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"Quid facitis ? Quis clamor ??'ait, • Qua, dicite, nautae,
Huc ope perveni? Quo me deferre paratis ??
• Pone metum,' Proreus ' et quos contingere portus
Ede velis' dixit: “terra sistere petita.'

635 • Naxon'ait Liber cursus advertite vestros: Illa mihi domus est; vobis erit hospita tellus.? Per mare fallaces perque omnia numina jurant, Sic fore, meque jubent pictae dare vela carinae. Dextera Naxos erat: dextra mihi lintea danti

640 Quid facis, o demens? Quis te furor, inquit, ' Acoete,' Pro se quisque, 'tenet ? laevam pete! Maxima nutu Pars mihi significat, pars, quid velit, aure susurrat. Obstupui "Capiatque aliquis moderamina !' dixi, Meque ministerio scelerisque artisque removi.

645 Increpor a cunctis, totumque immurmurat agmen; E quibus Aethalion 'Te scilicet omnis in uno Nostra salus posita est !' ait, et subit ipse meumque Explet opus, Naxoque petit diversa relicta. Tum deus illudens, tanquam modo denique fraudem 650 Senserit, e puppi pontum prospectat adunca, Et flenti similis "Non haec mihi litora, nautae, Promisistis' ait; non haec mihi terra rogata est. Quo merui poenam facto? Quae gloria vestra est, Si puerum juvenes, si multi fallitis unum ??

655 Jamdudum flebam; lacrimas manus impia nostras Ridet, et impellit properantibus aequora remis. Per tibi nunc ipsum, neque enim praesentior illo Est deus-adjuro, tam me tibi vera referre, Quam veri majora fide: stetit aequore puppis

660 Haud aliter, quam si siccum navale teneret. preposition a.–634. Proreus ; perhaps the same as the prorae tutela mentioned above.-636. Naxon. Naxos, one of the most famous of the Cyclades, sacred to Bacchus, who, according to some accounts, was brought up there. — 639. Dare vela, vela expandere in nave; properly, vela dare vento. So v. 640: lintea danti. — 640. Dextera Naxos erat. The adjective stands here for the adverb of place, as adjectives frequently do for adverbs of time (matutinus, vespertinus). Dextra mihi lintea danti ; that is, in dexteram mihi gubernanti navem; the ablative denoting the place where, instead of the direction in which.-641. A remarkable case of hyperbaton. Join : Quis te furor tenet, Acoete? pro se quisque inquit. -643. Aure susurať, a rare expression for in aurem susurrat.–645. Scelerisque artisque, of the crime as well as of the action in general.—647. Scilicet, expression of bitter irony, to indicate the opposite of what is said.—649. Naxoque relicta, after he had left Naxos; that is, the way to Naxos.--652. Non haec mihi litora-rogata est. Non haec mihi litora promisistis, quae non sunt litora sed mare, non haec terra mihi rogata est, quae non est terra sed aqua.-657. Impellit, pulsat.--658. Per tibi nunc ipsum-adjuro. The separation of the preposition from the word which

governs is

Illi admirantes remorum in verbere perstant,
Velaque deducunt, geminaque ope currere tentant:
Impediunt hederae remos, nexuque recurvo.
Serpunt et gravidis distringunt vela corymbis.

665
Ipse, racemiferis frontem circumdatus uvis,
Pampineis agitat velatam frondibus hastam;
Quem circa tigres simulacraque inania lyncum
Pictarumque jacent fera corpora pantherarum.
Exsiluere viri; sive hoc insania fecit,

670 Sive timor; primusque Medon nigrescere pinnis Corpore depresso, et spinae curvamina flecti Incipit. Huic Lycabas 'In quae miracula' dixit Verteris ?' et lati rictus et panda loquenti Naris erat, squamamque cutis durata trahebat. 675 At Libys, obstantes dum vult obvertere remos, In spatium resilire manus breve vidit, et illas Jam non esse manus, jam pinnas posse vocari. Alter, ad intortos cupiens dare brachia funes, Brachia non habuit, iruncoque repandus in undas 680 Corpore desiluit; falcata novissima cauda est, Qualia dimidiae sinuantur cornua lunae. Undique dant saltus, multaque adspergine rorant, Emerguntque iterum redeuntque sub aequora rursus, Inque chori ludunt speciem lascivaque jactant

