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Perque deos oro, quos hosti nuper ademi,

375 Per si quid superest, quod sit sapienter agendum, Si quid adhuc audax ex praecipitique petendum, Si Trojae fatis aliquid restare putatis, Este mei memores; aut si mihi non datis arma, Huic date !!—et ostendit signum fatale Minervae.

380 Mota manus procerum est, et, quid facundia posset, Re patuit, fortisque viri tulit arma disertus. Hectora qui solus, qui ferrum ignemque Jovemque Sustinuit toties, unam non sustinet iram ; Invictumque virum vincit dolor. Arripit ensem 385 Et 'Meus hic certe est! An et hunc sibi poscet Ulixes? Hoc' ait 'utendum est in me mihi; quique cruore Saepe Phrygum maduit, domini nunc caede madebit

, Ne quisquam Ajacem possit superare nisi Ajax !' Dixit, et in pectus tum demum vulnera passum, 390 Qua patuit ferro, letalem condidit ensem. Nec valuere manus infixum educere telum ; Expulit ipse cruor, rubefactaque sanguine tellus Purpureum viridi genuit de cespite florem,

ii. 7, 76: Ille (animus) etiam vires corpus habere facit. — 375. Per. que deos, per Palladium. The plural exaggerates his merit. — 376. Per si quid superest. Si quid is a more modest expression for quicquid: per is therefore joined with it, as if it could be declined; properly, per omnia quae supersunt.' So Metam. vii. 854: Per si quid merui de te bene.—377. Ex praecipiti, e loco periculoso.-378. Trojae fatis, iis quae per_fata Trojae accidere debent. Fatis is therefore the dative, and Trojae the genitive. It seems less poetical to take fatis for the ablative, in which case Trojae would be the dative. — 380. Fatale, on which the fate of Troy depends. — 381. Quid facundia posset Re patuit. The idea of the whole fable is here expressed in few words; it is the triumph of mind, and in particular of eloquence, over rude power, for which reason this theme was a favourite in the schools of rhetoric at Rome. — 383. Qui ferrum ignemque Jovemque, a repetition, word for word, of what Ajax had said, v. 91. — 390. The well-known story, which Sophocles follows in his Ajax, is, that Ajax was seized with mad. ness, and in this madness slew himself. — 391. Qua patuit ferro, where he was vulnerable. See v. 266. - 394. Purpureum florem, the hyacinth. There were two accounts of the origin of this flower given by the Greek poets; Ovid had already treated the one, the transformation of Hyacinthus, in the tenth book, and he now introduces the other also, as otherwise the Armorum Judicium would have no right to a place in the Metamorphoses. He therefore unites both accounts, and makes the flower spring from the blood of both Hyacinthus and Ajax. What flower is here meant cannot be determined with certainty. It has been supposed by some that larkspur is referred to; by others, lilies of different kinds; by others, a particular kind of iris; in all of which the letters AI have Qui prius Oebalio fuerat de vulnere natus.

395 Litera communis mediis pueroque viroque

Inscripta est foliis, haec nominis, illa querelae. been, with some help of the fancy, distinguished.-395. Prius, jam prius. Oebalio de vulnere, from the wound of Hyacinthus, the son of Oebalus.—396. Pueroque viroque, Hyacintho et Ajaci.—397. Haec nominis, the first syllable of Alas. Illa querelae, the exclamation al.

GALATEA ET POLYPHEMUS,

The subject of the following fable is Sicilian, and therefore a

favourite theme with the Sicilian poets. It has been treated by Theocritus and Bion, besides a number of others whose works have not come down to us. “Acis erat, Fauno Nymphaque Symaethide cretus, 750 Magna quidem patrisque sui matrisque voluptas, Nostra tamen major : nam me sibi junxerat uni Pulcher; et octonis iterum natalibus actis Signarat teneras dubia lanugine malas. Hunc ego, me Cyclops nullo cum fine petebat;

755 Nec, si quaesieris, odium Cyclopis amorne Acidis in nobis fuerit praestantior, edam : Par utrumque fuit. Pro, quanta potentia regni Est, Venus alma, tui! Nempe ille immitis et ipsis Horrendus silvis et visus ab hospite nullo

760 Impune et magni cum dis contemtor Olympi, Quid sit amor sentit, nostrique cupidine captus Uritur, oblitus pecorum antrorumque suorum. Jamque tibi formae, jamque est tibi cura placendi, Jam rigidos pectis rastris, Polypheme, capillos, 765

