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a barrister, who, if he has any assur- seen sleeping in the stall of some ca

ance and interest, may not stand a very

Food chance of fitting upon the bench, know, indeed, that a perfeft knowledge of the laws is the causa fine qua non of preferment among the gentlemen of the long robe, and that he only, who has figured at the bar, c»n have any hopes of sitting upon the bench. Yet I can scarce think for all this, that every one who sits upon the bench hasViner's Short Abridgment of the Law, in twenty-four volumes in folio, by heart, which is scarce a fiftieth part of the law books, which are to be consulted ; any more than I can believe that there is any beneficed clergyman who has the four gospels by heart, which arc not at most a1 twentieth part of the Bible. But succession is a great advantage in behalf of the law department. Without a •vacuum, the Newtonian

thedral. If a plan of this kind were pursued, the outcry made against pluralities aud non-residence would be entirely stopped; for the person who only inveighs against pluralities, is he that has not a Jingle benefice ; and he who exclaims against non-residence, is generally a non-resident in the most literal fense;—one who has no living to reside upon.

But this is not all the advantages which the ehurch would receive from this progressive motion. The laitywould be as m»ch benefited by this the clergy themselves. By these means they would get rid of i parson whom they could neither cheat nor starve, which they always look upon as a very great hardship; and so indeed it is. In his room they might meet with one of a more'pliant aild passive disposition; and, by cheating

'philosophers assure us, there can be him, might make up what they paid, no motion: in the law we frequently or, as they express it, lost by his premeet with this tiacuum, by the super- decessor, who knew how to vindicate

fediflg of the person at the head of * that department. But the church is a constant plenum, in which there can be neither' motion nor promotion: for if the head is never moved, the legs must consequently stand still. The lord high chancellor seems to hold his post only durantc bene placito, or the pleasure of the king; but the lord primate keeps his durante <viia. As the former is superseded commonly for reasons of state, I think that the arguments which justify his removal, would justify the Removal of the other great officer likewise. If the government would think as I do, the succession in the ■ scale cf church government would be so great, that there is hardly a beneficed clergyman, who would not have some prospect of wearing the pall j and ,ihe priest, who is now bearing the heat of the day, and


his rights. Thus harmony would be introduced between the clergy artd the laity; than which nothing is, more productive of the interests of religion. • '.

The only reasons I can assign for the little success that the ministers of the established church have amongst their parishioners may be reduced to these—they do not like their minister at first, and. therefore they ncill not like him—or they grow tired of him, and long to have a new one. Both these formidable reasons are obviated by this scheme; for the removal of inferior clergymen to livings, from small livings to greater, and from greater to the highest preferments in the church, would be so quick, that no minister could stay long enough among his parishioners to make them tired of him, or to prevent them from satiating their appetite after

starving upon the scanty reward os novelty. The minister, whom a con labours,

might, e'er long, be

gregation does not like, because they


On the Formation of the Heart os Man, and other Animals. ^07 do not, or ivill not like him, and for government; for then, by the qukk

no otherYeason, will, by his removal, take away the cause of their disgust; and stand a chance not only of extricating himself from so disagreeable a situation, but likewise ipay possibly change his former flock for one of more gratitude and more reason. Novelty Is the basis and chief support of Methodism; I tremble, therefore, for the proprietors of the Tabernacle and the Foundery, if this scheme should meet with the approbation of

succession of priests in every church, there would be found so much no- . velty, besides so much reason, in the established church, that unless mo- ■ ther Cole should be exhibited at the Tabernacle, and Maw-worm at the Foundery, the self-inspired Apostles, • and self-consecrated primates of Methodism, must preach to empty houses, and feel the pangs and throes of empty purses. ;, .... • c.

CoU. Jes. Oxov. R.

To tfo Editors os the OX

WOnderful are the works of God every where, but especially in the formation of the heart of man, and other animals. To give 3 full and perfect account of the particulars of its curious mechanism, is more than mortal man can do; yet the fine description of it might be beautifully' displayed by an able pen, and afford entertaining articles enough to compose a volume.-^-See Dr. Lonxr on the subject. '

. But my present intention is only to take notice of one curious particular appertaining to its stupendous structure, and which no one author, that I know of, except the great Boerhaave in his Instilutiones Mediae, p. 88, has took the least notice of; that is, the asynchronous pulsation of the two coronary arteries of the heart to that of all the other arteries of the feody. . • .' • ■

To render the brief account of this carious phœnomenon attending the heart as easily intelligible to such as inake not anatomy their study, as possible, (and which, as it is known but to few, I am hereby desirous to render public to many) they are first tCt know, that there are two arteries, that, twisting like vine tendrils, surround the body, and penetrate the fubilar-ce °f 'be heart, for us. heat


and action flows to its nourishment. I cannot think that crude blood can be the proximate proper matter of that accretion; as poiii blv I may purposely treat of hereafter. v . ..

