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Et breve ver spatiis exegit quatuor annum.
Tum primum siccis aër fervoribus ustus
Canduit, et ventis glacies adstricta pependit.
Tum primum subiere domus : domus antra fuere
Et densi frutices et vinctae cortice virgae.
Semina tum primum longis Cerealia sulcis
Obruta sunt, pressique jugo gemuere juvenci.
Tertia post illas successit ahenea proles,
Saevior ingeniis et ad horrida promtior arma,
Non scelerata tamen. De duro est ultima ferro.
Protinus irrupit venae pejoris in aevum
Omne nefas; fugere pudor verumque fidesque;
In quorum subiere locum fraudesque dolique
Insidiaeque et vis et amor sceleratus habendi.
Vela dabant ventis, nec adhuc bene noverat illos
Navita; quaeque diu steterant in montibus altis,
Fluctibus ignotis insultavere carinae.
Communemque prius, ceu lumina solis et auras,
Cautus humum longo signavit limite mensor.
Nec tantum segetes alimentaque debita dives



followed no definite purpose in the matter, and just as little can definite rules be laid down with regard to the rhythmical relation of the preceding word. We find the Spondeus, Molossus, Dispondeus, Choriambus, and other feet, in the second-last place.118. Exegit, measured, portioned out. Compare the expressions pondus exigere,' exigere aliquid mensura.' — 125. The Brazen Age is treated very briefly by Ovid; war commences, but is unaccompanied as yet by crime. The poet seems to have been here deserted by the sources from which he drew; and, being thus thrown more upon his own fancy, to have deferred the completion of his work to a more favourable opportunity; which, however, his unhappy fate never afforded him. The fact of this want of a final revision may serve also to account for the contradiction, that war is represented as commencing here, and likewise in the Iron Age, v. 141.-127. T'he Iron Age is the last of this series. Whether the poet considered himself as living in it, or looked upon the whole representation as belonging to the mythical world, is not distinctly stated; but the former seems very probable from the de. scription, in which many traits of corruption coincide closely with those so often censured by the Roman satirists.-128. Venae pejoris. The comparison of the earth with the human body has been customary at all times. Thus, for example, we speak of veins of metal.—131. Amor habendi, Gr. alcovešia.-134. Insultavere. Insul. tare is properly saltare in aliqua re, but usually with the collateral notion of contempt. Contemnere occurs in the same way: Nondum caeruleas pinus contemserat undas (Tibull. i. 3, 37). Carinae, by synecdoche for naves.-135. Ceu lumina solis et auras ; that is, humum quae prius communis fuerat, sicut lumina solis et aurae communes sunt. — 137. Alimenta debita, the means of sustenance

Poscebatur humus; sed itum est in viscera terrae,
Quasque recondiderat Stygiisque admoverat umbris,
Effodiuntur opes, irritamenta malorum.

Jamque nocens ferrum, ferroque nocentius aurum
Prodierat; prodit bellum, quod pugnat utroque,
Sanguineaque manu crepitantia concutit arma.
Vivitur ex rapto : non hospes ab hospite tutus,
Non socer a genero; fratrum quoque gratia rara est. 145
Imminet exitio vir conjugis, illa mariti;
Lurida terribiles miscent aconita novercae ;
Filius ante diem patrios inquirit in annos.
Victa jacet pietas, et Virgo caede madentes,
Ultima coelestum, terras Astraea reliquit.

150 which men may reasonably require from the earth. Segetes - poscebatur humus. See Gram. V 259, 1. Thus we say, even in prose, interrogor sententiam. — 138. Sed it um est. The simple sed after non tantum is stronger than sed etiam, as in Greek åldu after o nóvov. — 143. Concutit arma. It was customary in rude times to strike the spear against the shield to excite terror. — 145. Gratia, amor mutuus, concordia.-146. Vir, conjux, maritus.-147. Lurida aconita, a poisonous plant, found in Pontus, seldom in Italy; according to Metam. vii. 415, it sprung from the foam of Cerberus dragged to the upper world. The plural has here no especial force. Įurida, from its effect on the colour of those poisoned by it.-148. Inquirit in annos, that he may be able to form a conjecture as to the time of his father's death, when he will be delivered from his troublesome superintendence, and put in possession of his property.

