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35th Cong....1st Sess.
Report of the Commissioner of Public Buildings.
SENATE & Ho. OF REPs.
the Army cases, death must not only have re
War of 1812.
manifested by the officers connected with this sulted from the same causes, but such causes must 69 warrants to the non-commissioned
bureau, in the discharge of their various duties. have originated in time of war. On the other hand;
officers, &c., for 160 acres each,
I have the honor to be, with great respect, your making.......... ::..........
66 the death of the Navy officer must have occurred
4,491,040 warrant under a special act, for..
obedient servant, GEO. C. WHITING, in the service, while, as to the Army claimant, it 1,102 warrants under the act of Decem
Commissioner. is immaterial whether the death occurred in or
ber 10, 1814, for double bounty, or
320 acres each, making........... out of the service. Again, as to the duration of
Hon. JACOB THOMPSON, Secretary of the Interior.
276 warrants to commissioned and nonhalf-pay pensions: Army pensions to widows are
commissioned Canadian officers, for the term of five years, renewable for a second
for, in all.......................
75,792 « Report of the Commissioner of Public term of five years. If terminated by marriage,
Buildings. the right thereto is revived by subsequent widow 80,181 warrants to non-commissioned ofhood. Navy pensions to widows are during life
ficers, &c., for 160 acres each,
OFFICE COMMISSIONER PUBLIC BUILDINGS, or widowhood; and if terminated by marriage, m aking......................... 1 28,960
October 15, 1857. are not renewable upon recurrence of widowhood. 7,534 warrants for 40 acres each, making 301,360 «
Sir: I am required by the fifteenth section of These discriminations are obviously unjust,
Under act 28th September, 1850, and
the civil and diplomatic act approved August 4, and ought to be removed; and the pension system
1854, to report to you annually the operations of
973 warrants of all denominations, callso modified as to make equal provision for the
ing for the aggregate quantity of.. 13,848,880 "
this office, and the manner of applying the apofficers and men of both arms of the service, (hav
Under act of 3d March, 1855, and
propriations to be disbursed under its direction, ing proper regard to their relative rank,) and for
amendatory act of 14th May, 1856.
in time to accompany the President's message to their widows and orphans.. || 214,394 warrants, covering, in the aggre
Congress, and I now respectfully proceed to disI would also particularly invite your attention
.... 26,710,670 6
charge this duty. to the insufficiency of the lower grades of pension
In addition to the usual annual repairs of the to afford, what was doubtless the benevolent inten
Making the entire quantity of pub-
Capitol, I have been obliged to repair the heavy tion of Congress, the means of support. It cannot
States for military service........ 60,704,942 « damage it sustained from the great hail-storm that be supposed, for example, that $3 50 per month
occurred on the 21st of June. Every skylight in would support either an invalid totally disabled, During the past year ten persons have been the building was broken, not only the exterior, or a widow; especially should shę have, as is often | convicted, and are now undergoing punishment, but the costly interior glass; and the copper roof the case, helpless children depending upon her; for the presentation to this office of false and was materially injured. The roof also unavoidand as disability is the meritorious ground of forged bounty land claims, for the purpose of de ably suffers much damage from the work going claim upon the country for assistance, the relief frauding the United States. Others are under on in rebuilding the dome, but by carefully watchafforded should commence and end with the dis indictments yet pending; and there are several ing it, and making repairs as soon as needed, I ability, and be subject to corresponding muta others against whom the evidence of guilt was so think' it can be preserved from leaking. I have tions, and be increased or diminish d accordingly; conclusive that steps have been taken for their also caused such portions of the wood and iron but no person holding a Federal office, or in the arrest. The quantity of land involved in these work about the Capitol as was likely to be inreceipt of a regular salary, should be allowed at fraudulent applications is about sixty-three thou-l jured from exposure to the weather to be rethe same rime lo draw pension as an invalid; nor sand acres, all of which will doubtless be saved to painted. The chandeliers in the Senate Chamber should any officer, &c., of the Army or Navy be the Government by the timely entry of caveats and Hall of Representatives, which had become permitted to draw a pension whilst in the service against the issuing of patents in cases where war much defaced and out of order from long use, and in the receipt of pay equal to that of the rank rants had issued before the frauds were discovered. have been thoroughly repaired and renovated, and held at the time of becoming disabled.
But while the office has been fortunate enough in all the gas fittings throughout the building are
most cases to detect the fraud in time to prevent now in good condition. The annoyance occaBOUNTY LAND.
loss to the United States, it has not always been sioned by the frost in the winter and spring of • The several acts of Congress granting bounty able to do so in time to institute the proper judi 1856, in frequently preventing half the lamps from lands to certain of the officers and soldiers of the cial proceedings within the period of two years burning, induced me to send an agent last fall to Revolution, of the war of 1812, the war with fixed by the statute of limitation. If any change the northern cities to inquire into the manner of Mexico, and the various Indian wars since 1790, ll in the statute of limitations, in respect to frauds | lighting, and the means of preventing the trouwhich were passed prior to that of 3d March,1855, or offenses generally, be repugnant to justice or bles which were the source of so much complaint had then been so nearly executed that it seems sound policy, it is, nevertheless, respectfully sug in this city. His inquiries resulted in the asceruseless longer to recapitulate the annual operations gested whether the ease with which frauds may tainment of much interesting and useful informaof the office under them.
be perpetrated against this office, and the difficulty tion in regard to the whole subject of gas lightOn the 30th September, 1856, the number of bounty land
attending the collection of the proofs, should not || ing. He was enabled to apply an effectual remedy claims on the files, under the act of 3d March, 1855, which constitute an exception to the general policy. to the evils of which we complained, and ever had been examined and suspended, and were awaiting There is another class of frauds, but for which, l since there has been no interruption to the lights explanation or additional evidence, and, therefore, con
it has been decided in the United States circuit from the effects of frost. The roof of the Presstantly liable to be called up for reëxamination with a view to their admission, or to answer inquiries relating
court in the State of Ohio, punishment cannot be ident's house has also suffered much damage thereto, was .................."
inficted under existing laws, viz: the imitation from the hail-storm. The copper was perforated The nuinber then in the othice, or in the various
or counterfeiting of bounty-land warrants or cer- ll in many places, and the joints generally loosened. offices where the rolls are kept, and wbich had never been examined, was......
tificates. The office is aware of recent attempts || The consequence was, the roof had to be over
41,449 The number of claims received at the office, regis
to renew this kind of imposition, but to what | hauled, thoroughly repaired, and painted. This tered and referred during the year ending 30th
extent, or with what success, is not known. The involved a considerable expenditure, which was September, 1857, was........................
