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The Address of a Schoolmafter,

time, and exacts service, that merits ten; on which side lies the obligation? I have had the care of a public school these seventeen years; my salary five shillings and five-pence a week, or three pounds eleven shillings and four-pence a quarter; whereas, a journeyman joiner, who, perhaps knows not a letter, earns nine; an exciseman, that can't spell, but is dextrous at figures, eighteen shillings a week.

In my own cafe, I do not recollect, in all my time, any additional favour, though sometimes solicited. Was I to make the public privy to these hardlhips, would they believe, I lived in an opulent borough f And would they not rather fix my meridian in Scotland or V/ales? I am not singular in my opinion, that an antien t corporation, of the first accauntfor trade and opulence, and, as I am informed, for its justice and humanity, might purchase no small addition to its honour and glory, by putting literature on a more respectable foot; as not suffering science to languish, even to death and annihilation. Masters might possibly be had, even on baser terms; but all masters are »ot tsachers; and here, the genius of your town seems to beseech you to vindicate her fame; and what member of her community is so mean, so sordid, so insensible to her cry, as not to sympathize in her concerns, which are really his own? A stranger arrives; a stranger always enquires about literary establishments; and forms a judgment of your taste for letters and politeness, from the attention you pay to your public seminaries. What is their figure? How are their interests supported? If the same numerical sums were allowed inthejudicious and generous æraof a learned queen, (I need not inform a person of your learning and sagacity)

to a leading Alderman, &C. 179

Elizabeth, my income was . more than equal to fifty pounds a year, of the present value; with which a teacher of a liberal education might make a decent appearance, to the credit of the community his patrons; be enabled to purchase a collection of authors proper for his information, fee better fort of company, where his abilities might have play; and meet with countenance and veneration, where he may now find envy and contempt.

A twittering, growling, and devotion-disturbing organist; a levity and vanity - inculcating dancingmaster; and an useless time-abuling puppy, called a fidler, fliall each annually pocket. hardly so little as & fat hundred; a crier sixty; a parish clerk and sexton forty or fifty pounds; whilst an excellent grammarian, whose business is the cultivating and reforming, what every man pretends to value up to its dignity, Misunderstanding, is treated worse than the whole group; he puts up with —fourteen pounds, five shillings and four-pence!—0 temporal O mores f was never applied with more propriety. He, who has the chief hand in informing gentlemen, is not so well provided for as a livery rascal, a breaker of horses, or a tutor ot* dogs. Think on these things, and . the Lord give you, and your brethren, grace, to do justice, love mercy, and walk humbly,—the earnest prayer of, Sir, yours, &c.

M A X I M.

Time is the architype of Toolgrinders; whilst he is giving us a, fine edge, experience; he is wearing out our blade, with old age; and makes m good for something, and fit for use, and to manage the world, when we are about to leave the world.

HER Majesty having presented a very elegant coach to .her elder brother the Duke of Mecklenburg, we thought au Engraving of it would be agreeable to our readers, and .have therefore given one: it requires no description.


AN Article is a word never used by itself, but always joined with some other word, to define, or shew, the extant of its signification. The reason and use of articles may be thus explained. The visible and individual substances are too numerous to admit, each, a particular name. To remedy this defect, when any individual occurs, which either wants a proper name, or has one which is unknown, we ascertain and define it as well as we can, by referring it to its species; or, if the species be unknown, by referring it to some germs. Thus when we behold an object with a- head, and limbs endued with sensation and self-motion, if we know it not as an individual, we refer it to its proper species, and call it—dog, ot lion, Sec. But if none of these names be right, we have recourse to the genus, and call it an animal.

But this is not sufficient. Supposing the object we are looking at be neither a /secies, nor a genus, What is it then? What? but an individual? Wemay ask farther, whether it be kno-mn, or unknown? or seen now, for the first time, or seen lesore, and now remembered? By this process we arrive at the use of the two English Articles, A, and The.

A respects our first perception, and denotes individuals as unknown; The respects our secondary perception, and denotes individuals, as known. An example may render this more plain. Should I see an object pass by which I never saw before, what do I say ?—There goes A beggar with A long beard."—The man goes away; ana, a week afterwards, I see him again. What do I fay then? -—"There goes The beggar with The long beard."—The article only is changed, the rest of the sentence remains unaltered.

But though this change be so minute, the individual at first unknown and •vague, is recognized as something known, merely by means of the latter article, which tacitly intimates a previous acquaintance.

Though the articles A and The are distinguished into indefinite and definite, yet in one sense they are both definitives ; because they circumsiribe the extent of the genera and species, by reducing them so as to denote individuals. The difference, however, is this; the article A leaves the individual itself un ascertained; whereas the article The ascertains the individual also, and is the strictest definitive of the two.