750. Galatea herself relates the story of Scylla. Fauno. See Metam. i. 193. Nymphaque Symaethide, daughter of the river Symaethus in the east of Sicily, not far from Catana. Acis is therefore the son of the wood and of the river; that is, since he is himself a stream, the tributary of a wood-river.-752. Me sibi junxerat uni, he had bound me to himself alone, so that I could not bestow my love on any other. —753. Octonis iterum natalibus actis, sixteen years old, by a periphrasis of frequent occurrence with the poets.754. Signarat malas. The operation of nature is here ascribed to the man as his own work. Dubia lanugine, dum dubium esset, utrum lanugo esset an barba.—756. Odium Cyclopis, amorne Acidis, hatred, against the Cyclops, love for Acis.—760. Visus ab hospite nullo Impune, as is well known from the story of Ulysses.—761. Magni Olympi. Compare below, v. 843. — 765. Rastris --falce. Ovid seeks to invest the whole account with a shade of burlesque.

Jam libet hirsutam tibi falce recidere barbam,
Et spectare feros in aqua et componere vultus.
Caedis amor feritasque sitisque immensa cruoris
Cessant, et tutae veniuntque abeuntque carinae.
Telemus interea Siculam delatus ad Aetnen,

770
Telemus Eurymides, quem nulla fefellerat ales,
Terribilem Polyphemon adit, “Lumenque, quod unum
Fronte geris media rapiet tibi dixit • Ulixes.'
Risit et 'O vatum stolidissime, falleris' inquit:
Altera jam rapuit. Sic frustra vera monentem 775
Spernit, et aut gradiens ingenti litora passu
Degravat, aut fessus sub opaca revertitur antra.
Prominet in pontum cuneatus acumine longo
Collis, utrumque latus circumfluit aequoris unda :
Huc ferus adscendit Cyclops mediusque resedit, 780
Lanigerae pecudes nullo ducente secutae.
Cui postquam pinus, baculi quae praebuit usum,
Ante pedes posita est, antennis apta ferendis,
Sumtaque arundinibus compacta est fistula centum,
Senserunt toti pastoria sibila montes,

785 Senserunt undae. Latitans ego rupe, meique Acidis in gremio residens, procul auribus hausi Talia dicta meis, auditaque mente notavi: "Candidior folio nivei, Galatea, ligustri, Floridior prato, longa procerior alno,

790 Splendidior vitro, tenero lascivior haedo, Laevior assiduo detritis aequore conchis, Solibus hibernis, aestiva gratior umbra, Nobilior palmis, platano conspectior alta, Lucidior glacie, matura dulcior uva,

795 Mollior et cygni plumis et lacte coacto,

-767. Componere vultus, to put on a kind face.-770. Telemus Eurymides. Telemus, son of Eurymus, is mentioned in Homer as the soothsayer of the Cyclops.-771. Quem-ales, whom no bird had ever deceived; that is, who knew how to distinguish whether any bird foreboded fate or not.—775. Altera jam rapuit. Expression of one in love, his lover robs him of his eyes. Amor. ii. 19, 19: Tu quoque quae nostros rapuisti ocellos. Altera is used where the question is about two only, here Ulysses and Galatea: Ulysses, he says, cannot rob him of his sight, for Galatea has already done it. Metam. xiv. 378: Altera captum me tenet.-780. Medius, in medio colle. Metam. x. 143: inque ferarum Concilio medius turba volucrumque sedebat.-784. Arundinibus--centum. In another passage of Ovid the shepherd's pipe consists of seven reeds, here of a hundred, in keeping with the gigantic stature of Polyphemus. 787. Hausi, drank in the sound ; that is, listened attentively. 789. Ligustri, Ligustrum vulgare, L., a white flower- 795. Lucidior, clearer, referring to the colour of the skin; whereas splen

Et, si non fugias, riguo formosior horto;
Saevior indomitis eadem Galatea juvencis,
Durior annosa quercu, fallacior undis,
Lentior et salicis virgis et vitibus albis,

800
His immobilior scopulis, violentior amne,
Laudato pavone superbior, acrior igni,
Asperior tribulis, feta truculentior ursa,
Surdior aequoribus, calcato immitior hydro,
Et, quod praecipue vellem tibi demere possem, 805
Non tantum cervo claris latratibus acto,
Verum etiam ventis volucrique fugacior aura !
At bene si noris, pigeat fugisse, morasque
Ipsa tuas damnes, et me retinere labores.
Sunt mihi, pars montis, vivo pendentia saxo

810 Antra, quibus nec sol medio sentitur in aestu, Nec sentitur hiems; sunt pomu gravantia ramos; Sunt auro similes longis in vitibus uvae, Sunt et purpureae : tibi et has servamus et illas. Ipsa tuis manibus silvestri nata sub umbra

815 Mollia fraga leges; ipsa autumnalia corna, Prunaque non solum nigro liventia suco, Verum etiam generosa novasque imitantia ceras; Nec tibi castaneae me conjuge, nec tibi deerunt Arbutei fetus: omnis tibi serviet arbos.