23,600 attention of Congress was invited to this subject not taken into account in preparing my estimate Making the whole number of claims before the of
by your immediate predecessor; but no remedy || for the usual annual repairs of the house and tice during the last year.......
for the evil having been provided, it is thus brought grounds.
to your notice for such further action as you may Thegreen-houses in the President's garden were During the year 41,483 warrants have been isdeem necessary and proper.
likewise very much damaged by the hail: more
The labors of the office under this head during sued, requiring to satisfy them 5,952,160 acres of
than five thousand panes of glass were destroyed. the public domain, as follows:
the past year do not compare favorably with those The ceiling of the east room and the wood
of the preceding year, if we look alone at the work of the principal stories have been appro29,314 warrants for 160 acres each, requiring 4,690,240 acres.
number of bounty land claims received and war7,302 6 6 120 “ 876,420 «
priately painted. Many other improvements have 4,764 " 66 80
rants issued. li should, however, be borne in been made in and about the building, which were 13 16 16 60 16
mind that the reëxamination of suspended claims absolutely necessary, and with which it would not 3,480
involves greater care and more patient investiga3 66 101 16 « 300
be proper to lumber this report. I will, however, tion than original or new claims do; that with the mention that a ventilating flue was built from the
lapse of time since the passage of the act, the
5,952,160 acres. 41,483
basement to the upper story, which has evidently impatience of parties to learn the fate of their produced a great improvement in the atmosphere
claims increases the number of inquiries to be of the house, which before was pent up and damp The number of claims on the suspended files on
answered by letter and otherwise; that a consid whenever the windows were closed for a few the 30th of September last, was 59,190; so that,
erable portion of the clerical force of the office is at that time, the whole number of claims in the
now engaged in reëxamining and correcting the The new stable for the President's house has different offices where the rolls are kept, and those
old temporary registers, and in the preparation been erected, and is ready for use. A conserv. undergoing some of the various processes in this of new and permanent ones; and that, withal, the
atory has been built on the west terrace, and is office prior to final action, was 8,116.
number of clerks employed was reduced during so near completion that in a few days the plants The quantity of land granted under operation
the first six months of the year from one hundred may be transferred to it. The President's house, of all the bounty land laws of the United States,
and thirty-five to eighty-seven, and the expendi as is well known, is in a very unhealthy location. to the 30th September last, is as follows:
tures on account of clerk hire from $195,640 to Its inmates are subject to intermittent fever, which REVOLUTIONARY WAR.
$129,240, besides material reductions in the con of late years has proved obstinate and difficult of 955 warrants to the commissioned ofhcers of the contitingent expenses.
cure. The knowledge of this fact has frequently nental lines of the revolutionary army, for quanti
The business of the office is generally as nearly elicited the suggestion that a country residence, ties varying from 150 to 1,100 acres, and being, in / up to date in its various branches as its nature convenient to the city, ought to be provided for the aggregate.........
the President, where he could take up bis abode 12,666 warrants to the non-commissioned
I cannot, with justice, close this report without during the sickly months of summer and fall... officers, &c., of the revolutionary war. for 100 acres each, making... 1,266,600 « ll bearing willing testimony to the fidelity and zoal || 'A new building in some other part of the city
35TH CONG....1st Sess.
Report of the Commissioner of Public Buildings.
SENATE & Ho. of Reps.
would doubtless obviate the objection to the pres- them whole pieces of the flagging were removed, } Congress, on or before the first of next month, ent location, but none so central and convenient have been repaired. Workmen have been for unless prevented by unfavorable weather or some could be found. The coat of a summer residence some time and are still engaged in repairing the disappointment not now anticipated. for the President would be inconsiderable in com carriage-way. It is difficult to keep the avenue The injury sustained by the Potomac bridge parison with the object desired to be attained. in good condition, as the cobble-stones of which from the tremendous and unusual flood of ice at 'The frequent and heavy rains with which the it is paved are easily started from their beds by the breaking up of the last winter, was well nigh city has been visited during the past summer oper the momentum of the heavy vehicles that run putting an end to that means of communication ated very much to retard work of every descrip over them.
between the two shores. Several sections were tion. There were often days together when noth Congress at the last session made an appropri swept away entirely, and most of what was left ing could be done, either from the constant fall of ation of $5,000 for repaving Pennsylvania avenue, was so much damaged that it was a matter of surrain or from its effect upon materials which ren at the intersection of Seventh street, on the plan prise the whole had not been carried off. Theinterdered them unfit to be worked. The out-door known as “ Belgian pavement,"and one thousand ruption of this medium of intercourse between the works, such as grading streets and publicgrounds, square yards of the avenue have been paved with District and Virginia shores was immediately felt were very much damaged by the rains, which that description of pavement, at an expense of in the markets of the city by a diminution of supadded considerably to theircost. Since the weather dollars per yard. "It was intended as an exper- plies and an enhancement of prices. The difficulty has become more settled, the various works iniment. The part of the avenue selected subjected and expense of reaching the city through other progess have been urged forward with the utmost the experiment to the severest test, as it is more channels of communication not only deprived the speed consistent with a due regard to stability, traveled over by heavy vehicles than any other producers, who have to cross the river, of the benand much more has been accomplished than could portion of the avenue or any other street. The efit of the increased price of products, but actually reasonably have been anticipated from the unfa pavement was laid in June, and up to the present reduced the profits on the products of their laborso vorable circumstances that attended the greater time it remains firm and compact, and I have not low as scarcely to make it an object for them to come portion of the working season.
