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Hector erat. Tum colla jugo candentia pressos
Exhortatus equos, currum direxit in hostem,
Concutiensque suis vibrantia tela lacertis
Quisquis es, o juvenis, solatia mortis habeto,

80
Dixit ‘ab Haemonio quod sis jugulatus Achille!'
Hactenus Aeacides; vocem gravis hasta secuta est.
Sed quanquam certa nullus fuit error in hasta,
Nil tamen emissi profecit acumine ferri.
Utque hebeti pectus tantummodo contudit ictu,

85 Nate dea-nam te fama praenovimus'-inquit Ille quid a nobis vulnus miraris abesse ?! Mirabatur enim— Non haec, quarn cernis, equinis Fulva jubis cassis, neque onus cava parma sinistrae Auxilio mihi sunt; decor est quaesitus ab istis.

90 Mars quoque ob hoc capere arma solet. Removebitur Tegminis officium ; tamen indestrictus abibo. Est aliquid, non esse satum Nereide, sed qui Nereaque et natas et totum temperat aequor.' Dixit, et haesurum clypei curvamine telum

95 Misit in Aeaciden, quod et aes et proxima rupit Terga novena boum, decimo tamen orbe moratum est. Excutit hoc heros, rursusque trementia forti

omne

annum Hector erat ; that is, Hectoris mors a fato dilata erat. — 77.

Tum equos, a somewhat awkward expression. Join: tum exhortatus equos pressos jugo (qui jugo pressi erant) colla candentia. So guttura pressus, Metam. ix. 78. For jugo premi, compare i. 124 : pressique jugo gemuere juvenci.-79. Vibrantia tela. Vibrare is here intransitive, as Metam. iii. 34: Tresque vibrant linguae. 81. Haemonio, Thessalo, because Phthiotis, the home of Achilles, was a part of Thessaly.-82. Aeacides, grandson of Aeacus, son of Peleus. — 83. Error, the turning aside from the mark. Nullus fuit error in hasta, an unusual expression, as if missing the mark were a property contained in other lances, but not in this one. We may translate fuit, was possible. —85. Hebeti ictu. The epithet is transferred from the weapon to the stroke, by a metonymy frequent in all languages. — 92. Tegminis officium, omne quod officium tegendi praestat; hence omne tegmen. The stress is laid on a property of the object, to denote the object itself. Similarly Metam. i. 744 : Officioque pedum Nymphe contenta duorum Erigitur. Indestrictus, ne leviter quidem vulneratus. Compare v. 101. — 93. Est aliquid, with great emphasis: it is an incalculable advantage. Metam. xii. 241 : Est aliquid de tot Graiorum milibus unum A Diomede legi. Sed qui, sed ab eo qui. Such an omission is unusual, and would not occur in simple prose. -95. Haesurum, destined to stick. Clypei curvamine, curvo clypeo, a similar case to that explained v. 92. - 97. Novena decimo. According Homer there were only five. Terga, coria. Orbe, as the shie

100

105

Tela manu torsit; rursus sine vulnere corpus
Sincerumque fuit. Nec tertia cuspis

apertum
Et se praebentem valuit distringere Cygnum.
Haud secus exarsit, quam circo taurus aperto,
Cum sua terribili petit irritamina cornu,
Puniceas vestes, elusaque vulnera sentit.
Num tamen exciderit ferrum considerat hastae;
Haerebat ligno. "Manus est mea debilis ergo,
Quasque' ait 'ante habuit vires, effudit in uno?
Nam certe valuit, vel cum Lyrnesia primum
Moenia disjeci, vel cum Tenedunque suoque
Eëtioneas implevi sanguine Thebas,
Vel cum purpureus populari caede Caïcus
Fluxit, opusque meae bis sensit Telephus hastae.
Hic quoque tot caesis, quorum per litus acervos
Et feci et video, valuit mea dextra valetque.'
Dixit et, ante actis veluti male crederet, hastam
Misit in adversum Lycia de plebe Menoeten,
Loricamque simul subjectaque pectora rupit.
Quo plangente gravem moribundo vertice terram
Extrahit illud idem calido de vulnere telum,