685 Corpora, et acceptum patulis mare naribus efflant.

De modo viginti—tot enim ratis illa ferebat-very common in oaths.-662. Verbere, the singular is very rare.—663. Velaque deducunt, sc. de antennis. The sails which were spread, v. 640, must be supposed to have been again furled in the interim, v. 657. Geminaque ope--namely, with oars and sails.—664. Impediunt, cingunt, amplectuntur. The ivy impedes the motion of the oars by winding round them.--665. Distringunt, a rare word: pull tight. It indicates the weight of the ivy berries. =-666. Racemiferis-uvis. Racemus has here the somewhat unusual meaning of berry, as Metam. iii. 484: aut ut variis solet uva racemis Ducere purpureum, nondum matura, colorem. Trist. iv. 6, 9: Tempus ut extentis tumeat facit uva racemis. -667. Pampineis-velatam frondibus hastam. Description of the Thyrsus. — 668. Simulacra inania refers to the other wild beasts as much as to the lynces. It is only phantoms that appear to the sailors, but phantoms of those animals which are always in the train of Bacchus.—669. Pictarum, spotted.---670. Insania, furor a Baccho concitus, a kind of intoxication.-671. Nigrescere pinnisIncipit; that is, nigras pinnas accipere incipit.—672. Spinae curvamina flecti, curvam spinam accipere.—673. Miracula, as sometimes monstra, for mira species. — 676. Obstantes remos, the hindering oars; because they are entwined with ivy, they even obstruct the motion of the ship: — 680. Truncoque repandus Corpore, crooke in his maimed body; that is, with crooked and maimed body. 681. Novissima cauda, extrema pars caudae. Falcata sinuantu

Restabam solus. Pavidum gelidumque trementi
Corpore, vixque meum firmat deus, "Excute' dicens

Corde metum, Diamque tene!' Delatus in illam
Accessi sacris Baccheaque festa frequento.”

690

Falcari and sinuari; that is, curvari in modum falcis, sinus. - 689. Meum, mei compotem, in possession of my senses.—690. Diamgue. Dia, an old name for Naxos. Tene, hold for. Similarly ii. 140 : Inter utrumque tene.

PENTHEUS.

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PRAEBUIMUS longis' Pentheus “ambagibus aures'
Inquit, ut ira mora vires absumere posset.
Praecipitem famuli rapite hunc, cruciataque diris
Corpora tormentis Stygiae demittite nocti!'

695
Protinus abstractus solidis Tyrrhenus Acoetes
Clauditur in tectis; et dum crudelia jussae
Instrumenta necis ferrumque ignisque parantur,
Sponte sua patuisse fores, lapsasque lacertis
Sponte sua fama est nullo solvente catenas.

700 Perstat Echionides; nec jam jubet ire, sed ipse Vadit, ubi festus facienda ad sacra Cithaeron Cantibus et clara bacchantum voce sonabat. Ut fremit acer equus, cum bellicus aere canoro Signa dedit tubicen, pugnaeque assumit amorem, 705 Penthea sic ictus longis ululatibus aether Movit, et audito clamore recanduit ira. Monté fere medio est, cingentibus ultima silvis, Purus ab arboribus, spectabilis undique campus. Hic oculis illum cernentem sacra profanis

710 Prima videt, prima est insano concita motu, Prima suum misso violavit Penthea thyrso Mater: «Io, geminae clamavit adeste sorores : 693. Vires absumere posset, sc. suas.

Absumere, waste, spend ; a poetical use of the word. — 694. Praecipitem. Instead of the adverb of manner characterising the action, we have here the adjective attributed to the person, which takes place also with adverbs of time, and sometimes of place, as above, v. 640. — 695. Demittite nocti, poetical construction for ad noctem.—696. Solidis in tectis, in carcere bene munito. — 701. Perstat Echionides, Pentheus, the son of Echion, persists in his resolution. -702. Cithaeron, the mountain in Boeotia where in particular the orgies of Bacchus were celebrated every third year, whence they are called trieterica. — 706. Longis, long continued. — 708. Ultima, sc. campi.