the slightest doubt of its durability. It is claimed to market. This state of things was regarded by The following works, which were stated in my for the Belgian pavement that it is as durable as the citizens of Washington and Alexandria county last report to be then in progress, have been fin any other, and possesses great advantages over as a great grievance, and they earnestly appealed ished, viz: the repairs, improvements, and exten all others. The Russ pavement in New York to you to remedy it, by directing me to use such sion of the seed-room and green-house in the bo is said to have proved a failure; it soon wears I means as might be applicable to the object for the tanic garden; the grading and improvement of the smooth, and becomes so slippery that horses in immediate reestablishment of travel across the mall, between Twelfth and Fourteenth streets; traveling upon it frequently fall, and in wet wea bridge. In view of the action of Congress at the the trapping of the mouths of the sewers on Penn ther they can scarcely be kept upon their feet last session, which was fully apprised of the consylvania avenue; the extension of the culvert on with every possible care. The Rugs pavement is | dition of the bridge and failed to make an approIndiana avenue, and the alteration of the District laid upon a concrete bottom, which prevents any priation for the reconstruction of the portion that court-room. In regard to the sewer traps, it af- | drainage except such as is conveyed off by the had been carried away, and of the doubt that was fords me pleasure to inform you that they answer gutters, and the consequence is, the evaporation entertained as to the sufficiency of the usual apthe purpose admirably for which they were in from the surface frequently occasions very offen propriation for casual repairs to place it in anytended. Before they were constructed, the offen sive effluvia. Another great objection to the Russ thing like a safe and permanent traveling condisive odor that arose from the sewers was a con pavement is the difficulty of removing it, when tion, you decided that it would not be advisable stant source of complaint, but now not the slightest necessary to open it for laying pipe or other pur in me to attempt to repair it in its then condition. unpleasant smell escapes from them. The traps poses, and the still greater difficulty of replacing The Corporation of Washington, finding that ought to be frequently cleaned out, and especially it in anything like the condition in which it was the Government would not undertake to repair as there is no ordinance of the city to prevent the before disturbed.
the bridge, and yielding to the demands of public litter of the stores, such as paper, straw, and the Iron pavements are represented to be very in sentiment, made an appropriation to reconstruct like, from being swept into the gutters, which is ll jurious to the feet of horses. They are dusty in it, at least so far as to reestablish communication soon floated by the slightest stream of water into dry and dirty in wet weather, owing to the space between the sliores, to be expended under the the cylinders of the traps, and collecting and be- beiween the prongs being filled with earth. I direction of the Mayor and a committee of one coming impacted prevents the water from flowing understand that it is necessary to file them fre member from each board of the city councils. freely through them. A very small appropriation quently.
The breaches in the bridge were accordingly would keep them unobstructed.
* None of the objections that exist against the closed, and other portions of the structure strengthAn addition to the green-house in the botanic | Russ and iron pavements can be urged against ened, so as to allow of the usual travel over it. I garden has been erected in conformity with the the Belgian pavement. The rock of which it is did not consider it my duty to interpose any obadopted plan of the building, and is supplied with contructed is broken in size adapted to the feet of stacle to the accomplishment of the object the water from the Capitol, in pipes, as provided for horses, which affords them a firm foot-hold with corporation had in view, and therefore made no by an appropriation of the last session of Con out injury, and does not wear smooth. It is laid attempt to arrest the work; but as soon as the gress. Two additional propagating houses have in sand, can easily be removed and readjusted bridge was thrown open to public travel, and I also been built.
when necessary to open the street, is thoroughly was notified by the Mayor that he had withdrawn A lot was purchased last fall on which to erect drained, free from everything offensive, and per his workmen, it then became necessary for mo an engine-house for the Franklin Fire Company, fectly clean. So far as my information extends, to resume charge of it, and to make such additional but possession could not be obtained until the I believe it is much cheaper than either the Russ repairs as were deemed important to render it spring. A large, commodious, and substantial or iron pavements. If it should be determined to I perfectly safe. building has been reared upon it, which, in a few repave Pennsylvania avenue,' I do not think as Congress, at the last session, refused to make days, will be turned over to the company.
good a pavement could be selected for the pur- | the usual appropriation for paying the drawNew Jersey avenue has been graded and gray pose as the Belgian.
keepers of the bridge, which imposed upon me eled from D to I streets, and the curb set and the The flagging of the main entrance to the Con | the necessity of assuming the responsibility of gutter paved on the west side of it. From I street gressional burying ground has been finished as employing them, as otherwise the navigation of to New York avenue it has been graded, and fifty far as the Government vault. The estimate was 11 the river above the bridge would have been closed feet in the center graveled. It will be necessary made for flagging the whole avenue, but by some to vessels destined for the port of Georgetown and to curb and gutter the whole length of the avenue, inadvertence in wording the appropriation it was that portion of the canal ihat passes through the on both sides, to prevent its being washed by the made to stop at the vault. Doubtless Congress city. The great inconvenience and loss which rains. This was not included in the estimate
will rectify ihe mistake by authorizing the bal- | the public suffered from the interruption of travel submitted to Congress. More than was contem ance of the appropriation to be applied in extend ll over the bridge demonstrates the importance of plated has been accomplished by the appropria ing the flagging the whole length of the avenue, ll keeping up the present structure until a new as was originally intended.
bridge shall have been erected. The work for continuing the improvement of The appropriation for erecting a bridge across The Navy-Yard bridge was also very much the mall is now progressing rapidly in that por
the canal in a line with Maine avenue, has not been | injured by ice, which has been repaired in as subHon of it on which the armory is situated. I am used, as the language of the appropriation requires stantial a manner as it would admit of, having in hopes of having the grading finished by the a double track to be made, which would seem to been originally built of bad materials, and in a termination of the working season. The plan
indicate that it was a bridge intended to be for the very slight manner. The bridge requires new bat has been adopted harmonizes with the object accommodation of carriages and other vehicles. || piles from one end to the other, as there is scarcely
which the armory was erected, and will doubt The canal forms the eastern terminus of Maine | a sound one in the whole fabric. There are two legs add very much to the appearance of the mall, avenue, and as Canal street is only forty feet short roads connected with this bridge, which shich is destined to be one of the most interesting wide, a sufficient elevation could not be given to l were made by the company from which the Goyfeatures in the plan of the city.
