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They're truly good, and rise supremely blest,
To the Rev. JOHN HOR N E>
And awful truths, without a fear, impart!
Thy country's rights, thy midnight labours
And with a Sidney's join thy honour'd
Superior thou to ev'ry threat shalt rise,
Nor Ihall the murd'rer, fee to Man and"
Tho" fav'd by pow'r, escape thy painful rod j
True to thy conscience, to thy country true,
P shalt, blushing, all his sailings own,
Sigh o'er his loss, and o'er his triumphs
His hir'd assassins fill his breast with shame,
O! save thy country and thy countries laws?
Smile in his pains, and great in suffring
In health, an honest patriet own in thee,
On the report that 4 certain Clergyman hai it
A ND is it true? and can it be?
No Minister shall tame him.
But find, ere next November,
Become a righteous Member,
To cur CORRESPONDENTS.
'/ HE Recipe t) cure Sleep, the Preamble'toa Grant from an Indian King, T. Warwick?* Pa"7 raphrase, the scribbler, No. II. the Epistle from Constant to the Rev, Mr. W. the Lines signed Tacitus, those signed J. A. and those on seeing an Engraving os Lady Charlotte CrafijUld and her Child, shall he'inserted in the Supplement. Mr. Lows'*s Computations of the Eclipses for 1769, are rendered useless by the Publication ofthe jilmanacks, and those for 1770, we presumeK Will sot be interesting to our Readers at so distant a Period. Carolus has mistaken the Ænigma in cur last; We should be obliged to him is he would try again, as his Description is very pretty, though he is entirely mistaken. . rf. R. ajhs the following Question, Whether if there had never been any Vice, there would have been any Virtus?
On Monday the \6th of January, 1769, will be piibliflied*
Price Six-pence, : . • • npHE SUPPLEMENT to the OXFORD A MAGAZINE, Volume I. Containing great Variety of interesting Matter, together with a complete Index, and three very-curious Copper-plates from Original Designs, ■ •
[ 213 3
ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR.
LETTER V. (Continued from p. 180.)
ON account of the imperfect mannerin which the articles defines, the Greeks, who have no articles correspondent to it, supply its place by suppressing or omitting their definitive article. Agreeable to this doc
In order to render both parts o speech equally definite, /". e. the adjective as well as the substantive, the adjective itself assumes an Article before it, that it may shew or intimate a reference to some Jingle person or
trine is that observation of Apollo- thing only. Thus we say Trypho The nius. " Those things which are Grammarian.
sometimes understood indefinitely, be come definite as to their person, by the insertion of the Article."— But Gaza is more explicit; " the article, fays he, causes, a review within the mind, of something known before in the texture of the discourse." Thqs if any one fays, according to the Greek form, man came, which is the fame as when we fay in English A man came" it is not evident of whom" he speaks: but if he fays, " The man came," then it is evident; for he speaks of some person known before."—Even in English, where the article A cannot be used, as in plurals, its force Is expressed by the omission of it as in the Greeks. ** Those are The men," means that they are individuals of whom we have some knowledge. Those are men, without the Article, means no more than that they are so many vague and uncertain individuals.
But tho' the Greeks have no article equivalent to the English article A, yet nothing can be nearer related than their o, to our article The. This will appear from the attributes of the Greek article, as described by Apollonius. "The particular attribute of the article, fays our author, is that reference which implies some certain person already mentioned. For nouns of themselves imply not reference, unless they take to them the ArTicle, whose peculiar character is reference. And again, the article indicates a pre-establijlied acquaintance" Yol.l.
Even appellations, or common names, assume the force of proper names merely, by the help of the article. Thus, in English, City is. a name common to many places;. Speaker a name common to many men; and House a name common to many dwellings: but if you prefix the article, The city, means our metropolis; The speaker, a high officer, in the British parliament; and The house, the particular place wherein the members of parliament assemble.
By an easy transition the article comes to denote eminence, as well as reference. Thus, among the Greeks, The poet meant Homer, and The Stagyrite meant Aristotle; not because there were not other poets besides Homer, nor because there were not many Stagyrites besides Aristotle; but. because none were equally illustrious for their poetry and philosophy.
On this principle Ar.-stotie asserts, that it is not the fame thing to assert that " Pleasure is a good, or the good." The first expression only makes it a common object of desire, upon a level with many others, which daily raise our wishes; the last sup^ poses it, that supreme and fo-vereign good, the ultimate end of all our actions and endeavours.
It has already been said, that " the article has no meaning bat whe* joined with some other werd." To what words may it then be joined? To such as require defining; for it it by nature a definitive.. And I'.'hat E e. wortii words are these? Not those which are already as definite as they can be; nor yet those, which, being indefinite, cannot properly be etlierwife. It follows, then, that the words must be those, which, tho' definite, are yet capable of becoming definite ly means of the ARTICLE.
On these principles we perceive the reason, why it is absurd to say, THE /, or The thou, because nothing Can make those pronouns more definite, than they are. The fame may be said of proper names, when used according to their original design. For the same reason, we cannot say in English, The both, because these words, in their own nature, are each of them perfeilly defined; so that to define them again,' would be quite superfluous. Thus, if it be said, "I have read Both poets;" this plainly indicates a definite pair, of wheni some mention has been made already. On the contrary, if it be said, " I have read Two poets," this may mean any pair out of all that ever existed. And this numeral, being in this fense indefinite (as indeed all others are) is forced to ajsume the Article, whenever it would become definite. Thus it is, that the two means nearly the fame thing as, Both.'
When the article is placed before an adjective, followed by a substantive, it extends its power as well thro' the substantive as the adjective, and equally contributes to define them both.
As some words admit no article, because they are, by nature, as definite as they can be, so there are others, which admit it not, because they are not to be defined at all. Of this sort are all inierrogaii<ves. If we question about substances, we cannot fay, "the who is this? bat, who is this t" Hence Apollonius itiles the interrogative n.ho, the most 'contrary, ©n most averse to Articles. The
lame may be said with respect to qualities and quantities of both kinds. We fay, ivitheut an Article, "What fort of? How many? How great?" The reason is, that the article the respeds beings already known^ Intcrrcgatives respect beings about which we are ignorant; for interrogation is superfluous concerning what we know.
from what has been delivered it will appear, that the article A is used in a vague sense to point out one single thing in other respects indefinite, and not known, or mentioned before. The determines what particular, thing is weaned: and generally implies that it was mentioned before, or if of some eminence. Instead of A we write an, before words beginning with h silent, and all the vowels excepting y and w. The reason why it is. omitted before y and w, is, because those letters, as part of a diphthong at the beginning of a word, require such an effort in the pronunciation, as does not easily admit of an before them. In other cafes, the article an coalesces with the vowel which it precedes; but in this the effort of pronouncing separates ' the article, and prevents the disagreeable consequence of a sensible hiatus.
A substantive without an article is taken in its widest fense; thus, man means all mankind. " Man that is. born of a woman hath but a soor(: time to live." A man means some one of that kind indefinitely; Th§ man means that particular man whq is spoken of: the former has therefore, in this fense, been called the indefinite, and the latter the definite Article. The translators of the. New .Testament render Acts xxii. 4. "I persecuted this way Iothe death." But as the Apostle does not mean any particular fort of death, but death in general, the definite article should; have been omitted; and we moulds read " unto death," without the ar