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pected ways of safety. My provisions were not sufficient to Jail longer than five or six days; towards the , end of the fourth, I considered, that if I persisted longer in staying in my asylum, it would be too Jatd to quit it when I absolutely wanted provisions; for supposing I escaped the fangs of the wild beasts, which ever way I went, I could.not expect a forest of firs, and other timber tree*' could afford me any nourishment. Notwithstanding the force of this reflexion, the impression of my fears was so great, that I consumed all my provisions before I could resolve to open the door of the sledge. I even fasted entirely the sixth day, uncertain what steps to take, and still depending on the generosity of the Russian ladies. But I was sensible at last that J must perish one way or other; and of the two kinds of death which Heaven left to my choice, extreme hunger convinced me that the fangs.of wild beasts were the least dreadful. Besides death, this way, was not quite so certain; for my strength was already so exhausted, that I could scarcely walk.
I. therefore quitted my sledge. My first steps were tottering,. and I know not whether this was more the effect of my terror, than of my weakness. I observed, a moment, the tracks of the bears on the sand, and the marks they had left on my habitation. The leather that covered it was miserably torn. I owe my life only to the planks, the thickness of which had preserved me, though made of the lightest wood. The ropes had been bitten through by the terrible teeth of my enemies; and what little remained, bore the marks of their savai>e fury. This sight froze my very blood.
As it was about noon, the fun, then in its full power, revived my ftrtngth a little, and made me hope that the wild beasts, which had al
ways chose night to torment me, would not incommode me in open . day light. But which way to turn me? Though the place I was in was in an open spot, at some distance from me, I saw on all sides forests of trees, as ancient as the creation; among which I could not enter without a renewal of my horror. Be- sides, I remarked that I was in a val■ lef, and every way surrounded by hills. Deliberation was useless to a man entirely ignorant of astronomy. I hastily pursued the rout that seemed least difficult, as if nothing could be of more consequence than to get at a distance from my sledge, and that the bears were only to be dreaded in the valley. I gained the summit of a small hill, on which I was forced to rest me on the grafs through feebleness. Happily I had left a little strong liquor that I had saved as a last resource. I was going to swallow it, when I perceived round me a great number of mushrooms; some of which I gathered, and dipped in my liquor, and considering this wild food as a favour of Heaven, and made a meal which excessive hunger rendered delicious.
- Doubt who will of providence, I, who experienced in this succour a sensible effect of its care, profess to devote to it a life which it has preserved. It seemed to me from this moment to take me by the hand, to conduct me through the molt dreadful perils. I found myself so strengthened by this strange repast, that I did not hesitate to pursue my journey; I resolved to climb a tree at sun-set, and remain there all night. I took with me all the mushroms I could find; so simple a nourisliment having been capable to renew my strength. I made no doubt but a number of herbs and roots might be of the fame use in cafe of necessity. I find myself, said I, in the state of man, when first created. Mankind, at 'first,
Interesting Adventures of knew but little what was proper fpr their food. They could owe this knowledge to experience alone. I may acquire it the fame way.
Bulled with this reflexion, I walked with ardour. But when all was still around me, of a sudden I heard the shrill howlings of some unknown beasts. Terror seized me afresti. I climbed a neighbouring tree, and was not two minutes in gaining the top; the fun was still high above the horizon. How great was my surprize to perceive at first sight, the towers of Ciangut, which did not seem further ^distant than about two leagues! I reproached myself bitterly for not having sooner thought of thus reconnoitring the environs; and during the first emotion of my joy, I was induced to descend from the tree, without remembering the wild beasts which had caused my terror. Yet they were at the foot of the tree. This unexpected sight so greatly terrified me, that losing my hold, I fumbled into the midst of them, and crushed one by my fall. The rest fled, to appearance frightened, as much as myself; and I remained some moments stretched out close to that which I had killed, without recollecting that it was out of his power to hurt me. At last, seeing it motionless j I raised myself up softly, and turned towards Ciangut.
Scarcely had I walked an hundred yards, before another noise, but too lucky so afford me cause of complaint, occasioned me some moments Of tenor. I thought that I heard the voices of several persons discoursing together with warmth.' But it was enough that they were men to inspire me with confidence. I joined them in a moment, and by a miracle more incredible still, than what I have already related, found they weie my fellow exiles.
