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710

715

Inde legit Capreas promontoriumque Minervae
Et Surrentino generosos palmite colles,
Herculeamque urbem Stabiasque et in otia natam
Parthenopen, et ab hac Cumaeae templa Sibyllae.
Hinc calidi fontes lentisciferumque tenentur
Liternum, multamque trahens sub gurgite arenam
Vulturnus, niveisque frequens Sinuessa columbis,
Minturnaeque graves, et quam tumulavit alumnus,
Antiphataeque domus, Trachasque obsessa palude,
Et tellus Circaea et spissi litoris Antium.
Huc ubi veliferam nautae advertere carinam,-
Asper enim jam pontus erat,—deus explicat orbes.
Perque sinus crebros et magna volumina labens,
Templa parentis init flavum tangentia litus.
Aequore pacato patrias Epidaurius aras
Linquit et, hospitio juncti sibi numinis usus,
Litoream tractù squamae crepitantis arenam
Sulcat et, innixus moderamine navis, in alta
Puppe caput posuit, donec Castrumque sacrasque
Lavini sedes Tiberinaque ad ostia venit.
Huc omnes populi passim matrumque patrumque

720

725

luxuriant growth of roses.-709. Capreas, an island to the south of the Bay of Naples; opposite it, in Campania, is the Promontorium Minervae. (Promontorium must here be read as four syllables.) On the summit of this promontory was a temple of Minerva.—710. Surrentinum, of Surrentum, now Sorrento, in Campania, famous for its excellent wine. -711. Herculeamque urbem, Herculanum in the neighbourhood of Naples, Stabiae in the same quarter; the fate of both is well known.712. Parthenopen, old name for Neapolis. It is called in otia nata, on account of the beauty of the region, suitable for retirement and studious leisure ; hence in other authors it is called otiosa, docta, hospita Musis, &c. Cumaeae templa Si. byllae. Cumae, likewise in Campania, north of Naples. Here was the cave of the Cumaean Sibyl, one of the many known to antiquity.—714. Liternum, also Linternum, a town in Campania, where Scipio Africanus spent his last days.-715. Sinuessa, on the boun. dary of Latium and Campania.—716. Minturnae, in the neighbourhood of the Pontine marsh; hence graves, of the oppressive, un. healthy air. Quam tumulavit alumnus, Caieta, the nurse of Aeneas, and here the city named after her. 717. Antiphatae, king of the Laestrygones; he dwelt in Formiae, a town of Latium. Īrachas, Tpaxe.vn, Terracina, also in the neighbourhood of the marshes. 718. Tellus Circaea, Circeii, the land of Circe. Antium, to be read as a dissyllable; it was on the sea-coast of Latium.—722. Parentis, Apollinis. We are not informed of any celebrated temple of Apollo at Antium. Flavum, of the colour of sand. — 727. Castrum, Inui, a town of Latium on the coast. 728. Lavini. This form of the genitive, which was the usual one before the Augustan age, begins in Ovid to be the rarer one, Lavinium, a town of Latium, the Obvia turba ruit, quaeque ignes, Troïca, servant,

730 Vesta, tuos, laetoque deum clamore salutant; Quaque per adversas navis cita ducitur undas, Tura super ripas aris ex ordine factis Parte ab utraque sonant et odorant aëra fumis, Ictaque conjectos incalfacit hostia cultros.

735 Jamque caput rerum Romanam intraverat urbem: Erigitur serpens, summoque acclinia malo Colla movet, sedesque sibi circumspicit aptas. Scinditur in geminas partes circumfluus amnis,Insula nomen habet,-laterumque a parte duorum

740 Porrigit aequales media tellure lacertos: Huc se de Latia pinu Phoebeïus anguis Contulit, et finem specie coeleste resumta

Luctibus imposuit, venitque salutifer Urbi. chief seat of the Latin worship; hence sacrae sedes.—730. Quaeque ignes-tuos, Vestales. Troïca, because Aeneas brought the sacred fire of Vesta from Troy.—734. Odorant aëra fumis, aëra fumo a rebus odoratis excitato implent. -735. Conjectos, sc. in guttura. 740. Insula is here a proper name; the island of the Tiber was so called in every-day life. Laterum a parte duorum, on both sides.743. Coeleste, an old form of the ablative, which Ovid several times employs. Heroid. xvi. 277: a coeleste sagitta. Trist. v. 2, 20: de

Gram. V 65, (a) 3, note.

mare,

JULIUS CAESAR.

Hoc tamen accessit delubris advena nostris ;

745 Caesar in Urbe sua deus est. Quem Marte togaque Praecipuum non bella magis finita triumphis Resque domi gestae properataque gloria rerum In sidus vertere novum stellamque comantem, Quam sua progenies: neque enim de Caesaris actis 750 Ullum majus opus, quam quod pater exstitit hujus.