710. Oculis cernentem sacra profanis. Only the initiated allowed to behold the orgies. -713. Geminae sorores. Ino and

Ille aper, in nostris errat qui maximus agris,
Ille mihi feriendus aper.'' Ruit omnis in unum 715
Turba furens; cunctae coëunt trepidumque sequuntur,
Jam trepidum, jam verba minus violenta loquentem,
Jam se damnantem, jam se peccasse fatentem.
Saucius ille tamen, 'Fer opem, matertera dixit
Autonoë: moveant animos Actaeonis umbrae!' 720
Illa, quid Actaeon, nescit, dextramque precantis
Abstulit; Inoo lacerata est altera raptu.
Non habet infelix quae matri brachia tendat ;
Trunca sed ostendens disjectis corpora membris
Adspice, mater!' ait. Visis ululavit Agave, 725
Collaque jactavit movitque per aëra crinem,
Avulsumque caput digitis complexa cruentis
Clamat 'lo comites, opus haec victoria nostrum est !'
Non citius frondes autumno frigore tactas
Jamque male haerentes alta rapit arbore ventus, 730
Quam sunt membra viri manibus direpta nefandis.

Talibus exemplis monitae nova sacra frequentant,
Turaque dant sanctasque colunt Ismenides aras.

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Autonoë. — 714. Errat qui maximus agris. In Greek and Latin poetry the epithet which belongs to the substantive is often joined to the relative.-717. Jam trepidum. Jam is repeated with emphasis : one could scarcely believe that Pentheus would tremble, but now even he trembles, now he lowers his tone.—720. Actaeonis umbrae. Actaeon, the son of Autonoë, was changed by Diana into a stag, and torn to pieces by his own dogs.-722. Inoo raptu, by a sudden blow from Ino.—726. Collaque jactavit-crinem. The Bacchantes were always represented in ancient art with the head thrown back, and with streaming hair. — 729. Autumno frigore tactas. Autumnus is here an adjective. Tangere is used of all the different influences of the weather; for example, of lightning.--730. Male haerentes, vix haerentes.-733. Ismenides, the Theban wo. men, from the river Ismenus at Thebes.

METAMORPH. LIB. IV.

PYRAMUS ET THISBE.

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60

65

Pyramus et Thisbe, juvenum pulcherrimus alter,
Altera, quas Oriens habuit, praelata puellis,
Contiguas tenuere domos, ubi dicitur altam
Coctilibus muris cinxisse Semiramis urbem.
Notitiam primosque gradus vicinia fecit,
Tempore crevit amor: taedae quoque jure coissent;
Sed vetuere patres. Quod non potuere vetare,
Ex aequo captis ardebant mentibus ambo.
Conscius omnis abest: nutu signisque loquuntur;
Quoque magis tegitur, tectus magis aestuat ignis.
Fissus erat tenui rima, quam duxerat olim,
Cum fieret, paries domui communis utrique :
Id vitium nulli per saecula longa notatum,
Quid non sentit amor ?--primi vidistis amantes,
Et vocis fecistis iter, tutaeque per illud
Murmure blanditiae minimo transire solebant.
Saepe, ut constiterant hinc Thisbe, Pyramus illinc,
Inque vices fuerat captatus anhelitus oris,
• Invide' dicebant .paries, quid amantibus obstas?
Quantum erat, ut sineres nos toto corpore jungi;
Aut hoc si nimium, vel ad oscula danda pateres !
Nec sumus ingrati : tibi nos debere fatemur,
Quod datus est verbis ad amicas transitus aures.'

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57. Altam- urbem. The story of the foundation of Babylon by Semiramis is well known. The walls were built of bricks, because there are no quarries in the wide plain of Babylonia.59. Gradus, sc. amoris. — 60. Taedae jure. Pine torches were carried before the newly-married wife on her way to the house of the bridegroom ; hence taeda for taeda jugalis, marriage. — 62. Ex aequo, pariter, in an equal degree. — 64. Quoque magis tegitur magis, a kind of anacoluthon. Properly, eo ‘magis aestuat ignis should follow. Instead of this the poet repeats the verb of the first clause, and drops the comparison.-65. Rima quam durerat. Rimam ducere or agere in the intransitive sense, to open in a chink.67. Nulli notatum, a nullo notatum. A singular use of nulli for nemini. In general nullus is used for nemo only in the genitive and ablative.-74. Quantum erat ? how much would it be ? would it be

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