Having arrived, in less than eight days, with the tvVq' soldiers, at t,h2
an English Merchant. 137
place where my guards had left me % surprized not to find me, they had waited there some time, and had seen, the ladies of Ciangut, who had given' them the best account in their power of my misfortune. Their grief had induced them to try, for several days, every possible method to assist me. Under a pretence of hunting, they had sent into the forests trusty persons, whose searches had proved fruitless. They had fired several shots which my unhappy fortune permitted me not to hear. The young lady who entertained some favourable sentiments for me, seemed greatly afflicted at their want of success ; especially when, upon interrogating my companions, she heard them confirm every circumstance that I had related of my birth, fortune and character. However, the governor's lady, not being able to conceive how a man and fledge should both entirely disappear, was not discouraged at the inutility of these first attempts. She was desirous that the two soldiers, and my four exiled companions, snould stay some time near the spot where I had been last seen; and use their utmost endeavours, day and night, to discover the place of my retreat. This employment did not seem laborious to persons just returned from hunting the most ferocious animals, and wholiad passed so many nights in bad fledges-. They had begun to put in execution this order, the very day that I had thehappiness to meet with them. They were the persons who had chaced the animals which had given me such terror.
My joy at finding my companions scarcely exceeded my sense of the Russian ladies' goodness. I testified my gratitude for their favours in the moSt ardent manner, and they received my testimonies of it in such a manner as to encrease it if possible; an \ carried their complaisance so_far
* as as to detain us above fix months in the forest of Ciangut. At length, when the Czarina, astir the death of her husband Peter the Great, recalled, all those exiles from the deserts of Siberia who were not sent there for capital crimes, we were obliged to
take our leaves of them; and we flatter ourselves, that our departure was regretted by them, as we, on our parts, shall ever preserve the most lively remembrance of their kindness.
ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Letter IV.
WORDS Which are composed Of one or more syllables, may be defined articulate sounds, significant by compact, or used by common consent to express our ideas. To distinguish a <w6rd from a sentence we may add, that a sentence is a quantity of found significant, of which certain parts are themselves also significant; but a word is a sound significant of which no part is itself significant. From hence it follows, that words, which imply a meaning, whicjj is not divisible, mult of consequence be the smallest parts of Speech. We have followed Aristotle in the definition of a word; and have added the opinion both of Priscian and Theodore Gaza to illustrate and confirm it. We should observe likewise that Plato originally laid down this characteristic of a word, and that it is evident, the others borrowed it from him.
As words are the minutest parts of Speech, the knowledge cf the species of Words must needs contribute to the knowledge of Speech itself.
The opinions of the ancients were Various respecting the number of the species, or parts of Speech. Plato, in his Sophists, mentions only two, the noun and the verb. Aristotle, when treating of prepositions, mentions no mote: But they did ;iot consider words as relating to Grammar, but Uith reference to Logic, because in 1 ogic these alone compose a perfect r.siertion, which r:one ot the rest can to withcu; them- Kence Aristotle,
in his Poetics, adds the article and conjunction to the noun and •verb. To Aristotle's authority may be added also that of the elder Stoics. The latter Stoics made Jive parts, by dividing the noun intotthe appellative and proper. Others increased the number by detaching the pronoun from the noun, the participle and adverb from the verb, and the preposition from the conjunilion. The Latin Grammarians went farther, and separated the interjeliion from the advert, within which it was always comprehended as a species, by the Greeks.
To the questions why there are not more species of words; why there are so many; or, if neither more nor fewer, why these and not others? An answer may, and shall, be given.