110

115

was round, so also the skin with which it was covered.—100. Sincerum, uninjured, as Metam. i. 101: ne pars sincera trahatur. Aper. tum, equivalent to : se praebentem, in allusion to v. 91, Removebitur omne Tegminis officium. --103. Sua irritamina is sufficiently ex. plained by puniceas vestes. It was usual, before the fight, to rouse the bulls into fury by all kinds of red objects. — 104. Žlusaque vulnera sentit, he perceives that the wounds, which he thought io inflict on the object held before him, are eluded. Eludere, to evade, of the gladiator, with the collateral notion that, by evading, he mocks his opponent, makes him ridiculous. — 107. Effudit in uno, in the case of one, in fighting with one. In unum would denote that the power passed over to another. — 108. Lyrnesia Moenia. Lyrnesus or Lyrnessus, a city in Mysia. It was there that Briseïs was born, about whom the strife arose between Agamemnon and Achilles (in the beginning of the Iliad).—109. Tenedon. The island of that name, on the Trojan coast. -110. Eëtioneas Thebas. A town on the coast of Mysia, belonging to Troas, where Eition, the father of Andromache, was king.–111. Caïcus. A river in Mysia, purpureus with blood (populari caede). Those who dwell in the neighbourhood of the river are its countrymen (populares).-112. Telephus, likewise a Mysian king, son of Hercules and Auge. He was wounded by Achilles, and the oracle declared that the wound could only be healed by the same weapon that had caused it. He therefore applied to Achilles, and received from him some rust scraped from his spear; with this he was cured. Metam. xiii. 171: Ego Telephon hasta Pugnantem domui, victum orantemque refeci.-113. Per litus, over the whole shore. 115. Male crederet, non fidem haberet. Male, not enough, too little. — 116. In adversum, in front, facing

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Atque ait: ‘Haec manus est, haec, qua modo vicimus, hasta :

120 Utar in hoc isdem : sit in hoc precor exitus idem.' Sic fatur Cygnumque petit: nec fraxinus errat, Inque humero sonuit non evitata sinistro; Inde, velut muro solidave a caute repulsa est. Qua tamen ictus erat, signatum sanguine Cygnum 125 Viderat et frustra fuerat gavisus Achilles : Vulnus erat nullum; sanguis erat ille Menoetae. Tum vero praeceps curru fremebundus ab alto Desilit et nitido securum cominus hostem Ense petens, parmam gladio galeamque cavari 130 Cernit

, at in duro laedi quoque corpore ferrum. Haud tulit ulterius, clypeoque adversa reducto Ter quater ora viri, capulo cava tempora pulsat, Cedentique sequens instat turbatque ruitque, Attonitoque negat requiem. Pavor occupat illum, 135 Ante oculosque natant tenebrae. Retroque ferenti Aversos passus medio lapis obstit arvo: Quem super impulsum resupino corpore Cygnum Vi multa vertit terraeque afflixit Achilles. Tum, clypeo genibusque premens praecordia duris, 140 Vincla trahit galeae, quae presso subdita mento Elidunt fauces, et respiramen iterque Eripiunt animae. Victum spoliare parabat; Arma relicta videt: corpus deus aequoris albam Contulit in volucrem, cujus modo nomen habebat. 145

him, in opposition to aversum. - 122. Fraxinus, by a not unusual metonymy for hasta, because the spears were made of ash. — 124. Velut muro solidave a caute repulsa est. The preposition belongs to muro also, a favourite mode of expression with the Greek and Latin poets. So Metam. vii. 708: Pectore Procris erat, Procris mihi semper in ore.—126. Viderat et fuerat gavisus, the pluperfect, to denote ihat the impression was only momentary. - 127. Sanguis. The lengthening of the last syllable by the arsis is of frequent occurrence with this and similar words which preserve the i in declension, in particular therefore with those which have the accusative in im, or the ablative in i. — 130. Cavare, to hollow, to pierce. - 136. Ante oculos natant tenebrae, his eyes grow dim, here graphically expressed by the swimming motion of dark clouds before the eyes 138. Impulsum resupino corpore, stumbling backwards. — 139. Vertit dragged him hither and thither. — 142. Elidunt, crush. So caput elidere in Plautus.

ACHILLIS MORS.

AFTER an episode of some length the thread of the narrative is here

resumed, and a short account given of the death of Achilles.
At deus, aequoreas qui cuspide temperat undas, 580
In volucrem corpus nati Stheneleïda versum
Mente dolet patria, saevumque perosus Achillem
Exercet memores plus quam civiliter iras;
Jamque fere tracto duo per quinquennia bello,
Talibus intonsum compellat Sminthea dictis :

585 "O mihi de fratris longe gratissime natis, Irrita qui mecum posuisti moenia Trojae, Ecquid, ubi has jam jam casuras adspicis arces, Ingemis; aut ecquid tot defendentia muros Milia caésa doles ? Ecquid, ne persequar omnes,

590 Hectoris umbra subit circum sua Pergama tracti, Cum tamen ille ferox belloque cruentior ipso Vivit adhuc, operis nostri populator, Achilles ? Det mihi se: faxo, triplici quid cuspide possim,