- 150. Astræa, the airn of the Greeks. Compare Fast. Nondum Justitiam facinus mortale fugarat, Ultima de superis illa reliquit humum. She was placed among the stars. Coelestum, a rare form for coelestium, here used by Ovid for the sake of the




The story of a new creation of men resulting from the storming of

heaven by the giants, and the following one of Deucalion and Pyrrha, though evidently unconnected with the fable of the four Ages, are here added by Ovid on account of the similarity of their character. The storming of heaven by the giants is not mentioned by Homer or Hesiod, and was therefore probably in. vented by later poets : Ovid here alludes to it very briefly. The formation of a new race of men from the blood of the giants seems to have been taken from one of the Gigantomachiae, of which the Greeks had several, but is only known to us from this passage. The fable is here quite loosely appended.


NEVE foret terris securior arduus aether:
Affectasse ferunt regnum coeleste Gigantas,
Altaque congestos struxisse ad sidera montes.
Tum pater omnipotens misso perfregit Olympum
Fulmine, et excussit subjecto Pelion Ossae.
Obruta mole sua cum corpora dira jacerent;
Perfusam multo natorum sanguine Terram
Immaduisse ferunt calidumque animasse cruorem,
Et, ne nulla suae stirpis monumenta manerent,
In faciem vertisse hominum. Sed et illa propago
Contemtrix superum saevaeque avidissima caedis
Et violenta fuit: scires e sanguine natos.


151. Securior, here equivalent to tutior. This use of the word began in the time of Augustus, and was not prevalent till a later period. - 152. Gigantas, Gr. accusative for Gigantes. The giants were the sons of Tartarus, according to others of Uranus and Gaea (Terra): at the instigation of their mother, they attacked the gods in their own abode, to avenge the overthrow of the Titans. - 154. Perfregit, clove in twain. The old geographers supposed that Ossa was separated from Olympus by an earthquake, and that then the channel of the Penëus was formed between them. — 155. Subjecto Pelion Ossae. The poet here departs from the usual tradition, according to which the war of the giants had its seat in Pallene (Phlegra), therefore in Macedonia ; while the Aloides, Otus, and Ephialtes, stormed heaven in Thessaly. — 162. Natos. Scires eos natos esse e sanguine : the plural referring to the collective propago.


THE Fable of the Transformation of Lycaon is here introduced in

illustration of what has just been said of the bloodthirsty character of the race which sprung from the blood of the giants. Quae pater ut summa vidit Saturnius arce, Ingemit et, facto nondum vulgata recenti, Foeda Lycaoniae referens convivia mensae,

165 Ingentes animos, dignas Jove concipit iras, Conciliumque vocat: tenuit mora nulla vocatos.


163. Quae, referring to the conclusion of the last fable temptrix superum, &c. Summa arce, åkporátn kopuoñ, from the highest summit of Olympus.-164. Facto recenti, owing to the recency of the deed. Join these words to nondum vulgata. — 165. Referens, sc. mente, calling to mind. Amor, ii. 8, 17, Si forte refers. Lycaoniae mensae ; see below, v. 226. - 167. Conciliumque vocat. The dis. tinction between concilium and consilium cannot be settled with certainty, owing to the variation of the manuscripts. Concilium is



Est via sublimis, coelo manifesta sereno;
Lactea nomen habet, candore notabilis ipso:
Hac iter est superis ad magni tecta Tonantis
Regalemque domum. Dextra laevaque deorum
Atria nobilium valvis celebrantur apertis;
Plebs habitat diversa locis; a fronte potentes
Coelicolae clarique suos posuere penates.
Hic locus est, quem, si verbis audacia detur,
Haud timeam magni dixisse Palatia coeli.
Ergo ubi marmoreo superi sedere recessu;
Celsior ipse loco sceptroque innixus eburno
Terrificam capitis concussit terque quatérque
Caesariem, cum qua terram, mare, sidera movit.
Talibus inde modis ora indignantia solvit :
'Non ego pro mundi regno magis anxius illa
Tempestate fui, qua centum quisque parabat
Injicere anguipedum captivo brachia coelo:


derived from the old verb calare, to call; and means, therefore, any summoned assembly. - 169. Lactea nomen habet. With regard to the nominative lactea, compare Metam. vi. 400, Marsque nomen habet ; xv. 740, insula nomen habet. Still more striking is xv. 96, cui fecimus aurea nomen. — 170. The Milky Way leads to the palace of the Thunderer, Jupiter, teßpsuétns: The poet compares it to the via sacra at Rome, which conducted to the palace of Augustus. — 171. Dextra laevaque, sc. of the Milky Way; that is, on both sides of it. Deorum nobilium. The Dii Majorum Gentium.