The first difference that occurs to us in reading any sentence, is this, that some words are variable, and some are not variable. Thus the word man may be varied into men. On the contrary, the words it and and cannot be varied. But these variations cannot be called ejjbitial or necessary, because some languages have them, and others have them not. Thus the Greeks and Latins vary their adjectives, by gender, case, and number; but the English never vary them, but preserve them the same, thro' all kinds of concord. Besides,, those very variations, which appear most necessary, may be supplied by other methods; some by auxiliars, and some by meer position. As the distinction of variable and invariable')*. On English
toot essential to words; let as try what can be done with the words of a sentence as they stand separate and detached from each other. In this view, we shall find some words that preserve their full meaning in their separate state, and others, on the contrary, that immediately lose it; because, in fact, they have no meaning but when connected or joined with others. With respect to this distinction, the first sort of words may be called significant by themselves; the latter, significant by relation. The first resemble those stones in the basis of an arch, which are able to support themselves, even when the arch is destroyed j the latter are like those stones in its summit or curve, which can stand no longer than while the whole subsists. Apollonius of Alexandria has illustrated this doctrine jn another manner; to this effect. "In the fame manner, fays our author, as some of the letters are vowels, which of themselves complete a found j others are consonants, which without the vowels express no sound; so also may we conceive with respect to words. Some of them, like vowels, are of themselves expressive, as verbs, &c. others, like consonants, wait for the vowels, being unable of themselves to become expressive; as is the case of prepositions, &c. for those parts of speech are always conJignificant, or only significant when connected together." With this clue we may pursue our enquiries. All things exist either as the affections or attributes of other things, or without being the affections or attributes of other things. If they exist as the affections of something else, they are then called, attributes. Thus to
think is the attribute of a num. If they exist not after this manner, they are called substances. Thus man is not an attribute, but a substance, because it does not exist as the affection of any thing else. AU things being either substances or attributes, it sol* lows, that all words which are significant of themselves, or as principals, must needs be significant of one or the other. If they signify substances, they are called substanlives; if they signify attributes, theyare called attributives, or adjectives. As to words, which are only significant as accessories, they acquire a signification, either from being associated or connected to one word, py else to many words. If to one word alone, then, as they can do no more than define or determine its signification, they may, for that reason, be called definitives. If to many words at once, then they serve only to connect, and may be called connectives. By substantives, are meant what other Grammarians call nouns; by attributives, Verbs; by definitives, Articles; and by connectives, Conjunctions. As for pronouns, adverbs, prepositions, and interjections, they may either be found included within the species abovementioned, or else must be admitted as so many distinct species by themselves. If this admission be contended for, then there will be no less than nine species or sorts of words in the English language. Their names are the Article, Substantive, or Noun; Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, and Interjection. Of these we shall treat in the subsequent Series of Letters.
To the Editors of the OXFORD MAGAZINE;
YOU may depend on the au- A La Doggrel.
thenticity of the following a- Noverint omnes per præsentes,
necdote, which is much atyourser-. Quotquot in col. Hert. sunt stude,ntes,
vice. It was given by Dr. Sharpe, Quod termino mox exituro,
June 27, 1757, who was then princi- . (Viz. mense Julii prox. futuro,)
pal of Hertford college in Oxford. Nil erit istic quod voretur,
The style and form being somewhat Ipsa culina extinguetur;
extraordinary, , it was very humour- Quin ut omnino vacat domus,
oufly burlesqued by the wits at that Cum coquo exulabit promus;
time. . Pjoinde neminem relictum
The Admonition.' Volo per meum hoc edictum, ,
Notice is hereby given, that the Difcedant omnes (inquam sex *.)
buttery and kitchen will be put out, Haec consuetudo, haec est sex,
as usual, on Saturday , the 16th of Ad suos se recipant ruri,
July next, being the last day of term,. Quod ventri sat est inventuri.
by which time the several members of Tune principalis, tune tutores
this house are desired to repair to. Quisque secundum suos mores
their respective homes, that the tu-, Habeount tempus otiandi
tour's and officers of the college may Et quo fert animus vagandi,
be at liberty to go where their en- LUi, quorfum vadent de futuro,
gagements or amusements call them. Haec novi fane, neque euro;
Ipse de me jam fabulosum
W. S. Burser. Ad II vadum tendam arenofum.; . , Your's, &c. • OXONIENSIS.
* The whole College at that time consisted of eight members. _ .'
II Sandfcrd, near Oxford, where the Doctor was said to pay his addresses to a Lady at that time.
Extracl from Churchill'* Prophecy of Famine; -with a Copper Plate annexed,