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last Report of the A. T. S. it was estimated at 100,000, and more than 60,000 new members were reported to the office of the Journal of Human. ity during the first eight months of the year 1830.
1. The influence of the Societies extends to all classes of the community. The practice of entire abstinence has been recommended by many of our largest and most respectable medical societies, by ecclesiastical bodies almost without exception in all parts of the country, and by members of the bar in several counties. Societies to promote it have been formed by females, by the young, by me anics, by apprentices, by people of color, in churches, in the U. S. Army (at five military stations). Seamen are adopting it extensively: more than 40 vessels from Charleston, more than 50 from Boston, 56 from Gloucester, and 15 (square-rigged) from Portland, are now navigated without ardent spirit. In our largest and best regulated prisons and alms-houses, it is not allowed. In Connecticut, more than 1000 farms are known to be cultivated without it. In New Haven, there are more than 100 master builders, mechanics, and artisans, who use none themselves, and allow none among their workmen.
II. It has diminished the number of distillers and venders of ardent spirits. The First Annual Report of the N. York State Society (Jan. 1830) mentions the discontinuance of 35 distilleries in that State (12 in one county), and that of the Connecticut Society (May, 1830) states that 30 had been stopped, within its limits, during the year preceding. Out of 14 distilleries in one neighborhood in Westmoreland County, Pa., 10 have been stopped within a few months. “ In Connecticut,” says the Report abovmentioned,“ more than 150 retailers have voluntarily relinquished the business within a year.” In New London County only, 45 have ceased to deal in ardent spirit. In Sandy Hill, New York, where 20 licenses were tormerly granted, there are now but 2. In Augusta, Ky., and Kingston, Me., retail. ing has ceased. In December, 1829, the Secretary of the A. T. S. had received information of more than 400 dealers in ardent spirit, who had given up the business; and during the first three months of the year 1830, similar information respecting 267 others was received at the office of the Society. There is a large number of towns, mostly in New England, in which the traffic no longer exists. In Plymouth County, Mass., ardent spirit is retailed only by innkeepers. In Clinton County, N. Y., one fourth of the merchants have banished the article from their stores.
III. It has greatly diminished the consumption of ardent spirits. In proof of this we might refer to a large number of districts in different parts of the country, in which it has been found, by careful investigation, that the consumption of ardent spirits has diminished to the amount of one fourth, one half, two thirds, nine-tenths, and even more. But estimates founded on statements from the public offices will be more satisfactory.
(1.) The quantity of foreign distilled spirits entered at the CustomHouse at Middletown, Connecticut, amounted, in 1828, to 186,845 gallons, in 1829 to 74,944, and in the first six months of 1830, to less than 4,000.
(2.) The Custom-House books at New Haven show that the number of hogsheads (averaging 110 gallons) of foreign spirit, entered there in 1826, was 1760, in 1827, 591, in 1828, 787, in 1829, 445, and for the first 6 months of 1830, 85, which is supposed to be more than half the import
(3.) The quantity of distilled liquors brought into Fredericksburg, Va., by water, was, in 1826, 126,273 gallons, and in the year ending July 1, 1830, 58,950 gallons.
(4.) The following table shows the amount of distilled liquors brought into the port of New York for the first six months of the years 1828, 1820, and 1830.
of the year.
From January 1, to July 31,
1828 7,263 3,371 7,707
1829 5,635 1,441 6,290
1830 1,060 1,498 2,503
5,061 (5.) The following statement, from the same office, extends one year farther back and embraces periods of 12 months eack.
1827 1828 1829 Foreign distilled liquors imp’d, (galls.) 2,056,739 2,925,705 1,695,868
exp’d, (do.) 126,534 186,894 428,775 Leaving for that market,
1,930,205 2,738,811 1,267,093 (6.) We refer, finally, respecting the consumption of foreign distilled spirits, to the Annual Reports of the Secretary of the Treasury. From these the following statement of the imports and exports of this article for the three years ending Sept. 30, 1829, is prepared :
1826-7 1927-8 1828-9 Imp'd from Oct. 1, to Sept. 30, (galls.) 3,537,426 5,102,599 3,420,884 Exported
223,815 255,341 905,006
Leaving for home consumption, 3,313,611 4,847,258 2,515,878 Statement (1), omitting the last half year, shows a diminution of three fifths in a single year ;-Staternent (2)—with the same omission—a diminution in 1829 of more than three-fifths from the average of the three preceding years ;-Statement (3), a diminution of more than one half in about three years ;-Statement (4), a diminution of more than two thirds from the average of two years (of which two, the last was about one third less than the preceding;)-Statement (5), a diminution of nearly one halt from the average of two years;—and Statement (6), a diminution of more than one third from an average of two years.