- 172. Çelebrantur, are thronged. Atria. After the model of the Roman houses, in which wide vestibules received the crowds of clients. Hence valvis apertis. — 173. Plebs, the Dii Minorum Gentium. Diversa locis, separate in place; for the prose diversis locis. So i. 40, diversa locis ; i. 178, celsior ipse loco; ii. 31, loco medius. The abode of the inferior gods is only described as elsewhere, not in the same place; the potentes, on the other hand, dwell a fronte, before the face of Jupiter, so that he can see them from his palace, and has them always in full view.-174. Suos posuere penates, have set up their household gods. So much had this expression lost its original meaning, that it is here applied even to the gods. – 175. Si verbis audacia detur. If I may venture to compare divine things with human. — 176. Palatia, the dwelling of Augustus on the Pal. atine hill. Dixisse, aorist for dicere. – 177. Recessus, the interior of the house, opposed to the atrium. - - 179. Terrificam capitis concussit Caesariem, with obvious allusion to Homer, i. 528. In our passage, however, Jupiter shakes not only Olympus, but together with (cum) his hair, earth, sea, and stars. — 181. Ora solvit, opened his mouth, began to speak. — 182. Pro mundi regno, sc. servando, a somewhat singular use of pro. — 183. Quisque --anguipedum, of the giants. Fast. v. 35: Mille manus illis dedit et pro cruribus angues. Trist. iv. 17: Serpentipedesque Gigantes. - 184. Captivo coelo, by anticipation; coelo quod captivum reddere studebant. So Metam. ix. 103: (Nessus) dat munus raptae (Deianirae), not the ra



Nam, quanquam ferus hostis erat, tamen illud ab uno
Corpore et ex una pendebat origine bellum.
Nunc mihi, qua totum Nereus circumsonat orbem,
Perdendum est mortale genus. Per flumina juro
Infera, sub terras Stygio labentia luco,
Cuncta prius tenlata : sed immedicabile vulnus
Ense recidendum est, ne pars sincera trahatur.
Sunt mihi Semidei, sunt rustica numina, Nymphae
Faunique Satyrique et monticolae Silvani:
Quos quoniam coeli nondum dignamur honore,
Quas dedimus, certe terras habitare sinamus.
An satis, O superi, tutos fore creditis illos,
Cum mihi, qui fulmen, qui vos habeoque regoque,
Struxerit insidias notus feritate Lycaon?'
Contremuere omnes, studiisque ardentibus ausum
Talia deposcunt. Sic, cum manus impia saevit



vished but whom he had wished to ravish. — 186. Corpore, with collec. tive meaning; as we say, a body of men. The word occurs in this sense in prose also. - 187. Nereus, a sea-god, here put generally for the sea, Oceanus. — 188. Flumina - infera, flumen inferum, Stygem. — 189. Stygio luco, the grove of Proserpina. Homer, Odyss. x. 509. — 190. Vulnus, the wound for the injured limb. 191. Trahatur, sc. in eandem perniciem, should be corrupted. Epist. ex Ponto, ii. 3, 21: Quo magis admiror, non- Communis vitii te quoque labe trahi. Trist. v. 13, 3: Aeger enim traxi contagia corpore mentis. - 192. Semidei, quibcou.. A mythological conception which does not admit of precise definition; heroes, the offspring of the union of gods and men. Nymphae, also a more or less indefinite conception, generally used collectively; seldom applied to individuals or separately-named divinities. They represent the different powers and operations of nature. — 193. Fauni, Italian wood. gods, therefore almost identical with Silvani, as it stands here instead of the usual singular formn Silvanus, Satyri, Greek divinities in the train of Bacchus; here, as frequently, joined to the Fauni, on account of their sportive nature. Fauniquē. Que is here lengthened by the arsis. So Metam. iii. 530: Vulgusquē proceresque ; iv. 10: Telasquē calathosque ; vii. 225: Othrysquē Pindusque; vii. 265: Seminaquē floresque. So also not unfrequently in Other poets. It is to be observed that the lengthening of the que occurs especially in the arsis of the second foot. - 200. Deposcunt, sc. ad supplicium. Sic cum manus impia saevit. Most commentators believe that this passage alludes to the murder of Julius Caesar, which took place before the birth of Ovid, and therefore more than fifty years before the appearance of the Metamorphoses. The ad. dress to Augustus (a title which Octavianus did not receive till the year 27 B.C.) points to a later period, the later the more appropriate; for the tone of this episode seems to intimate that the event alluded to was of quite recent occurrence. We refer the passage, therefore, to the conspiracy of Cn. Cornelius Cinna, A.D. 4. Dion Cass. lv. 14-22. Saevit is here the perfect instead of saevivit. Gram.

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