[ To be continued. ]


WE are much obliged to Mr. John Lovje for his computations of the Eclipses, &c. to Tacitus for his Poem; to J. W. for his short Epistle, and to T. Allen, for his Mathematical Question; all of which shall, if possible, be inserted in our next. Trebor Da/fur is too incorrect for publication. Ruelyat must excuse us if we omit inserting his curious Miscellany. We shall, however, give a sample:

O was but Virtue permanent,

And Justice not allow''d to steep-oh. Odds then, have at the P—rl—/; I spy should end the game at Peep-bo. All our other Correspondents favours shall be inserted as soon as possible. [ 18' ]

Jteremony es the Reception es a Nun9 communicated to us ty a Gentleman now at Dunkirk. Continuedfrom our lajl, p, 144..

The Ceremony os taking the black VnU

THE ceremony of taking the black veil is as follows: When the curtain belonging to the grate of the choir is drawn back, the young nun is discovered sitting in her white veil at the table, with two wax-candles, one en each side, and on each side of the candles is a flower-pot with artificial flowers; between these is a crucifix, and, leaning against the crucifix, a parchment scroll, containing her vows; and behind these a pen and ink, in order to sign them: in her hand slie holds a book, which Ihe is reading in order to prepare her for communion; on her left hand sis a nun on a chair; and before her stands a large wax-candle, placed in a silver candleirick upon the ground; the nun is there to instruct her during the ceremony. This large candle is the fame that she held during the ceremony of taking the-white veil, and after this day it is consecrated to the service of the church. Three ecclesiastics attend at this procession, as there did at the ceremony of taking the white veil. They begin the hymn of Veni Creator, in singing which, they are joined by the nuns. In or about the miudle, the priest leaves off, and the hymn is finished *by the nuns, who are ranged round the choir in the fame order as at the ceremony of taking the white veil. When I have concludes my account of this ceremony, I mail lay before the reader an account of a nun's laying in state. After Veni Creator, the three priests begin high mass; the nun continues sitting rn the fame posture at the table, except at those parts where it is proper for her to kneel; about the middle of the mass, the three priests descend from the altar, and come forward to the grate, where they scat themsdves, while a fourth priest, appointed for that purpose, ascends the pulpit, which itands close to the grate, and preaches the professional sermon; in which he exhorts both the person received, and the nuns in general, to a religious observance of the duties of their order, and to cultivate friendship and unity amongst each other; recommending to the young nun to examine herself strictly, whether she thought herself able to discharge the vows ihe was going to make, and to persist in her resolution during the remainder of her days. The sermon being enjed, the priest returns to the altar, and fays part of the mass; then they return to the grate, aiid feat themselves as before, and stie is conducted to the grate by the nun appointed. She holds in her hand a large waxcandle, and kneels down, whilst the priest proposes to her the following questions; .Le Prttrc. Ma sill*, que Ocnundez-vous?

Priest. Daughter, what do you asle?

La Novice, je demaude a etre recue dans cette compagnie rcli^ieufe, pour me coniaexet toute a Dieu, & a Thabit de ect ordre de St. Dominique.

Novice, I want to ba received into tl^e society of religious women, in order to devote myself intirely to God, and the habit of St» Dominic.

Le Pretre. Ma fille, n'auriez-vous pas quelque chagrin, ou quelque persuasion, ou contrainte, que vous desirez ii ardemment d'embrasserl'ordre de St. Dominique?

Priest. Daughter, does not some trouble, persuasion, or constraint, impel you to solicit, in this earnest manner, to be received into the order of St. Dominic?

La Novice. Non, mon reverend pere, c*eil de ma propre volonte, que je desire d 'cmbraiier l'habitdecet ordre.

Novice. No, reverend father, I assure you that I only follow the impulse of my own will, in desiring to be admitted into that holy order.

Le Prctre. Allez done, ma fille, prononcez avec ardeur Ycs vœux^ e'est ce que je voas accords de la part le Tillustre Eveque de Boulogne.

Priest. Co then, my daughter, and pronounce your vows with zeal. I grant yoor request, by permission of the illustrious LordEi/hop of Boulogne.

She then returns to the table, in order to sign and pronounce her vows, which flie reads with an audible voice, so that they may be heard by all present. Her candle is first taken from her. It is proper to apprize the reader, before I lay the vows before him, that every woman that enters into the community, as one of the religious, assumes the name of some particular and favourite faint; and, during the remainder of her life, is always called {by that name. Some are called by the name of St. Paul; some by that of St. Peter; and some by that of St. Thomas. The novice however, before me makes .her vows, declares her real name.

Le Vceu. Moi Marie B , dite St. Joseph, promets a Dieu, a la sainte Vierge Marie, & a tous les saints du Paradis, de faire vœu de la pauvrete, de la chastete, 8c de robeissance a Marie Choque dite de St. Paul, a elle, 3c a ceux qui la furviendront jusqu' au dernier moment de ma vie.

Signce, Sœur de St. Joseph.