the bridge to allow of the passage of boats under, ernment purchased it, and they were a part of the The footway on the south side of Lafayette The foot
and of vehicles over it. The appropriation might appurtenances of the bridge. For several years square has been taken up, under-drained, and re be usefully applied to the erection of a foot bridge, ll after the purchase, they were kept in repair by
d. Lamp-posts and lamps have been set upon and I incline strongly to the opinion that con the Commissioner of Public Buildings, and the he three sides of the square which have not been gress intended it for that purpose, as the slightest expense was paid out of the appropriation for the beretofore lighted, and they show the square to examination of the location will render it obvi repairs of bridges. It was, however, a few years great advantage. As an evidence of the favor in ous that no other description of bridge is practi since decided that no part of the appropriation Lafayette square is held by the public, it cable.
could be applied for that purpose, and thai it must mly necessary to direct attention to the crowds The central avenue in the botanic garden, and be confined to objects within the plain meaning that visit it on every fair evening.
the walks leading from it to Maine and Missouri l of its language. The levy court of the county loolways across Pennsylvania avenue, avenues, will be paved with flagging, as provided declined exercising jurisdiction over the roads, as le very much broken, and in many ofll for by an appropriation of the last session of ll they belong to the Government; and the sonse
which were very my
35TH CONG....1st Sess.
Report of the Commissioner of Public Buildings.
SENATE & Ho. OF REPs.
quence has been, they are now in such bad con would be to raise the walls two feet above high quest was complied with, and a plan was predition that it is with the utmost difficulty they water mark, from which a very flat slope, well || pared for the extension of the court-house portion can be traveled. It is due to the public who travel sodded, should extend to the general surface of of the City Hall in harmony with the general plan across the bridge that these roads should be re the grounds. This plan would afford a larger of the building, the cost of which, including furpaired by some authority or other. My own bed for the stream when swollen, diminish its | niture, heating apparatus, inclosure, &c., was opinion is, that they should be placed under the force, and lessen the chances of its doing mis estimated at $30,000. control of the levy court, which has jurisdiction chief, and it would unquestionably present a much The orphan's court and the office of register over all the other highways of the county. It more elegant appearance than the present one. of wills occupy very contracted and inadequate would not be just, though, to saddle the county I beg leave to renew the recommendations con- | rooms in the city's portion of the same building. with them in their present condition; and I would, tained in my last report for the improvement of | If the extension of the building should be made, therefore, respectfully recommend that an appro Franklin square, of the triangular spaces formed which I think is very necessary, suitable propriation be made sufficient to put them in first rate by the intersection of New York and Massachu vision can be made in it for the accommodation order, which shall be paid io the levy court on setts avenues and Tenth and Twelfth streets. of the orphan's court and register of wills. condition that the couri agree to take charge of of the triangular spaces on Pennsylvania avenue I ask your attention to the fifteenth section of them, and forever keep them in repair.
between Eighteenth and Nineteenth streets, and the city charter, approved May 15, 1820, and the The Anacostia bridge is in good condition. The of the space on the south side of Pennsylva twelfth section of the amended charter, approved usual annual repairs will, without an accident, nia avenue between Twentieth and Twenty-first May 17, 1848. You will perceive that they require preserve it sound for many years.
streets; the grading of North Capitol street, of of me to make certain improvements, and to pay The grading of Judiciary square has progressed Sixteenth street west, and of Delaware avenue; the expense of the same out of the proceeds of as far as was contemplated by the appropriation the removal of the naval monument from the Cap the sales of city lots belonging to the Government. for that purpose, but much still remains to be itol grounds; the purchase of a lot, and the erec All the Government lots that could command a done before the grading is completed. I, how- tion of a house for the keeper of the upper Eastern | purchaser have been sold. The few remaining ever, think the work, preparatory to ornamenting | Branch bridge, and the reorganization of this of- lots are so situated that they would not bring the square, bas proceeded to such an extent that fice.
their very low assessed nominal value. I could due notice ought now to be given the Corporation East Capitol street is directly in front of the | not, when recently offered at public sale, obtain of Washington to remove the school-house stand-l center building of the Capitol, and in stepping on a purchaser for them at any price. ing upon it, and I the more incline to this opin the portico it immediately arrests attention. It l The improvements provided for in the sections ion as opportunity ought to be afforded for the should be graded and graveled. This improve- to which I have asked your attention are indiserection of another building for the accommoda ment is not only required for public convenience, pensable, and as the source from which the means tion of the school before it is deprived of the use but is necessary to give the Capitol proper effect to pay for them were to flow has dried up, it of the one now in its occupancy.
in approaching it from that direction, and to pre- || strikes me that there is no alternative but for the Eighty-one lamps have been set up in George i sent a fine vista in looking out from its main por- | Government to make a small annual appropriatown, and are now regularly lighted with the tico.
tion for the purpose. other lamps of the town. They give great satis Boundary street extends from Rock creek to The great nuisance heretofore complained of as faction, and are duly appreciated as an evidence the Anacostia, around the entire northern portion occasioned by the Center market-house, has in of the kind interest which the Government takes of the city. The remainder of the city is bounded some respects been mitigated. Commodious sheds in the town. The appropriation was not suff by water courses. All of the large avenues run have been erected in the rear of the market-house, ciently large to allow of as many lamps being put out to Boundary street, with the exception of on Canal street, for the accommodation of vendup as would fully light the streets. Thirty lamps Pennsylvania and Virginia avenues. It is skirted ers, and consequently, the misshapen shanties more would accomplish that object, which will nearly'its whole length by beautiful groves of which used to disfigure Pennsylvania avenue have cost $810, all complete. It is no fault of mine forest trees, and if opened and graveled, would been removed. Wagons and other vehicles which that the appropriation was not large enough, as make a pleasant ride around the city, which is at attend market, are no longer permitted to occupy I was not called upon for an estimate. The in present very much wanted.
and obstruct the avenue, and it is now free of the formation was derived from other sources, usually As it was doubtless intended for the benefit of litter they produce, which, for a series of years. very reliable, but in this instance incorrect. I all residents and sojourners in the city, and cannot I had been complained of as an abominable nuicarefully regarded in my expenditures the re be of any special advantage to those who live in sance. But the old white-washed, moss-covered striction of the proviso to the clause making the its immediate vicinity, it would seem that Bound market-house still remains to mar the beauty of appropriation. 'The lamp-posts and lamps cost ary street is one of those that present peculiar the avenue, and to excite the wonder of strangers considerably less than those on Pennsylvania claims to the favorable consideration and liberal that such an unsightly building should be per· avenue, and I pay the same price for the gas con ity of the Government.
mitted to occupy so conspicuous a position. Unsumed by them.
