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Sanguine Centauri Lernaeae sanguis echidnae

405 Mixtus ad auxilium tempora nulla dabat. Stabat ut ante patrem lacrimis perfusus Achilles :

Sic flendus Peleus, si moreretur, erat.
Saepe manus aegras manibus fingebat amicis:
Morum, quos fecit, praemia doctor habet.

410 Oscula saepe dedit; dixit quoque saepe jacenti:

Vive precor, nec me care relinque pater.' Nona dies aderat, cum tu, justissime Chiron,

Bis septem stellis corpora cinctus eras. Chiron was celebrated for his skill in the art of healing. — 408. Si moreretur, if he were dying.–409. Fingebat, he stroked. So above, Fast. ii. 418: Et fingit lingua corpora bina sua. — 414. Chiron was changed into the constellation Centaur.

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FASTORUM LIB. VI.

JUPITER PISTOR.

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The conquest of Rome by the Gauls took place, according to the

usual account, B.C. 390. CINCTA premebantur trucibus Capitolia Gallis :

345 Fecerat obsidio jam diuturna famem. Jupiter ad solium superis regale vocatis,

Incipe,' ait Marti. Protinus ille refert: •Scilicet ignotum est, quae sit fortuna meorum, Et dolor hic animi voce querentis eget?

350 Si tamen, ut referam breviter mala juncta pudori,

Exigis : Alpino Roma sub hoste jacet.
Haec est, cui fuerat promissa potentia rerum ?

Jupiter, hanc terris impositurus eras?
Jamque suburbanos Etruscaque contudit arma: 355

Spes erat in cursu : nunc lare pulsa suo est. Vidimus ornatos aerata per atria picta

Veste triumphales occubuisse senes. 349. Scilicet, expression of bitter irony. -354. Impositurus eras. Imponere, to set one over, to give one the rule over another. - 355. Jamque-arma. Its power had been on the increase; the surrounding nations (suburbanos, as Fast. vi. 59: suburbani dant mihi munus idem, where Aricia, Laurentum, and Lanuvium, are meant ; ib. 723: suburbano clarus triumpho, over Algidum), and the Etrurians (Veii) were already conquered. 356. Spes erat in cursu, on the rise. Metam. xiii. 508: In cursuque meus dolor est. — 357. Aerata per atria, the halls covered with brass ; if the reading is correct, Ovid

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380

Vidimus Iliacae transferri pignora Vestae
Sede. Putant aliquos scilicet esse deos.

360 At si respicerent, qua vos habitatis in arce,

Totque domos vestras obsidione premi, Nil opis in cura scirent superesse deorum,

Et data sollicita thura perire manu. Atque utinam pugnae pateat locus! arma capessant, 365

Et si non poterunt exsuperare, cadant. Nunc inopes victus ignavaque fata timentes

Monte suo clausos barbara turba premit.? Tunc Venus et lituo pulcher trabeaque Quirinus Vestaque pro Latio multa locuta suo.

370 • Publica, respondit, 'cura est pro moenibus istis,'

Jupiter, et poenas Gallia victa dabit.
Tu modo quae desunt fruges, superesse putentur,

Effice, nec sedes desere, Vesta, tuas.
Quodcumque est solidae Cereris, cava machina frangat, 375

Mollitamque manu duret in igne focus.'
Jusserat, et fratris virgo Saturnia jussis

Annuit, et mediae tempora noctis erant.
Jam ducibus somnum dederat labor. Increpat illos

Jupiter et sacro, quid velit, ore docet:
• Surgite, et in medios de summis arcibus hostes