When we consider that none of these statements extend back beyond the date at which the efforts of the A. T. S. commenced, and that the imports have been rapidly diminishing down to the latest dates, it would seem that the decrease of consumption throughout the United States, must be at least 65 or 70 per cent. We will suppose it, however, to be only 50 per cent. The average for the two years ending Sept. 30, 1828, was 4,080,134 gallons at the expense of about as many dollars. The saving therefore, already effected in the article of foreign distilled spirit, amounts, on the lowest estimate, to more than $2,000,000 a year.
Some may suppose that the consumption of the domestic article has increased. That such is not the fact might be inferred from the diminished number of distilleries and retailers of spirits, and from the known fact that a large number of retailers, especially in New England, continue the sale of foreign who have abandoned that of domestic liquors. We are able, however, to refer here also to the more satisfactory authority of official documents.
The quantity of whiskey brought into Fredericksburg, by water, in the year 1826, was 114,277 galls., and in the year ending July 1, 1830, 52,621 galls.
From Aug. 1, to Dec. 1, 1828, the quantity of whiskey that passed Utica on the canal was 1,053,305 galls. ;-during the same months of the year 1829, only 345,159 galls.,-although the quantity of wheat, flour, ashes, &c. was far greater during the latter than during the former period.
Most of the whiskey brought to Philadelphia comes from the West and is inspected in what is called the Western District. The quantity inspected there in 1828, was 2,714,204 gallons, and in 1829, 1,822,400 galls.
The quantity of domestic spirits inspected in the city of New York in 1827, was 98,310 casks; in 1828, 111,504 casks; and in 1829, 79,913 casks.
These statements warrant the conclusion that the consumption of whis. key, in the Middle States, has decreased at least one third.
of the saving in expense, suffering, and crime, effected by this diminution of the consumption of ardent spirit, the following estimates will serve to form some conception.
In 1810, the quantity of distilled spirituous liquors consumed in the United States amounted to about to galls. to each inhabitant. Did our present population drink at the same rate, the consumption (supposing our population to be 13,000,000) would amount to 58,500,000 galls. a year. Supposing the consumption to be only one third less in proportion to the number of inhabitants, and the average expense per gall. to the consumer to be 40 cents, there is a saving of $ 7,800,000 a year in the cost of the liquor.
In the 4th section of his Treatise on State Prison Punishments, &c. (published in the Journal of Humanity, Nov. 25, 1829), Samuel M. Hopkins, Esq. who has paid great attention to the subject and enjoyed uncommon advantages for investigating it, for a series of years, gives a variety of facts and estimates, from which he infers that the annual pecuniary loss to the people of the United States by crime, is $8,700,000,-occasioned by 15,000 criminals, 11,000 of whom are at large. In another paper, furnished by the same gentleman to the Executive Committee of the New York State Temperance Society, facts are stated from which it is inferred that at least 37 parts out of 54 of the above sum-or $5,911,168—must be charged to the account of intemperance. And from a similar investigation respecting pauperism, in the same paper, Mr. Hopkins concludes that intemperance must be charged with at least $2,534,000 a year on that account. These estimates, it should be noticed, show only the annual expense of criminals and paupers after they have become such in consequence of the use of ardent spirit. The commencement of the reformation is too recent to furnish any statistics of the actual decrease of pauperism and crime.
IV. It has caused the reformation of a large number of intemperate persons. This was not a prominent object with those who first adopted and recommended the measures at present pursued, and it must now be regarded as an incidental benefit of efforts intended for the good of others. It is however great,-very much surpassing expectation. Instances of the reformation of intemperate persons, through the influence of Temperance Societies, are frequent in all parts of the country. The Third Annual Report of the A. T. S. mentions more than 700 such cases. The Secretary of the New Hampshire Society states the ascertained number in that state at about 100. In Windham. County, Conn. there are 50 cases ; in Washington County, Md., 30; in Orange County, N. C., 20.
CHRONICLE OF EVENTS
FROM SEPT. 1829, TO Oct. 1830.
[The figures in the margin designate the day of the month.]
SEPTEMBER. 3. The blockade of the Dardanelles raised. 12. Capitulation of the Spanish Gen. Barradas to the Mexican General
Santa Anna, at Tampico, Mexico. This terminated the expedition to
subdue Mexico after five engagements. 14. A treaty of peace between Russia and Turkey signed at Adrianople. 15. Slavery abolished in Mexico by a proclamation of the President. 15. Died, at Vauitza, Greece, Gen. Dantzel, commander of the Greek army. 15. Died, at Dublin, Ireland, James Hamilton, the inventor of the Hamilto
nian method of instruction. 20. The treaty of Adrianople ratified by the Porte. 22. Peace concluded between Colombia and Peru. 24. A victory gained by the Greeks, under Gen. Ypsilanti, over the Turks
near Petria in Livadia. 26. Revolution in Buenos Ayres. The government restored to those from
whom it had been wrested by Lavalle. 26. Venezuela separates itself from the Republic of Colombia, and declares itself independent. Gen. Paez placed at the head of affairs.