The Supreme Court of the United States has less the corporation shall soon make provision to The west wing of the Patent Office building, I decided that the fee simple to all the avenues have it taken down, and to erect in its stead some with the exception of the saloon, which will soon streets in the city is in the Government. The ag more appropriate and imposing building, the Gorbe finished, has been completed, and is now occu- | gregate length of the streets is one hundred and ernment ought, in my opinion, to resume control pied. The portico has also been erected. It ninety-nine miles, and of the avenues sixty-five of the reservation, and not suffer it any longer to affords me pleasure to assure you that the whole miles. The city has taken upon itself to open be occupied as a market-place. work of this wing has been constructed in the and grade the streets under authority given to it by The time is at hand when the work of extendmost substantial and satisfactory manner, and | the Government, but is unwilling to do anything ing the Capitol grounds ought to be commenced. that great credit is due to Mr. Clark, the archi to the avenues, unless absolutely necessary for The extent to which they should be enlarged is a tect, for the intelligent and vigilant superintend public convenience, and Congress will not make matter for Congress to determine, and, therefore, ence he has exercised over it. In order to over provision for them. This unwillingness proceeds it does not become me to express any preference come, in some measure, the great depression in from a want of ample means, and a strong con between the various plans that have been sugthe square at the corner of Fand Ninth streets, viction that the Government is bound in justice, gested. I may, however, be permitted to express it will be necessary, in laying the pavement on as its share, to construct the avenues. Most of a hope that some plan will be adopted in the early Ninth street, to set the curb as high as possible, the streets have been opened and graded, and the part of the approaching session, and an approconsistent with the proper grade of the street. || work is prosecuted as fast as the revenue of the || priation made to carry it out, so that the work This will devolve upon us the necessity of filling city will justify, but still it lags far behind the may be commenced as soon as the spring opens. up Ninth street at least two feet, which will not, march of the improvements.
It is well known that great numbers of strangers however, raise it above the established grade. Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Penn are attracted to this city in pursuit of different
Contracts have been made for the granite and sylvania, and Maryland, are the only important objects. Many of them are taken sick, and not marble work of the north front of the building. | avenues that have been opened and graded, and || a few are destitute of the means of procuring the The sub-basement has been set, and workmen || they only partially so.
necessaries of life and medical treatment. It are now engaged in preparing the granite and
would be unjust for the city to be saddled with marble, so as to be ready to take advantage of the the jail as unsafe and in all respects unsuited for || the expense of taking care of this class of persons. earlicat opening of spring lo press forward the || the purposes of a prison, the Interior Department To provide for its own destitute sick is as much building. We hope, at the close of the next ses was called upon by the Senate for estimates and as can be expected of it. Congress, actuated by sion, to make a handsome show of the amount a plan for such a building as would meet the de a humane and benevolent spirit, annually makes of work that has been done.
mands of the public. A plan was accordingly an appropriation for the admission of eighteen The floods occasioned by the heavy rains of the prepared with great care and submitted at the sick non-resident paupers in the Washington Inpast summer have proved that the plan adopted last session of Congress. The estimated cost of firmary, where they are well provided with every for the protection of the botanic garden against erecting the building was $150,000. There was, necessary comfort, good nurses and skillful phy. the violence of Tiber creek was ineffectual. The however, no definite action had upon the subject. sicians. It will be perceived, on reference to the walls of the creek having been laid dry on foun The present jail is situated on Judiciary square, report of the resident physician, hereto appended, dations not sufficiently deep and solid, the water in the very heart of the city, which is certainly that during the year ending the 30th of June last, percolated them, and, washing out the earth from a most improper location for a prison.
one hundred and nineteen patients were medically behind and beneath them, they were in many ll The judges of the several courts of this District, treated in this institution on the charity of the places thrown down. The work ought to be re- || and the members of the bar, addressed a commu Government, of which number eighty-nine vere constructed on a timber foundation similar to that nication to your predecessor selling forth the great discharged as cured or improved, only eleven died, under the culvert across Indiana avenue, which want of suitable accommodations for the criminal and nineteen still remained under treatment. It is should extend from Pennsylvania avenue to the court and the important records of the clerk's of useless to make any comments upon this report. canal, and, instead of dry walls, they should be | fice, and earnestly requesting him to bring the It tells for itself of the great amount of human laid in full cement. The plan I most approve ll matter to the attention of Congress. Their re- ll suffering relieved and of human life preserved.
35TH CONG.... J st Sess. Nicaraguan Affairs and the Lecompton ConstitutionMr. Lamar.
Ho. OF REPs.
This field of benevolence might be greatly en activity and sufferings I have spoken of, I beg The instruction of our artillery regiments in larged by an increased appropriation, as I have | leave to annex copies of two of my orders-Nos. their appropriate duties with light and heary vastly many more applications for admission than || 4 and 14-of the present year.
batteries has been much neglected of late years the number I have a right to send to the Infirmary. To mitigate toscevils, and to cnable us to give first, by capriciously dismounting several of the Judging from the favor wiih which this charity a reasonable security to our people on Indian fron-, light companies, and sending others to the most has heretofore been regarded by Congress, I have | tiers, measuring thousands of miles, Grespectfully suitable prists, in respect to supplies and health; every reason to believe that the sphere of its use- suggest an augmentation of at least one regiment and, second, by the necessary employment, from fulness will be cheerfully extended.