745. Hic tamen. Hic, Aesculapius. Tamen is frequently employed by Ovid in passing from one fable to another. Advena, in opposition to in Urbe sua ; that is, indiges, indigena.—748. Properata, properanter parta. The objective use of this verb is already known to us from Metam. v. 396 : Usque adeo properatur amor. — 749. Stellamque comantem. The appearance of this comet is more particularly de. scribed, v. 847, foll. — 750. Quam sua progenies. Sua is here used to express the relationship, without the notion of reflection. So v. 819: natusque suus. Compare Fast. iii. 200. Taken strictly, the word progenies, as also genuisse (v. 758), is inapplicable to Augustus, for he was only the adopted son of Caesar, the grandson of his sister. The poet, however, employs the legal fiction for his own

755

760

Scilicet aequoreos plus est domuisse Britannos,
Perque papyriferi septemflua flumina Nili
Victrices egisse rates, Numidasque rebelles
Cinyphiumque Jubam Mithridateïsque tumentem
Nominibus Pontum populo adjecisse Quirini,
Et multos meruisse, aliquos egisse triumphos,
Quam tantum genuisse virum ? quo praeside rerum
Humano generi, superi, cavistis abunde.
Ne foret hic igitur mortali semine cretus,
Ille deus faciendus erat. Quod ut aurea vidit
Aeneae genitrix, vidit quoque triste parari
Pontifici letum et conjurata arma moveri :
Palluit, et cunctis, ut cuique erat obvia, divis
Adspice' dicebat' quanta mihi mole parentur
Insidiae, quantaque caput cum fraude petatur,
Quod de Dardanio solum mihi restat Iulo!
Solane semper ero injustis exercita curis,
Quam modo Tydidae Calydonia vulneret hasta,
Nunc male defensae confundant moenia Trojae
Quae videam natum longis erroribus actum
Jactarique freto sedesque intrare silentum,
Beilaque cum Turno gerere aut-si vera fatemur-
Cum sunone magis ?-Quid nunc antiqua recordor
Damna mei generis ? Timor hic meminisse priorum
Non sinit: in me acui sceleratos cernitis enses !
Quos prohibete, precor, facinusque repellite, neve
Caede sacerdotis flammas exstinguite Vestae!'

765

770

775

purpose.—752. It is not here the intention of the poet to enumerate all the great actions of Julius Caesar, but only those which extended the bounds of the Roman empire.—753. Septemflua flumina, the seven arms into which the Nile is divided at its mouth.—754. Rebelles, who always renewed the war. — 755. Cinyphius, from Cinyps, a river in the north of Africa, which falls into the sea near the Syrtes; the appellation is therefore not strictly applicable to Juba, king of Mauritania. - 756. Nominibus, gloria. Caesar had conquered Pharnaces, the son of Mithridates. — 757. Aliquos egisse triumphos. Julius Caesar triumphed in all five times. 761. Aurea Aeneae genitrix. So Venus aurea, Metam. x. 277.763. Pontifici, 8C. maximo; that is, Caesari. Conjurata arma, arma conjurato

Metam. xii. 6 : Conjurataeque mille rates. So also sceleratos enses, v. 776.765. Dicebat, the imperfect, to indicate a repeated action.—767. De DardanioTulo, the son of Aeneas.-769. Tydidae Calydonia hasta. Diomedes, the son of Tydeus, was grandson of Oeneus, king of Calydon in Aetolia. The fight in which Diomedes wounded Aphrodite is described in the Iliad. — 770. Confundant, animo perturbent. The subjunctive, as in vulneret, in assigning the proof of what she has said, ita ut—vulneret-confundant.—771. Natum, Aenean. 778. Flammas exstinguite Vestae.

The ex

rum.

Talia nequicquam toto Venus anxia coelo
Verba jacit, superosque movet; qui rumpere quan-
quam

780
Ferrea non possunt veterum decreta Sororum,
Signa tamen luctus dant haud incerta futuri.
Arma ferunt inter nigras crepitantia nubes
Terribilesque tubas auditaque cornua coelo
Praemonuisse nefas; solis quoque tristis imago 785
Lurida sollicitis praebebat lumina terris ;
Saepe faces visae mediis ardere sub astris,
Saepe inter nimbos guttae cecidere cruentae;
Caerulus et vultum ferrugine Lucifer atra
Sparsus erat, sparsi lunares sanguine currus;

790 Tristia mille locis Stygius dedit omina bubo; Mille locis lacrimavit ebur, cantusque feruntur Auditi sanctis et verba minantia lucis. Victima nulla litat, magnosque instare tumultus Fibra monet, caesumque caput reperitur in extis. 795 Inque foro circumque domos et templa deorum Nocturnos ululasse canes, umbrasque silentum Erravisse ferunt, motamque tremoribus urbem. Non tamen insidias venturaque vincere fata Praemonitus potuere deum, strictique feruntur