OCTOBER 5. A Convention of ninety-six Delegates assemble at Richmond, Virginia,
to amend the Constitution of that state, or to frame a new one. 6. Died, in Louisiana, Peter Derbigny, governor of the state. 10. The treaty of peace with Colombia ratified by the government of Peru. 11. Adrianople evacuated by the Turks. 12. Don Miguel acknowledged by Spain legitimate sovereign of Portugal. 16. Arrival of the Empress Amelia Eugenia in Brazil. 17. The Chesapeake and Delaware Canal opened. 18. Died, at New York, Wm. Harris, D.D., Principal of Columbia College.
NOVEMBER. 9. Separation of Yucatan from the Mexican Republic, and union with the
Republic of Central America. 11. A. Wylie, D. D. inaugurated President of Indiana College. 16. The Province of Conception declares itself independent of Chili. 24. Great fire at Camden, S. C. Loss estimated at $150,000. 26. Colossal statue of Washington placed on the Monument in Baltimore. 26. Died, at Philadelphia, Bushrod Washington, of Mount Vernon, Virginia,
one of the judges of the Supreme Court of the U. S.; aged 71. 26. Great inundation of the Nile in Egypt begins ; about 31,000 perish.
DECEMBER. 4. Commencement of a Revolution in Mexico. The Vice-President,
Bustamente, issues a proclamation against the government of Guerrero,
demanding the resignation of his extraordinary powers. 4. Abolition of the Suttee Rite in Hindostan by the English government. 5. Gen. Rosas elected President of Buenos Ayres in place of Gen. Lavalle.
7. Commencement of the first session of the twenty-first Congress. 11. A great fire in Cincinnati, Ohio. 12. Died, on a journey to Kentucky, William Stoughton, D.D., formerly
President of Columbian College. 13. The Russian ship St. Nicholas explodes at Ismael. 14. Commencement of the civil war in Chili. Battle between the armies
under Generals Luctra and Prieto, in which the latter was defeated. 19. Gen. Gamarra elected President, and Fuente Vice-President of Peru. 22. The 20th anniversary of the Landing of the Pilgrims celebrated at
Plymouth. Oration by Wm. Sullivan, LL.D. 22. Died, in New York, John M. Mason, D.D. ; aged 60. 23. Gen. Guerrero resigns the Presidency of Mexico.
The new government settled under Bustamente, the former Vice-President. 24. A proclamation issued by General Bolivar convoking a Constituent
Congress at Bogotá, to form a Constitution for Colombia. 24. Venice made a free port.
JANUARY 7. Died, in London, Sir Th. Lawrence, President of the Royal Academy. 7. Death of the Queen of Portugal; aged 54. 13. Great fire at New Orleans. Loss estimated at $300,000. 13. Mr. Foot's Resolution respecting the further "survey of the public
lands, which gives rise to an animated discussion in the U. S. Senate. 14. The amended Constitution of Virginia adopted by the Convention. 20. Gen. Bolivar issues a proclamation resigning his military and political
offices. The Constituent Congress consisting of forty-seven Deputies assemble at Bogotá, of which Gen. Sucre is chosen President, and Bishop Esteves, Vice-President. The object of the Congress was, to form a Constitution for Colombia conformable to the spirit of the age,
and the condition of the people ; and to elect officers of Government. 22. The Provincial Parliament of Lower Canada opened at Quebec. 31. Very cold in New England; the thermometer in Boston 64° below 0 at sunrise ; in Bangor, Me., 27° below 0.
FEBRUARY. 4. Meeting of the Parliament of Great Britain. 4. Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg elected Sovereign Prince of Greece
by the plenipotentiaries of England, France, and Russia. 10. Remarkable shower in Union county, Kentucky. 21. A cotton manufactory at Saco, Me., burnt. Loss about $300,000. 22. The petition of the English Jews for the removal of their civil disabili.
ties, presented to the British Parliament. 26. Great fire at Bergen, Norway ; 200 houses destroyed. 27. Died, at Jericho, Long Isl. Elias Hicks, of the Soc. of Friends; aged 82.
MARCH. 2. Meeting of the French Chambers of Peers and Deputies: 2. Great freshet at Vienna. The Danube rises 23 feet. The suburbs of
the city containing 50,000 inhabitants, inundated. 5. Died, at Raleigh, John S. Ravenscroft, D.D., Bp. of N. C.; aged 58. 9. Died, at Rio de Janeiro, William Tudor, Chargé d'Affaires of the
U. States at the Court of Brazil. 10. Died, at Hagerstown, Md., Chr. Newcomb, Bp. German Methodist Soc. 18. The answer of the French Chamber of Deputies made to the King's
Speech, stating that a concurrence did not exist between the views of the governinent and the wishes of the nation ; 221 voting in favor of it, 181 against it.