Mittite quam minime tradere vultis, opem.' Somnus abit, quaeruntque novis ambagibus acti, has here transferred the custom of his own age to earlier and simpler times. Picta Veste, the Toga Praetexta, worn by the higher magistrates, and by those who had obtained triumphs. The story of the elders who would not abandon the city, and were all murdered, is well known. - 359. Pignora Vestae, the pledge of Vesta; namely, for the greatness of Rome. The sacred fire had been conveyed to Caere. -360. Aliquos esse deos, they suppose that the gods have still some power. In this sense we more commonly find aliquid esse. Metam. vi. 543 : Si numina divum Sunt aliquid. Mars says: it is superfluous that the sacred fire has been rescued, for the gods have no longer any concern about Rome. — 361. Qua-in arce; namely, in the Capitol, where the temples of most of the gods stood. — 364. Perire, frustra offerri. — 367. Inopes victus may be explained in two ways: either both are accusatives dependent on timentes, or inopes is the nominative, and victus the genitive de. pendent on it. The latter explanation is to be preferred, for only when their provisions are at an end will they fear the fate of coward. ice; that is, be unable to defend themselves longer. Hence v. 373 : quae desunt fruges. -369. Lituo, the augur's staff, which Romulus had employed at the foundation of the city. Trabea, the dress worn by the nobles in the most ancient times. — 373. Pulentur, Effice, effice ut putentur. Superesse, to be in abundance. — 375. Solidae Cereris, whole corn. Machina, the mill, or that which supplies the place of the mill.376. Mollitamque manu, softened with the hand; that is, kneaded. — 377. Virgo Saturnia, Vesta. -- 383. Ambagibus, Tradere quam nolint et jubeantur opem. Esse Ceres visa est : jaciunt Cerealia dona :

385 Jacta super galeas scutaque longa sonant. Posse fame vinci spes excidit. Hoste repulso

Candida Pistori ponitur ara Jovi. riddles, dark sayings. Fast. iv. 261: Obscurae sortis Patres ambagibus errant.

TRISTIUM LIB. I.

ELEGIA I.

This poem serves as an introduction to the five books of elegies

which Ovid wrote in his exile, and sent to Rome. Parve, nec invideo, sine me, liber, ibis in Urbem :

Hei mihi, quod domino non licet ire tuo. Vade, sed incultus, qualem decet exsulis esse;

Infelix habitum temporis hujus habe. Nec te purpureo veleni vaccinia fuco :

5 Non est conveniens luctibus ille color; Nec titulus minio, nec cedro charta notetur,

Candida nec nigra cornua fronte geras. Felices ornent haec instrumenta libellos; Fortunae memorem te decet esse meae.

10 1. Nec invideo, and I do not grudge it you. — 3. Incultus, sine cultu exteriore. Exsulis. Ovid was, strictly speaking, not exsul, but relegatus, as he himself says, ii. 137: Quippe relegatus, non exsul, dicor in illo (edicto). The difference consisted in this, that the relegatus was not deprived of his civil rights, and might therefore cherish the hope of a return to his native land. Ovid, however, frequently calls himself exsul without particular reference to his exact political position. — 5. Vaccinia. A purple colour was obtained from the juice of this flower, mixed with water and milk. Velent, cover. We must imagine some kind of covering, adorned with beautiful colours (purpureo fuco). Such a cover was frequently made of parchment, attached to the end of the roll, and wrapped round the whole. -7. Titulus, the title of the book, on the cover. Cedro, oleo cedrino. Oil of cedar was made use of to preserve books from worms. There is a certain degree of luxury in this, which Ovid thinks his present situation forbids him. Hence also he uses the word notare, to distinguish a thing among its equals. — 8. Cornua, the two projecting ends of the stick round which the manuscript was rolled. These were sometimes coloured, sometimes ornamented with ebony, ivory (candida), or precious metals. Nigra fronte. Frons is the upper and lower rim of the roll, which was made smooth (poliantur pumice, v. 11), and then coloured. Nigra, inculta, unornamented, in its original state. --9. Felices libros, 15

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Nec fragili geminae poliantur pumice frontes,

Hirsutus passis ut videare comis.
Neve liturarum pudeat: qui viderit illas,

De lacrimis factas sentiat esse meis.-
Vade, liber, verbisque meis loca grata saluta :

Contingam certe, quo licet, illa pede.
Si quis, ut in populo, nostri non immemor illic,

Si quis, qui, quid agam, forte requirat, erit;
Vivere me dices, salvum tamen esse negabis;

Id quoque, quod vivam, munus habere dei.
Atque ita te tacitus quaerenti plura legendum,

Ne, quod non opus est, forte loquare, dabis.
Protinus admonitus repetet mea crimina lector,

Et peragar populi publicus ore reus.
Tu cave, defendas, quamvis mordebere dictis :

Causa patrocinio non bona pejor erit.-
Invenies aliquem, qui me suspiret ademtum,

Carmina nec siccis perlegat ista genis,
Et tacitus secum, ne quis malus audiat, optet,

Sit mea lenito Caesare poena levis.
Nos quoque, quisquis erit, ne sit miser ille, precamur,

Placatos misero qui volet esse deos;
Quaeque volet, rata sint, ablataque principis ira