800 In templum gladii: neque enim locus ullus in Urbe Ad facinus diramque placet nisi Curia caedem. Tum vero Cytherea manu percussit utraque Pectus, et aetheria molitur condere nube, Qua prius infesto Paris est ereptus Atridae,

805 Et Diomedeos Aeneas fugerat enses.

Talibus hanc genitor: 'Sola insuperabile fatum, tinction of the fire of Vesta was supposed to indicate a great national alamity. — 781. Ferrea, immutabilia._ Veterum Sororum, senilium sororum ; that is, Parcarum. — 786. Lurida lumina, pale, feeble light. -789. Caerulus, dark-coloured, which is also expressed by ferrugine atra Sparsus. — 790. Lunares currus. The chariot of the moon is mentioned also in the fable of Phaëthon, Netam. ii. 208. - 791. Bubo. The crying of night-birds during the day was looked upon as an evil omen. 792. Ebur, eburneae Deorum

Cantusque— lucis. The sacred groves are the especial abodes of calm and peace. -794. Victima nulla litat, no victim gives a favourable omen.—795. Fibra, the fine fibres of the lungs and liver. Caput, the place where the liver is joined to the diaphragm. It was considered one of the worst omens when this caput was wanting.

-801. Templum, Curiam Pompeiam, for every consecrated place is called templum. - 805–6. Qua prics

Paris and Aeneas, being engaged in single combat, the former with Menelaus, the lat. ter with Diomedes, were both rescued by Venus by means of a cloud.-807. Talibus hanc genitor. The predicate alloquitur is to be

statuae.

enses.

810

815

Nata, movere paras ? Intres licet ipsa Sororum
Tecta trium: cernes illic molimine vasto
Ex aere et solido rerum tabularia ferro,
Quae neque concursum coeli neque fulminis iram
Nec metuunt ullas tuta atque aeterna ruinas.
Invenies illic inclusa adamante perenni
Fata tui generis: legi ipse animoque notavi,
Et referam, ne sis etiamnum ignara futuri.
Hic sua complevit, pro quo, Cytherea, laboras,
Tempora perfectis, quos terrae debuit, annis.
Ut deus accedat coelo templisque locetur,
Tu facies natusque suus, qui nominis heres
Impositum feret unus onus, caesique parentis
Nos in bella suos fortissimus ultor habebit.
Illius auspiciis obsessae moenia pacem
Victa petent Mutinae; Pharsalia sentiet illum,
Emathiaque iterum madefient caede Philippi;

820

supplied, a somewhat rare omission when the object (hanc) is added. --810. Tabularia, archives. The decrees of fate are preserved in these archives, of which the Parcae are the guardians. Ovid gives no indication of the place where we are to imagine the dwelling of the Parcae: other poets place them in Tartarus, but this does not suit the passage before us, where Jupiter says: Intres licet ipsa, and legi ipse ; for the celestial gods were not permitted to enter the infernal regions. Hence Ceres says to Jupiter, Fast. iv. 612: Taenaria recipi me quoque valle jube. 813. Adamas, adamant, an in. destructible metal, usually explained as iron; but we shall do bet. ter not to think of any definite metal at all. —819. Natusque suus. See v. 750. —821. Nos in bella suos-habebit. Suos, with strengthened meaning, equivalent to propitios. So Metam. iv. 373 : Vota suos habuere Deos.—822. Obsessae moeniaMutinae. Mutina, now Modena, was, in the year after the assassination of Caesar, in the hands of Dec. Brutus, and was besieged by Antony. C. Octavius, the future emperor Augustus, along with the consuls Hirtius and Pansa, came to raise the siege. The petitio pacis does not refer to Antony, who escaped to Liguria, but probably to Dec. Brutus, as a considerable number of his army went over to Octavianus.—823. Pharsalia. Unless we are to suppose that Ovid has here fallen into a gross historical error, we must take Pharsalia and Emathia in the widest sense for Macedonia, with which they were both in earlier times united, although Pharsalus was properly in Thessaly, and Philippi in Thrace. The battle at Pharsalus took place, as is well known, between Julius Caesar and Pompey; but Florus, iv. 7 (no great historical authority, it is true), says: Illi comparatis ingentibus copiis eandem illam quae fatalis Cnaeo Pompeio fuit arenam insederant; Macedonia, therefore, at least. -- 824. Iterum, deinde; for the meaning cannot be that a battle had taken place at Philippi before this time : all the accounts which have come down to us, even the most minute, speak only of one battle at Philippi.

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