The Vow. I Mary B , alias St. Joseph,

do promise to Cod, to the holy Virgin Mary, and to all the saints in Heaven, to make the A a vow

r toWs of obedience, poverty, and chastity, to Mary Cheque, [the present superior] alias St. Paul, to her, and to all her successors, to the last moment of my life.

Signed, Slfier Jos r. P H . If ctiey ©arinot write, or are prevented by '- confusion, they make the sign of the cross j **nd, during the time of reading and signing, '/he continues on her knees, in order to render the ceremony more awful and affecting. It

■ passes before the altar, that is, her face is 'turned that way, and ihe can fee it through

■ the grate. During the whole time the nuns continue kneeling. This ended, she is conducted

- to the grate, where a priest attends, in order to administer the sacrament to her. At this

• time Jhe is left entirely to herself, and the nun that before attended her stays at a distance.

. Having received the sacrament, Ihe returns to the table, and kneels down till the mass is > said throughout.

Mass being over, the priest descends from

* the altar, and comes forward to the grate, where he slays till the ceremony is entirely finished. One of the nuns brings her black

•veil, or scapular, on a pewter dish, and the . priest reads over it the benediction, or blessing, and makes the sign of the cross with a brulh dipped in holy water. The table that stood ■before her, and every thing upon it, is taken •away: her chair is also removed. All this time she continues on her knees. The fupe*rior, as soon as the benediction is given to this part of her habit, orders one of the nuns to 'attend her out of the hall, and give her some refreshment; as they are nut allowed, by the tenets of their religion, to eat any thing before receiving the sacrament. At her return to the cheir, she holds in her hand a large wax.candle, and comes forward to tfie gra.e, where she makes a low bow. She then goes to the superior, kneels down before her, and kisses the ground. She continues on her knees till <he superior has taken off her white veil, and put on her black one, and scapular. She then kisles the ground a second time, by way of acknowledgment for the favour and indu], gence shewn her, in admitting her as a nun ■into that religious community, and to give a -proof of her humility according to her vow. Upon her kneeling down, her candle is taken from her; but as soon as Ihe has kisied the ground a second time, and then risen up, it is returned her by the nun who attended her during the former part of the ceremony. By •this nun she is led to the bottom of the choir, fcvhere me makes a low bow to the altar and the spectators, and begins to sing a hymn fuited-to rhe occasion, called Venez Esprit saint J tor, Vaix spiritus san&e.

She lin^s the: first verse alone, and begins the rest without any assistance; but is affcer*ar-s joined by the whole choir. She is

obliged to sing (he first verse, and begin all tJie others, in "order to sliew her voice, and as" a sign that me is willing to make use of the faculties that God has given her.

When the hymn is ended, she gives her candle to the nun, and kneels down on a carpet that is spread in the midst of the choir. Upon this ihe spreads her scapular, and then lies down on it prostrate on her face, while four nuns cover her with a black clcth, having on • it the figure of death's heads and marrowbones at each corner, and a white cross in the middle. They hold it at the distance of about a yard, or four feet, from her body. The rest of the nuns are all upon their knees, as well as these four, and each holds a wax-candle In her hand. Two other nuns come and kneel behind her, one at each of her feet. They begin to sing a hymn, called hiberanoi Dotmne, which is part of the office they fay for the dead. She lies prostrate the whole time the nuns are singing it. When it is finished, stie receives orders to rife up, and is presented with her wax-candle. The reason of covering her with this black cloth, which is the fame that is used at their burials to cover the coffins of the nuns deceased, is, to shew that Ihe is, in a figurative fense, dead; that is, dead to all the pleasures and vanities of this world. She is then conducted to the grate, where (he kneels down, and is presented with a crucifix. Her candle is at this time taken away from her. The nun that presents her with the crucifix, first kisses the hands, then the feet, and theji the parts where our Saviour was transpierced by the nails. Her example is followed by the new-made nun. This part of the ceremony is to remind her, that our Saviour suffered these wounds for the sins of the world, and that Ihe must dedicate the remainder of her days to serving Christ, and following his example: that her life must be passed in fervent prayer, poverty, chastity, and a strict observance of God's holy word and commandments* The nuns, upon this occasion, sing the hymn Qui Laxarum, &c. which is likewise in thjt office for the dead. When it is ended, flie ij conducted to the superior, holding a crucifix in her hands. She kneels down before her, and kistes the ground; this ihe does in token of humility. Being then ordered to rile, stie embraces the superior. Then she kneels and kisses the ground a second time, to return the superior thanks for condescending to salute her. She then proceeds along that row of nuns, bows to each, and salutes them. She next salutes the nun that served her as a guide during the ceremony. Being now at the lower end of the choir, and facing the altar, slie makes a profound bow to itj ihe then pro* ceeds to the next row of nuns, bowing to, and saluting each; but slie does not kiss the ground in honour of any but Che superior.

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