580. Cuspide, v. 594: triplici cuspide ; that is, tridente. — 581. Stheneleïda. Cygnus, the friend of Phaëthon, was the son of Sthe. nelus, king of the Ligurians. We must therefore suppose, if the reading is correct, that Ovid wishes to intimate that the Cygnus in the present fable was changed into a bird already existing, cujus modo nomen habebat (v. 145), and thereby refers us back to the original Cygnus. Compare xiii. 395.582. Dolet, properly: regrets it, for it was himself that transformed him.-583. Memores iras. The attribute which belongs to the subject is here transferred to the anger. Metam. iv. 190: Exigit memorem Cythereïa poenam; xiv. 477: Memores de vulnere poenas Exigit. Civiliter, properly: as citizens should act towards citizens; hence: moderately, considerately. Plus quam civiliter. Magis is usually joined to adjectives and adverbs; plus is strictly employed to indicate that the adjective does not exactly express the truth, does not completely exhaust the thought. Just as in the present passage, Lucan says in the beginning of his poem: Bella plus quam civilia, more than civil wars, wars between such as stand in a still nearer relation than that of citizen to citizen. So in Livy: Perfidia plus quam Punica; Cic. Phil. ii. 13: Confitebor eos plus quam sicarios esse. Exercet iras, not outwardly, in actions, but concipit animo, gerit animo.—585. Sminthea, from Sminthus, a town in Troas, noted for the worship of Apollo. — 587. Irrita Trojae. Neptune and Apollo assisted Laomedon to build the walls of Troy. By irrita Neptune seeks to rouse the anger of Apollo.—588. Ecquid, an urgent inquiry, here strengthened by its repetition.-591. Hectoris-tracti. This is the later fable. In Homer, Achilles drags the corpse of Hector only round the grave of Patroclus.—592. Bello cruentior ipso, an unusual comparison of a man with a (no doubt personified) abstraction.594. Det mihi se, let him only trust himself to me; that is, let him

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Sentiat. At quoniam concurrere cominus hosti

595 Non datur: occulta necopinum perde sagitta !' Annuit, atque animo pariter patruique suoque Delius indulgens, nebula velatus in agmen Pervenit Iliacum, mediaque in caede virorum Rara per ignotos spargentem cernit Achivos

600 Tela Parin ; fassusque deum 'Quid spicula perdis Sanguine plebis ? ait. “Si qua est tibi cura tuorum, Vertere in Aeaciden, caesosque ulciscere fratres !! Dixit et, ostendens sternentem. Troïca ferro Corpora Peliden, arcus obvertit in illum,

605 Certaque letifera direxit spicula dextra. Quod Priamus gaudere senex post Hectora posset, Hoc fuit. · Ille igitur tantorum victor, Achille, Vinceris a timido Graiae raptore maritae ! At si femineo fuerat tibi Marte cadendum,

610 Thermodontiaca malles cecidisse bipenni. Jam timor ille Phyrgum, decus et tutela Pelasgi Nominis, Aeacides, caput insuperabile bello, Arserat: armarat deus idem, idemque cremarat. Jam cinis est, et de tam magno restat Achille

615 Nescio quid, parvam quod non bene compleat urnam. At vivit, totum quae gloria compleat orbem. Haec illi mensura viro respondet, et hac est Par sibi Pelides, nec inania. Tartara sentit. Ipse etiam, ut, cujus fuerit, cognoscere possis,

620 Bella movet clypeus, deque armis arma feruntur. Non ea Tydides, non audet Oïleos Ajax,

Non minor Atrides, non bello major et aevo only venture on the sea. Faxo. Gram. 146, 6.—596. Non datur, sc. nobis, for both are meant. The emphasis lies on cominus and occulta.-601. Fassusque deum, fassusque se deum esse; properly : confessing the god that was concealed under the cloud. --607. Quod -gaudere posset. Instead of the ablative or a preposition with its case, gaudere here takes the accusative of a pronoun. See above, vi. 194. Post Hectora, post Hectora interfectum. Posset. The subjunctive may be explained by understanding some such condition as : if he were now capable of joy.--611. Thermodontiaca-bipenni, by an Amazon, for the Amazons dwelt in the neighbourhood of the Thermodon. — 612. Pelasgi Nominis, like nomen Latinum, where nomen is equivalent to race, nation, especially with reference to military affairs.—614. Deus idem, Vulcan, who had made the armour of Achilles.-616. Nescio quid, used to express what is trifling, insignificant. Non bene, not completely, scarcely.--618. Haec mensura ; namely, totius orbis.—621. Bella movet, usually of the party that commences war; here only occasions war. Arma feruntur, not strictly, for the strife is carried on not with weapons, but with words. The expression is chosen for the sake of the juxtaposition, armis arına. -623. Minor Atrides, Menelaus; bello major et aevo,

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