Sedibus in patriis det mihi posse mori.
Ut peragas mandata, liber, culpabere forsan,

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felicium libros, as v. 4, the book was called infelix. Instrumenta, ornamenta quibus instruuntur libri. — 13. Liturarum, macularum, blots such as are naturally to be found in a first scroll. -- 16. Pede, I shall reach the city with that foot with which it is permitted me; that is, in the manner in which it is permitted me; namely, by my poems. It seems an unnecessary refinement to explain pes here to be a metrical foot. — 17. Ut in populo, fieri solet. - 20. Munus habere dei, aestimare pro munere dei, perhaps meaning Augustus. The possibility of such an interpretation is certain, and was sufficient for the emperor: we need not go further, and accuse the passage of flattery, which is not necessarily contained in it. — 21. Atque ita te-legendum - dabis. The manuscripts vary in this passage, but without materially affecting the sense. Our reading can scarcely be correct, for the distinction between speaking and read. ing is meaningless when applied to a book. — 23. Repetet, sc. memoria. — 24. Peragar reus, accusabor. Reum agere occurs frequently in Ovid.

25. Cave, in the poets of the Augustan age, has the e generally short, but not without exceptions. Compare v. 87, where the last syllable is in the arsis.-31. Ne sit miser ille, that he may not, by sympathy with my fate, be involved in a like calamily.33. Ablataque principis ira. Auferre iram, as auferre jurgium, auferre metum, &c. Principis, the title usually applied to Augustus ; for the name of rex could not be used, from the odium attached to it, and there was no other title that could sufficiently designate his power.—35. Ut,

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Ingeniique minor laude ferere mei.
Judicis officium est, ut res, ita tempora rerum

Quaerere : quaesito tempore tutus eris.
Carmina proveniunt animo deducta sereno;

Nubila sunt subitis tempora nostra malis. Carmina secessum scribentis et otia quaerunt;

Me mare, me venti, me fera jactat hiems.
Carminibus metus omnis abest: ego perditus ensem

Haesurum jugulo jam puto jamque meo.
Haec quoque, quae facio, judex mirabitur aequus,

Scriptaque cum venia qualiacumque leget.
Da mihi Maeoniden et tot circumspice casus:

Ingenium tantis excidet omne malis.
Denique securus famae, liber, ire memento,

Nec tibi sit lecto displicuisse pudor.
Non ita se praebet nobis Fortuna secundam,

Ut tibi sit ratio laudis habenda tuae.
Donec eram sospes, tituli tangebar amore,

Quaerendique mihi nominis ardor erat.
Carmina nunc si non studiumque, quod obfuit, odi,

Sit satis : ingenio sic fuga parta meo.

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concessive, as v. 61, although you should execute your commission.

36. Ingenii minor laude mei, not worthy of the fame of my ge. nius. — 38. Quaesito tempore. Quaerere is the stated term applied to judicial investigations, here therefore equivalent to: to take into consideration. — 39. Deducta, an image taken from spinning; the thread is said deduci (de colo). — 40. Subitis malis, the sudden, in. expected calamity, which on that account has a more violent effect on the mind. — 42. Me mare- hiems. The first book of the Tristia professes to have been written on the voyage, which may be true, as the voyage occupied months, but may also be merely a poetic fiction. The probability is, that the poems were written during the voyage, and revised and polished on his arrival at Tomi.

That they were sent off not long after, appears as well from the present poeni as from many passages of other elegies in this book. — 43. Carmi. nibus metus omnis abest, carmina cum metu juncta esse non possunt. Ego

This may be taken as containing a general allusion to the dangers of the voyage, as well as of exile; but it seems better to take it as a definite statement, that he found his life in danger from the barbarians by whom he was surrounded. So Trist. iv. 10, 101: Quid referam comitumque nefas, famulosque nocentes ? — 45. Mirabitur, will wonder that even this is possible. -47. Da mihi, take, let us imagine ; in such an expression the force of mihi almost disappears. Na eoniden, Homerum. See Amor. i. 15, 9. Circumspice has here its original meaning: see around him so many dangers ; that is, see him surrounded by so many dangers. — 48. Excidet, will be lost, perish. — 53. Tituli, gloriae. — 56. Ingenio sic fuga parta meo, a difficult expression, which may perhaps be best explained thus: to such an extent (adeo, tantopere) is my talent gone from

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