These two arteries, called coronary, because they, as it were, crown that noble bowel, arise, or spring out, from the aorta, or great artery, before it passes through the pericardium, or membranous bag inclosing 1 the heart, full of a watery fluid, to keep it moist; and moveable. These two blood vessels extend many little branches from the basis of the heart to its cone, of which the greatest, number, and longest, are very conspicuous on the left fide. There are just so many coronary veins to answer the other,' to carry back the refluent blood into the -vena ca-va, or greats" hollow vein, and which are empty, while those of the body are full.

Now, what is very wonderful, the blood, in its circulation,, enters into; the two coronary arteries at a time, asynchronous to that in, which it enters the other arteries of the body: that is to fay, their pulsation is not at the fame time with that of the other arteries, but that they act when the others rest, and 'vice -versa.'

Neither, from the present circumstances, can it possibly be otherways;

» 4 * . . W fi» for the direction of these two coronary arteries, with respect to the course of the blood through the aorta, or great trunk, is fiich as entirely Hops the transit of the blood through them, whilst the heart is in its systole, or Hate of com. action. a good vegetable seed,- ex traduce, does not always preserve its soundness and perfection; but a puny and vitiated feed, or vegetable, often follows, either thro' the badness or unfitness of the foil or situatidn. May riot the homuncio, thro' the faultiness of the aceeding juices, that serve to

1 his is very apparent to those who consider in what a retrograde manner they arise, making very acute angles to that part of the aorta which is nearest that ventricle.

Besides the muscular substance of the heart, on which these two coronary arteries are distributed, is, during its systole, or contraction, in so firm and compacted a state, as is very unfavourable for the free passage of the blood in circulation through its substance at this juncture. These are the several causes that prevent the blood's entrance into these coronary arteries at the fame time in which, by the pulsation of the heart, it enters the other arteries all over the body.

That the blood when impelled out of the left ventricle of the heart into the aorta, or great artery, makes immediately in the cessation of the impelling power a considerable pufli, or reaction back again, may be reasonably inferred from the known use of the semi-lunar valves, and others, belonging to that bowel: and from the resistance of the sides of the arte- . ries, and the biood with which they are replete, must necessarily make to its progressive motion. «

Now if the impetus with which the blood recoils on the valves, be sufficient to raise them up, surely it mult enter the two coronary arteries

at this time, and this only, especially as the relaxed state of the heart, now in its diastole, as well as the direction of the two arteries themselves, so remarkably concur in favouring such a transit. And that this is the very cafe in this singular contrivance and' mechanism, any one, who will, may soon satisfy himself by autopsy, on viewing a frog opened, or other small animals; when he may behold the heait become very red at the beginning of each diastole, or relaxed state, when the ventricle is empty, and before filled again, and to continue so during the whole time of its relaxation, till the commencement of 'its systole, when upon'the next contraction, the substance of the heart directly becomes white, and so continues during- the whole time of its



What greater demonstration can be required, than what these remarkably concurrent circumstances afford, that the blood does enter the two coronary arteries during the heart's diastole, or the opening thereof, and cannot in the least during its systole, or shutting thereof; when it is forced' into the aorta, or main artery, and thence through all the other, except the aforesaid two coronary ones?

But in what manner this particular contrivance of supplying the heart with its blood during the diastole was designed to influence each succeeding systole, with many other grand secrets belonging to the fame, the great Ko^ioynwo-lij? only knows.

Leigh, Yours,
Dec. 10, 1768. J. COOK.

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dilate it, in its growth, be so impregnated in the embrio, as to prejudice its tender texture, and corrupt and alter its original stamen? Still recurs the old proposition, How can be communicated a principle capable of producing the small-pox,

Some Theological Questions answered. t6§

which was discharged from both parents before cohabitation? Must we admit of separate, independent, and self-existent powers of homunciojhip i or something like insipid f properties in chymistry; which by the action of a menstruum, produce qualities that lay dormant, and could, not Other*

wife exert themselves?

I am, Gentlemen, yours,

Leicestriensis, neither a Surgeon nor Physician, Leicester, Dec. 17, 1768.

-|- Boyle fays in his Experiments, Safortm ex 'injipido, per menfiruum evocari.

