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me a cave just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.


Now I had a great employment upon my hands. I had long studied, by some means or other, to make my 5 self some earthen vessels, which indeed I wanted sorely, but knew not where to come at them. However, considering the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but if I could find any clay, I might botch up some pot as might, being dried in the sun, be hard enough and strong enough 10 to bear handling, and to hold anything that was dry, and required to be kept so; and as this was necessary in preparing corn, meal, etc., I resolved to make some as large as I could, and fit only to stand like jars, to hold what should be put into them.


It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to tell what odd, misshapen, ugly things I made: how many of them fell in, and how many fell out, the clay not being stiff enough to bear its own weight; how many cracked by the overviolent heat of the sun, being set out too 20 hastily; and how many fell in pieces with only removing; and, in a word, how, after having labored hard to find the clay, to dig it, to bring it home, and work it, I could not make above two large earthen ugly things (I cannot call them jars) in about two months' labor.

Yet I made several smaller things with better success,


such as little round pots, flat dishes, and pitchers; and the heat of the sun baked them strangely hard. But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an earthen pot to hold what was liquid, and bear the fire, which none 5 of these could do. It happened after some time, making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat, when I went to put it out after I had done with it, I found a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and red as a tile. I was agreeably surprised to see 10 it, and said to myself that certainly they might be made to burn whole, if they would broken.

This set me to studying how to order my fire so as to make it burn me some pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the potters burn in, but I placed pots in a pile one 15 upon another, and placed my firewood all round, with a great heap of embers under them. I fed the fire with fresh fuel round the outside, and upon the top, till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite through, and observed that they did not crack at all. When I saw them clear 20 red, I let them stand in that heat about five or six hours, till I found one of them, though it did not crack, did melt or run, for the sand which was mixed with the clay melted by the violence of the heat, and would have run into glass, if I had gone on; so I slacked my fire gradu25 ally till the pots began to abate of the red color; and watching them all night, that I might not let the fire abate too fast, in the morning I had several very good

earthen pots, as hard burnt as could be desired, and one of them perfectly glazed with the running of the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort of earthenware for my use; but I must needs say, as to the shapes of them, they were very indifferent, as 5 any one may suppose, when I had no way of making them but as the children make dirt pies.


I had a great, high, shapeless cap, made of a goat's skin, with a flap hanging down behind, to keep the sun from me, as well as to shoot the rain off from running 10 into my neck, nothing being so hurtful in these climates as the rain upon the flesh, under the clothes.

I had a short jacket of goatskin, the skirts coming down to about the middle of my thighs; and a pair of open-kneed breeches of the same. The breeches were 15 made of the skin of an old goat, whose hair hung down. such a length on either side that it reached to the middle of my legs. Stockings and shoes I had none, but had made me a pair of somethings, I scarce know what to call them, to flap over my legs, and lace on either side; 20 but of a most barbarous shape, as indeed were all the rest of my clothes.

I had on a broad belt of goat's skin dried, which I drew together with two thongs of the same, instead of buckles; and on either side of this, instead of a sword 25

and a dagger, hung a little saw and a hatchet, one on one side, one on the other. I had another belt, not so broad, and fastened in the same manner, which hung over my shoulder; and at the end of it, under my left arm, hung 5 two pouches, both made of goat's skin too, in one of which hung my powder, in the other my shot. At my back I carried my basket, on my shoulder my gun, and over my head a great, clumsy, ugly goatskin umbrella, but which, after all, was the most necessary thing about me, next to 10 my gun. As for my face, the color of it was really not so mulatto-like as one might expect from a man not at all careful of it, and living within nineteen degrees of the equinox. My beard I had once suffered to grow till it was about a quarter of a yard long; but as I had both 15 scissors and razors, I had cut it pretty short, excɩnt what grew on my upper lip, which I had trimmed into a large pair of Mahometan whiskers, such as I had seen worn by some Turks. Of these mustaches or whiskers, I will not say they were long enough to hang my hat upon them, 20 but they were of a length and shape monstrous enough,

and such as, in England, would have passed for frightful.

DANIEL DEFOE: Robinson Crusoe.

se cur'i ty, safely; rav'e nous, very hungry; de liv'er ance, rescue; sem i di am'e ter, half the breadth of a circle; tar pau'lin, tarred cloth; kiln, oven; ex per'i ment, attempt, trial; e'qui nox, equator.

1. Describe the spot Crusoe chose for his tent, and give the advantages of that location. 2. Make a drawing of the fence he

built about his tent. 3. What is meant by "nineteen degrees from the equinox"? 4. Describe Crusoe's discovery as to the making of pottery. 5. Describe his dress.

Spelling. Necessary, untouched, ammunition, inhabited, creatures, situation, experiment, liquid, scissors, sufficient, wretches, immediately.



THERE was one cause for anxiety that kept me constantly on the watch. From time to time I had seen savages land their canoes on my island, but thus far my habitation had not been discovered. I was surprised one morning early to see no less than five canoes, all on shore together on my side of the island, and the people who belonged to them all landed, and out of my sight. The number of them broke all my plans; for seeing so many, and knowing that they always came four, or six, or sometimes more, in a boat, I could not tell what to think of it, 10 or how to attack twenty or thirty men single-handed; so I lay still in my castle. However, I made all the arrangements for an attack that I had formerly provided, and was ready for action. Having waited a good while, listening to hear if they made any noise, at length, being very 15 impatient, I set my guns at the foot of my ladder, and clambered up to the top of the hill; standing so, however, that my head did not appear above the hill, so that they

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