of horse, (dragoon, cavalry, or riflemen,) and at ! deficiency in other troops, of the grraur part of The drainage of the ciiy is mainly acconrplished least three regimen's of foot, (infantry or rifle | cach regiment as infantry on the Indian fronabove ground, and the consequence is, the streets men.) This augmentation would not more than tiers. are overf wed whenever there is a heavy fall of furnish the reinforcements now greatly nreded in: A school of practice, however, for garrisons, rain, from the incapacity of the gutters 10 receive Florid., Texas, New Mexico, California, Oregon, sea-coast, and siege artillery, is now being organ. and carry off the vast quantity of water that seeks | Washington Territory, Kansas, Nebraskn, and ized, on a small scale, at Fortress Monroc, to be an outlet through them. It is almost impossible | Minnesota, leaving noi a company for Utah. If the 'enlarged as the regiments may be withdrawn fros! to keep streets clean that are subject to be over reinforcements should be authorized as early as 'the Indian frontiers, when also on regarrisoning flowed; and the sediment which is left in them January, it would be easy, in the present unfor- ' our principal fortifications-cach may be made it when the water passes off soon becomes offensive Tunate want of profitabile employment for the subordinate school. Jothe mean time, I respccito the smell on exposure to the sun. The fact is I thousands of able-bodied men to be found idle in fully ask that the light companics remaining on well established, that countries liable to inunda every populous district of the country, to make foot be remounted, as authorized by law. tion are generally sickly, owing to the alluvial the number of recruits needed, and in time for 1 Of recommendations in former reports I bez deposits; and the same cause might reasonably them to reach the theaters of inilitary operations leave specially to recall two: be expected to produce disease in cities. Washai in the summer and autumn of 1858. Of the relief i 1. A system of recruiting by and for the reington, however, seems to be an exchption to the which the measure would afford to our general spective regiments, which it is conceived would rule of induction; for, notwithstanding the fre- ll population I may not speak in a military paper; create and nurture the esprit du corps--a family quent overflow of the streets from heavy rains, but to the Army, and expos.d frontiers under its i feeling in cach always highly conducive to moral medical statistics prove beyond a doubt that it is protection, it would be immense
elevation and military efficiency. one of the healthiest cities in the country. To It is eminently desirable, by all the reasonable 2. A revision of ile pension laws, so as to obviate the inconvenience resulting from the over means al the disposition of the Government, to place the Army on a like footing with the Navy', fowing of the screets, and to prevent the possi attempt the moral elevation of our enlisted men i volunteers, and mililia in this respect, as there bility of sickness arising from this cause, a ju that is, all below commissioned othcers. In plys can be no conceivable reason of any sort for a dicious system of sewerage should be adopted ical comforts, whether they are sick or in health, discrimination to our prejudice. and carried into effect. In most of our large cilies the justice of Congress in respect to physicians, Please see vol. 2, p. 229, of the President's great attention has been bestowed upon the armedicines, hospital stores, the pay, clothing, and message, &c., December, 1856. rangement and construction of sewers, and they subsistence of everybody, bas scareely lesi any I have the honor to be, sir, with high respect, have reaped the benefit of them in thc purification thing to be asked for. (l'he subject of quarters your most obedient servant, of the atmosphere, and a corresponding improve will be noticed in the sequel.) Si, too, in respect
WINFIELD SCOTT. mene in health. The Government has constructed to religious instruction; through some twenty and
Hon. J. B. FLOYD, Secrelary of War, several large sewers in this city, and the corpo- || odd military chaplains - considering the great ration a like number, but still there is a great ll number of sects and the babitual dispersion of the deficiency for the wants of the city. What has troops- I have nothing practical to surgest. But
NICARAGUAN AFFAIRS AND TIIC LECOMPTON already been done in the way of severage is but to render the service honorable, so that citizens
CONSTITUTION. the beginning of what is needed, and speedy at- | may freely enlist without the fear of harshi, arbitention should be given to the subject, not only trary, or capricious treatment at the hands of any
SPEECH OF HON. L. Q. C. LAMAR, for sanitary purposes, but to provide for the dis superior, some additional legislation seems indis
OF MISSISSIPPI, posal of the greatly increased quantity of water pensable. I allude to a revision of the rules and that will be used for bathing, wasliing pavements, articles for the government of the armies of the
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, cleaning streets, and other similar objects, when | United States, particularly the forty-fifth, sixey.
January 13, 1858. the aqueduct shall have been finished, and shall fifth, sixiy-sixi, sixty-seventh, and ninety-ninih introduce into the city in abundant supply from of those articles-all respecting the administration
(WRITTEN OUT BY HIMSELF.* ] the Great Falls of the Potomac.
of justice. In order, among other things, to pro. The llouse being in Committee of the Whole on the state To construct the necessary sewerage will re- ! vide for the legal punishment of peity offenses, of the Union, and having under consideration the Presi. quire a large outlay of money, and considering i substitutiny, when necessary, courts consisting | dent's annual messagethe interest the United States have in property in
an!s, so as to veconimanders Mr. LAMAR said: the city, it may be deemed but just that the Gove of small detachments and isolated companies of
Mr. CHAIRMAN: It is not my purpose to discuss rnment should bear a fair proportion of the ex all pretexts - the want of officers to compose l the various questions involved in our Central pense. le is important that Congress should take | couris, &c.—for taking the law into their own !
H couris, &c.—for taking the law into their own American relacions. Should I avail myself of a this matter into consideration at the approaching | hands, nccordingly I recommend that the subject i furure occasion to do so. I may be forced relucsession, and provide in some way for its accom- be in the first instance referred to a board consist
tantly to dissent from some of the views so ably plishment.
ing of intelligent oficers of great experience with presented by my distinguished colleague, (Mr. I hereto append a statement of receipts and troops, and if their report be approved, that it next
QUITMAN.] However painful this may be to myexpenditures for the fiscal year ending June 30, ll be submitted to Congress. The same board might, scuf. Levertheless feel confident of big crenerous 1857. with great benefit, revise the general regulations
indulgence, especially when he sees in my course Very respectfully, your obedient servant, ll of the Army, and the conflicting systems of in only the reflex of his own spirit of independence; JNO. B. BLAKE, Commissioner. || fantry lactics now in force.
a spirit which runs like a stream of fire through
In connection with penal justice, it is due to all Hon. Jacop Thompson, Secretary of the Interior.
all his acts and writings: which enabled him a few | good men in the ranks to say that they are directly years since to list up the ardor of a thousand
I interested in the suppression of crimes, disorders, ll natriots. to fire bis countrymen to the assertion of Report of Lieutenant General Scott. and neglect, prejudical to good order and military Hiheir rights, and at this day enshrines him in the
discipline, inasmuch as offenses hurt the just pride hearts and affections of the people of his Staie. HEADQUARTERS OF TIE ARMY, of the corps, and every offender put under guard
without distinction of party. New York, Nov. 20, 1857.