To the Authors of the OXFORD MAGAZINE. I Gentlemen,

Your repeated favours in inserting my answers to the two first theological queries, encourage me to, fend you my answer to the third, which may be considered likewise as an answer to the fourth, since both questions relate to the fame subject. Iam, Gentlemen, yours,


THE doctrine of a Providence is a fundamental point in theology, and is necessarily inferred from the existence of a Deity. However true and certain the doctrine is in itself, the inquisitive mind of man has embarrassed the subject with many difficulties and objections, that arise from our limited views of the Divine Administration. The question before us supposes events to happen in a method commonly called Providential, or by Chance, or by some establiffied laws or rules implanted in the nature of things at the creation.

First, I must beg leave to premise, that in all inquiries the terms of the question should be clearly understood, for unless precise and determinate ideas are affixed to our words, confusion and perplexity will inevitably ensue. This observation may justly be applied to the word chance, which . is only a negative term, and has no, determinate meaning. When we cannot, discern the immediate cause o'f

any of effect, we ascribe it to chance, but chance is a mere chimera, existing only in imagination. It is an acknowledged axiom in philosophy, that there can be no effect without a cause; no events therefore can happen by themselves. Perhaps, it may be said, that some events happen by an occult principle, which we denominate chante: in strictness of speech, the efficient and primary cause of all events is unknown, I mean in respect to the mode of operation. All final causes are only effects of the first cause: when we trace events to final causes, the eye of reason grows dial, and becomes incapable of exploring; the first link in the great chain of nature. No events are to be ascribed to chance, on account cf oar ignorance of their causes, since we are equally ignorant of the manner by which the first cause influences events of whatever kind. Thp only diirerepee is, that in events, said to happen by chance, there is no vifii-te co\t~

asctica section of cause and effect, whereas in regular and nnifonn operations,

t'.e connection is more apparent. We

JliVC no rC^tlOn tO suppose chance to

lave try share in the constitution of an onxvcWe formed by a God es

It remaias thTefbre to examine,

»ir»b«r fhofe tilings that are comt-orily edisd Providential, do not $.**ft.' by some csabliihed laws or rah?* ir-plantcd in the nature of *Junpi at "the creation. In respect to aatrral events, the continual interpetition cf the Deity is neceslary: icr matter is incapable of obeying ivy laws, being in its nature merely psti've, and void of any active principle. All bodies of matter cease to eu whenever the impetus that impels them to action is withdrawn : the impetus that was the original of motion is necesiary to continue it: for instance, the motions of the heavenly bodies would have ceased on account of the obstructions that would happen in a series of ages, unless they were preserved in regular Order by a superintending Power. The centripetal and centrifugal forces havn been Called: (fitou v cvyxptdtti tm. roi^eta, *et K:xo; 41 imx{i»/lai: by which strong metaphor is expressed the attraction ind aversion of the heavenly bodies in respect to the center. These forces Are contrary to each other, and would mutually clafli, if some unerring hand did not continually preserve a balance. From the varieties of r ation in the heavenly bodies, a tenstant regulation from time to time it sufficiently evident. If we descend firm the heavens to the earth, we Sl-nll discern additional proofs of a constant interposition. Here the face cf nature is continually varying; delfts,conflagrations,and earthquakes, tapper* in different places, not by virtue rf any original laws or rules implanted in the nature of things at the creation j for they woulst be uni

verfal, not local. If the phœnomena of natnre were exactly uniform, fherf might be some pretext to alledge an original establishment of laws or rules without any particular interposition of Providence, 'hut''since there are diversities of operations in the course of nature, we must of necessity eon-, elude that it is God, who continually worketh all in all, and disposes alt events according to the purposes of his own will.

The hypothesis of a regular concatenation of causes and effects established at the creation is consonant to the Epicurean philosophy, whiclt supposes the Deity to exist in a state of inactivity, not at all concerning himself with the affairs of the world. This system of theology is very de»rogatory to the perfections of- that Being, in 'whom we live, mpvt, and have our Beings. The Deity fills infinite space with his presence; he is endued with the most consummate wisdom; he is armed with omnipotence, and his goodness is infinite: hence he is both enabled and disposed to exert himself not only in respect to our globe, but to all the Other globes that adorn the vast expanse. He employs some exalted beings as. the ministers of his universal Providence,, and they, with humble revev rence, obey the divine fiat. He has not resigned the rteins of governmentto a blind unintelligent principle called cfianee; neither has he fixed the laws of the Universe at the creation, in such a manner, as to preclude any farther interposition. He' did indeed 'conceive an extensive plan of government, and is continually acting in the execution of that plan.

His Providence is not confined to the operations of matter, the intellectual world is enlightened and directed by him, either immediately or mediately, by subordinate spirits. In what manner superior spirits may act upon the soul of man is uncertain;

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