modern patriot knew not what it was to be faithful. His very domestics were bribed to betray and rob their master: and the very theft was produced in evidence to cast him, who, in due course of law, ought to have hanged the person who committed it. The person himself has made a very odd affidavit on this occasion; I should be sorry for him if it were not true, and more sorry for his master, if it did not prove so in every particular. The decision will soon be given by our superiors; and I wilh I may always fay, as I have said, by our betters.
The advantage which Johnson had over, our modem patriot appeara from hence, that though a messenger was sent to the house, where, by the information, the copies of his books were deposited, yet he could not find them. This was more extraordinary, because, after the first search, Johnson's friends apprehending a further search, and not thinking them secure enough, had removed them; and when the messenger searched again he found the first place, but missed the second; after this they were removed to a thwd place in th«
wa6 to pay five hundred marks, to find On his trial, Johnson was fensureties for his good behaviour for a tenced to lland on the pillory at Payear, and to be committed to the lace Yard, Westminster; and at ChaKing's Bench till this be paid and ring-Cross, and the Royal Exchange; done.—His book was likewise sen- to pay a fine os five hundred marks, tenced to be burnt by the hands of the and to be whipped from Newgate to commcn hangman. Tyburn. This sentence was rigoNot being able to pay his fine, he rously executed on the first of Decontinued a prisoner. But he soon cember, after he had been degraded obtained the liberties by the assistance and deprived by the ecclesiastical of his friends, who relieved his neces- court. He endured the whipping not sities, and enabled him to print fe- only with firmness, with intrepidity, veral pieces against popery, and to but likewise with alacrity: and, notdisperse them about the country, withstanding his sufferings, still con'True patriots we find are never to be tinued to oppose the measures of the ■ intimidated by sufferings. Persecu- court, till the Revolution put an end • tion rather animates them, and both to those measures, and to his makes them considerable in the eyes sufferings.
of the vulgar, as well as the great, The ministry who proceeded
Mr. Samuel Johnson still continu- against him were undoubtedly
ed his patriotic'publications, not- thought to be in the right by their
withstanding his sufferings; and on own creatures and party, and the
the encampment of the army upon sentence pronounced against him was
Hounflow Heath, published anhumble then esteemed to be just and legal.
address to all the Enghstt Protestants in But, as Horace fays " Non si male
the army. He dispersed about one nunc et olim sic erit." For the'pro*
thousand' copies of this paper, when ceedings against him were reversed by
«he reft of the impression was seized, the parliament June 11, 1689, and
and he himself was put into close even the house os lords presented tnva
custody for his second trial in the addresses to king William the fame
court ofKing's Bench. Thebehavi- year, recommending Mr. Samuel
euros the Marshal of the King's Bench Johnson to preferment,
prison to him at this time needs no May every patriot oppressed by
particular notice; for the marshals men in power, receive an equal if
of that prison have been always noted not a better recompence for their
for their singular humanity and polite- public spirit; and experience the
fiefs to the state prisoners committed fame vicissitude in their fortunes!
to their charge. **•* Coll. Oxon. M. P. C.
Experiments and Observations on Water. By Thomas Percival, M. D.
rT> HIS Essay, the Author fays, his little work more diffusively use, I was intended only to be com- ful, induced him to publish it; as in muted to. the Royal Society: and it he has evidently demonstrated the many of the experiments contained in influence of water on the health of it have been laid before that learned mankind. The following instances body. But the importance of the serve to shew the effects of certain" subject, and the desire of rendering waters on the human body.