or in arrest increases the duties and fatigues of Mr. Chairman), any proposition which has for
his meritorious companions of the same class or S18: As the immediate commander of the army,
its object the advancement and progress of southrank.
crn institutions, by equilable means, will always under the President, I have the honor to submit | I bave a word to si
I bave a word to say in respect to quarters for commend itself to my cordial approval. Others the usual annual report on its general condition troops on the sen-board. In our regular fortifica- !
may boast of their widely.extended patriotism, and wants. tiuns we have but little shelter, other than case
and their enlarged and comprehensive love of this Our regiments, horse and foot, including ar.
ments for fighting siege guns, and these arches Union. With me, I confess that the promotion tillery, (serving mostly as infantry,) are, as I are too damp and otherwise uncomfortable for the
of southern interests is second in importance only have remarked m former reports, anything but a lodgings of the troops. In respect to the ludian
to the preservation of southern lionor. In reading peace establislıment. For yea's they bave been l frontie
| frontiers, except at one or two interior points for l her history and studying her character, I delight almost constantly in pursuit of hoslile Indians,
reserve, the troops are--when they chance to be 10 linger in the contemplation of that stern and through swamps and mountains, in heals and allowed short resis-either in tenis, winter as well!
unbroke' confidence with which the South has snows, and with no inconsiderable loss of life
as summer, or sich miserable busli and mud huls always clung to the integrity of her principles and from frequent combats, and a still greater mortal- | as they have hastily constructed for the moment. ll the purity of her hovor. In that unfortunate diily froin excessive labor, deprivation and discase. Hence another cause of deseruioni, disease, and vision which has separated our country into secIn other wars those hardships are occasionally mortality. It is true that the frontiers are con il
lions, natural causes, beyond our control, have broken by rest and comfort, now long unknowi sliantly shifting by the exiension of settlements, assigned to her the weaker section. A mumerical to nine tentlig of our troops; and hence another and hence a great difficulty in providing perma
minority finds safety and protection alone in the great evil the numerous desertions which daily
pent quarters, except for reserves, and we are far chin their ranks.
power of truth and invincibiliiy of right. The from liaving a regiment, or even a company, lo bc As a partial illustration of the extraordinary so posted.
* For the original report, sbe pago 979 Cong. Globo. New SERIES.No. 4.
· Ho. OF REPs.
35th Cong.... I st Sess.
Nicaraguan Affairs and the Lecompton Constitution-Mr. Lamar.
South, standing upon this high ground, has ever before whose colossal magnitude the wrongs of and conducting all elections by the people, shall be prescribed commanded the respect of her friends, and defied Walker and the criminality of Paulding sink into
by law.” the assaults of her enemies. When ruthless ma- | insignificance.
Again, after providing for qualifications of jorities have threatened wrong and injustice, their 1 I propose to examine into the grounds upon ll voters for the first election, it says: hands have been stayed only by the deference which this violation of plighted faith is attempted 6 But the qualification of voters, and of holding office at which the worst spirits unconsciously pay to the to be justified. The ground principally relied | all subsequent elections, shall be such as shall be prescribed . In the long and bitter contests | upon is, that the constitution which she presents
by the Territorial Legislature.” which have marked our internal struggles, the was framed by a convention not called in pursu In section twenty-four, it is further enacted South has made but one demand-the Constitu ance of an enabling or authorizing act of Con that the legislative power of the Territory shall iion of our common country, the claims of justice, | gress, but on the mere motion of the Territorial extend to all rightful subjects of legislation consistand the obligations of States; and it is our boast Legislature. Now, sir, apart from the practice ent with the constitution. 10-day, that we can present a record unstained of the Government, which has not been uniform These clauses, taken together, embrace the with a single evidence of violated faith or at on this subject, I, for one, admit, to the fullest entire subject in dispute, and vest all powers contempted wrong. The same regard for truth, jus extent, the propriety and importance of such annected there with in the Territorial Legislature. tice, and honor, which characterizes our inter- || act of Congress. I have always held that the What can be a more clear and rightful subject of course with the various sections of our own sovereignty over these Territories was vested in | legislation than to determine the time when a country, furnishes the safest rules for our deal- | the people of the United States; that the power people shall emerge from their condition of terriings with other countries. As the Constitution | of legislation in reference to them belonged to torial pupilage into that of State sovereignty, of is the law of our conduct at home, so let good Congress, and that this power was limited only calling a convention of the people, prescribing faith be the rule of our conduct abroad.
by the Constitution and the nature of the trust; 11 qualification of voters, and arranging the usual If I could do so consistently with the honor of and that before the inhabitants of the Territory details preparatory to the application for admismy country, I would plant American liberty, with are competent to form a constitution and a State sion as a State. Indeed, sir, according to the southern institutions, upon every inch of Amer government, it is necessary that Congress should well-settled maxims of civil law, no people can i can soil. I believe that they give to us the high first withdraw its authority over the Territories. undertake to form or abolish a constitution, exest type of civilization known to modern times, The necessity of an enabling act I concede to the cept in obedience to the summons or invitation of except in those particulars dwelt upon so elabo fullest extent. Whenever individuals in a Terri the existing legislative authority. It was in this rately and complacentiy by the gentleman from lory undertake to form a State government, with view that Congress has delegated these high and Massachusetts, (Mr. THAYER.] In that particu out the previous assent of Congress, they are, in important matters of legislative discretion to the lar form of civilization which causes the population my opinion, guilty of gross usurpation and fla territorial government. You may take up ally of a country lo emigrate to other lands for the grant disregard of the rights of the United States enabling act passed by Congress, and you cannot means of subsistence, I concede to the North great and the authority of Congress. Under such cir find a provision in it which is not involved either superiority over our section. (Laughter.) There cumstances, it becomes a question purely of dis in the specific grants or general delegation of can be no doubt that New England, and especi- l) cretion with Congress, whether to remand them | powers contained in the Kansas bill. silly Massachusetts, is a splendid country to cmi- | to their territorial condition, or to waive the want | The conclusion which the language of the bill gratc from, and, in this respect, stands unrivaled, of authority, and to ratify the proceedings as reg. authorizes is strengthened and sustained by its with perhaps the single exception of Ireland. ular and lawful. The question now presents itself, history. When this bill was first reported, it (Laughter.] And right here I desire to express do the circumstances attending the application of contained the usual power, which you find in all my acknowledgments to the gentleman for the || Kansas for admission into the Union present such territorial bills, of congressional veto, revocation, very apt and classical comparison which he insti. | a case ?