820 Hoc pecus omne meum est; multae quoque vallibus errant, Multas silva tegit, multae stabulantur in antris. Nec, si forte roges, possim tibi dicere, quot sint: Pauperis est numerare pecus.

De laudibus harum Nil mihi credideris; prausens potes ipsa videre, 825

didior, v. 791, means shining more brightly.798. Eadem Galatea, repeated to strengthen the contrast: the same Galatea who has those excellent qualities, is also at the same time, &c. — 799. Fal. lacior undis, more deceitful than the sea, which often appears calm, and thereby occasions the sailor the greater danger. – 800. Lentior, more coy ; lentus, applied to virga, means tough. - 803. Tribulis, Tribulus terrestris, L., a plant with a prickly fruit. Feta ursa, the she-bear is most furious when she has just brought forth. 804. Surdior, more inexorable. —810. Vivo pendentia saxo, hanging with living stone. The stone, as the chief material of which they are composed, is looked upon as the instrument by which they hang. A more simple expression would be: in quibus viva saxa suspensa sunt.

So Amor. iii. 1, 3: speluncaque pumice pendens. 816. Fraga

See above, Metam. i. 104, 105. -817. Nigro liventia suco, dark-blue, the common plum. - -818. Generosa, noble; novasque imitantia ceras, a particular kind of plums, of the colour of wax.- 819. Deerunt, a dissyllable, by synaeresis. —820. Arbutei fetus. See Metam. i. 104. You shall not want the usual fruits also, chestnuts and strawberries. —821. Multae. We must supply

corna.

Ut vix sustineant distentum cruribus uber.
Sunt fetura minor, tepidis in ovilibus agni;
Sunt quoque, par aetas, aliis in ovilibus hoedi.
Lac mihi semper adest niveum: pars inde bibenda
Servatur, partem liquefacta coagula durant.

830
Nec tibi deliciae faciles vulgataque tantum
Munera contingent, damae leporesque capraeque
Parque columbarum demtusque cacumine nidus:
Inveni geminos, qui tecnm ludere possint,
Inter se similes, vix ut dignoscere possis,

835 Villosae catulos in summis montibus ursae; Inveni et dixi: Dominae servabimus istos.? Jam modo caeruleo nitidum caput exsere ponto, Jam, Galatea, veni, nec munera despice nostra ! Certe ego me novi, liquidaeque in imagine vidi 840 Nuper aquae, placuitque mihi mea forma videnti. Adspice sim quantus! Non est hoc corpore major Jupiter in coelo: nam vos narrare soletis Nescio quem regnare Jovem. Coma plurima torvos Prominet in vultus, humerosque ut lucus obumbrat. 845 Nec mea quod rigidis horrent densissima setis Corpora, turpe puta : turpis sine frondibus arbos, Turpis equus, nisi colla jubae flaventia velent. Pluma tegit volucres, ovibus sua lana decori est: Barba viros hirtaeque decent in corpore setae.

850 Unum est in media lumen mihi fronte, sed instar Ingentis clypei. Quid ? non haec omnia magno Sol videt e coelo? Solis tamen unicus orbis. Adde, quod in vestro genitor meus aequore regnat: Hunc tibi do socerum. Tantum miserere, precesque

855 Supplicis exaudi: tibi enim succumbimus uni; Quique Jovem et coelum sperno et penetrabile fulmen, Neres, te vereor: tua fulmine saevior ira est.

pecudes or oves from the preceding pecus. - 826. Join: cruribus sustineant distent uber. 827. Fetura minor, the younger race. 828. Par aetas, an equal age; that is, a race of equal age. 830. Partem coagula durant. Coagula, runnet, pieces of the stomach of the calf, dried, steeped in water (liquefacta), and then thrown into milk, which is thereby curdled (durant). —837. Dominae. The odious sense attached by the Romans to the word dominus begins in the Augustan age to disappear. — 844. Nescio quem, contemptuously. Torvos, severos, viriles. — 854. Genitor, Neptunus. —-857. Penetrabile, in active sense. So Metam. v. 67: penetrabile telum. On the other hand, xii. 166: Corpus nullo penetrabile telo. - 858. Nerež. The second syllable is here, and in many other passages short, according to the rule vocalis ante vocalem corripitur. Elsewhere it follows the Greek quantity Nnpris ;

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