or repeal of the territorial laws; but it was stricken tuted between his section and the officina gentium. Was the convention at Lecompton an unau. out, and the bill became a law, with no reserva. It never occurred to me before; but since he has thorized and revolutionary assemblage, usurping tion of power to Congress touching this point, mentioned it, I must confess to the resemblance, the sovereignty of the State, and throwing off', \ limiting the broad grant of jurisdiction to the in many respects, between the recent emigration | unlawfully, the authority of the United States? | Territorial Legislature“ over all rightful subjects from New England and the irruption of the Goths || I hold that it was a convention of the people of legislation." If the language of the bill and and Vandals. (Laughter.] It is also due to can- | caļled by the regularly constituted authority, and its history could leave any doubt as to the correci. dor that I should say that the gentleman's vindi- || with the previous assent of Congress. I hold that || ness of this construction, it would at once be recation of the emigrant aid societies places the the Kansas bill was an enabling act, vesting the | moved by a recurrence to the debates when the objects and motives of that enterprise upon more Territorial Legislature with power to call such a | bill was pending in Congress. The speeches of defensible grounds than we of the South supposed convention. In analyzing the provisions of that both friends and foes are replete with the proof to exist. For one, I am perfectly satisfied that noble law, we find that it looks to higher objects of what I say. I could quote from the author of the thing was demanded by necessity, and has re and more enduring results than the mere organ the bill, and from its supporters in this House, sulted in benefit to all the parties concerned; that ization of temporary territorial governments for to show that their object was to transfer to the the country was benefited by getting rid of the Kansas and Nebraska. It looks beyond the ter people of Kansas the entire control over her inpopulation, and the population greatly benefited ritorial status; it provides for its admission as a State; lernal affairs, including slavery, untrammeled by by leaving the country. [Laughter.]
and in express terms pledges the faith of Govern any congressional legislation. But, sir, it is not 'To return from this digression: while I am a ment that it shall be received into the Union“ with necessary. southern man, thoroughly imbued with the spirit or without slavery, as its constitution may pre It may be said that, if this construction be true, of my section, I will never consent to submit the scribe at the time of such admission.” It also the bill embraced two entirely distinct and disfate of our noble institutions to the hands of declares the “intent and meaning of this act" to similar subjects: one organizing a Territory, and marauding bands, or violate their sanctity by be,“ not to legislate slavery into any Territory the other providing for the admission of a State. identifying their progress with the success of un or State, nor to exclude it therefrom; but to leave | Well, sir, if I am not mistaken, this very objeclawful expeditions; and most especially, when the people thereof perfectly free to form and reg. tion was made, to wit: that the bill was against I see them receiving the countenance and sanc ulate their institutions in their own way, subject all regular parliamentary procedure. And a dislion of a distinguished Senator, whose course only to the Constitution of the United States, and tinguished gentleman from Missouri, after ex. on the Kansas question is so fresh in our recollec the provisions of this act.".
hausting his powers of invective, like a man in a tion.
Now, had the bill stopped here—had it gone fight, reserving his most potent weapon for the last Before I consent to any new schemes of terri- no further-there might be some ground for the blow, threw at the vill an immense word, which torial acquisition, to be effected, as usual, by the | objection that additional legislation by Congress sent our venerable Secretary of State, stunned and prowess of southern arms, and the contribution || is necessary. For the bill might guaranty to the reeling, to the dictionaries. He said it was "am. of southern blood and treasure, I desire the ques people admission as a State, and the right of form Iphibological.” But the framers of that bill were tion of the South's right to extend her institutions ing iheir constitution, and yet reserve to Congress not after pariiamentary symmetry or harmony of into territory already within the Union, practically the all-important power of determining when the outline. Their object was to settle great questions and satisfactorily settled by the legislation of this people had attained a sufficient maturity and of strife which threatened the integrity of the Congress. These territorial acquisitions, so far, growth to fit them for the enjoyment and exercise Union; to bind in one compact and durable struchave been to the South like the far-famed fruit of this highest and most glorious right of self ture, the equality of the States, the authority of which grows upon the shores of the accursed sea, government. It might reserve to itself the power Congress, and the glorious right of self-governbeautiful to sight, but dust and ashes to the lips. of determining who should constitute such a peo ment; to build a platform on which the rights of We learn from the President's message, that ihe ple-who should be the qualified voters-and in every section in the Union might rise above the people of Kansas, having reached the number short, of prescribing all the steps preliminary to turbulent waters of sectional strife, and proudly that would justify her admission into the Union as a call of the convention of the people. I say Ćon. defy all the attacks of fanaticism. In confirma. a State, she has, by her duly constituted author. gress might well have reserved all these high and tion of the view I have taken, I desire to invoke ities, taken all the steps necessary to the attain delicate discretionary powers to herself, and there the authority of the distinguished publicist and ment of this object, and will, in a short time, might be some ground for claiming them in be jurist who is now lending his influence to the demand the redemption of the pledge of the Gov half of Congress, had the bill stopped with the enemies of the South and of Kansas. Mr. Robert ernmeat, that she shall be admitted, with or clause which I have quoted.
J. Walker, in his inaugural address, as Governor without slavery, as her constitution may prescribe But, unfortunately for the enemies of Kansas, of Kansas, speaking of the Locompton convenat the time of such admission." But in advance the bill does not stop herc. It goes on to confer | tion, says: of her application, we are informe by the distin the most ample powers on the Territorial Legis “That convention is now about to be elected by you, guislied author of the Kansas bill, and gentlemen lature. In section twenty-two, after providing under the call of the Territorial Legislature created, and still upon this foor, that her case has been prejudged, for the first election, it says;
recognized by the authority of Congress, and clothed by it,
in the comprehensive language of the organic law, with full and her claims rejected. This presents a question Il “But thereafter the times, places, and manner of holding Il power to make such an enactment. The Territorial Legis