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PERICLES.

Though this play, under the title of “The booke of Pericles, Prynce of Tyre,” was entered by Blount in the Stationers' Registers, May 20th, 1608, it was not first published by him, but by Gosson in 1609, 4to.— The text of Pericles is miserably corrupted and mangled throughout : the later impressions differ from the first edition only in being more incorrect.—That it was first brought on the stage either in 1607 or 1608 we have evidence in the title-page of a very curious prose tract entitled The Painfull Aduentures of Pericles Prince of Tyre. Being The true History of the Play of Pericles, as it was lately presented by the worthy and ancient Poet Iohn Gower. At London Printed by T. P. for Nat : Butler, 1608; written by George Wilkins from notes taken down during the acting of the play, and with the aid of Twine's version of the story, which will be presently mentioned. (This tract was reprinted in 1857 by Professor Tycho Mommsen from a copy in the public library of Zurich).—The greater part of Pericles is undoubtedly by some very inferior dramatist : but here and there, more particularly towards the close, the hand of Shakespeare is plainly seen, and the scenes and shorter passages in which we trace him manifestly belong to his latest style of composition. Whether it had ever been acted before it received these vivifying touches from our poet, we cannot determine, perhaps it was the “ Pericles” in which Alleyn wore the "spangled hoes” mentioned in an inventory of his theatrical apparel (vide Collier's Memoirs of Alleyn, p. 21): we at least may be sure that it was originally composed at a period long antecedent to its appearance at the Globe in 1607 or 1608; and we may conjecture that Shakespeare bestowed on it certain additions and improvements for the benefit of that theatre.- Pericles is mainly founded on The Patterne of painefull Aduentures : Containing the most excellent, pleasant and variable Historie of the strange accidents that befell vnto Prince Apollonius, the Lady Lucina his wife, and Tharsia his daughter. Wherein the uncertaintie of world and the fickle state of mans life are liuely described. Gathered into English by Lavrence Twine Gentleman,—first printed in 1576. The old playwright had also an eye to that portion of Gower's Confessio Amantis, Book Eighth, which treats of King Appolin of Tyre. (Both Twine's novel and Gower's poetical version of the same incidents are included in Collier's Shakespeare's Library, vol. i. — On the story of King Apollonius of Tyre see Douce's Illustr. of Shakespeare, vol. ii. p. 135, and Mommsen's Preface to the reprint above mentioned.)

DRAMATIS PERSONÆ.

ANTIOCHUS, king of Antioch.
PERICLES, prince of Tyre.
HELICANUS,

two lords of Tyre.
ESCANES,
SIMONIDES, king of Pentapolis.
CLEON, governor of Tharsus.
LYSIMACHUS, governor of Mytilene.
CERIMON, a lord of Ephesus.
THALIARD, a lord of Antioch.
PHILEMON, servant to Cerimon.
LEONINE, servant to Dionyza.
Marshal.
A Pander.
BOULT, his servant.

The Daughter of Antiochus.
DIONYZA, wife to Cleon.
THAISA, daughter to Simonides.
MARINA, daughter to Pericles and Thaisa.
LYCHORIDA, nurse to Marina.
A Bawd.

Lords, Ladies, Knights, Gentlemen, Sailors, Pirates, Fishermen, and

Messengers.

DIANA.

GOWER, as Chorus.*

SCENE-Dispersedly in various countries.

* "Cerimon in Pericles is, I imagine, Chæremon. Lychorida is of course Lycoris. . Thaliard seems to have been originally a slip of the pen for Thaliarch.

Escanes is Æschines .... and Philoten, the daughter of Cleon (see the speech of Gower which introduces the 4th act), may have originated in Philotin, the accusative of Philotis." Walker's Crit. Eram., &c., vol. ii. p. 30.

PERICLES.

ACT I.

Enter GOWER.

Before the palace of Antioch.

a

To sing a song that old was sung,
From ashes ancient Gower is come ;
Assuming man's infirmities,
To glad your ear and please your eyes.
It hath been sung at festivals,
On ember-eves and holy-ales ; (1)
And lords and ladies in their lives
Have read it for restoratives :
The purchase() is to make men glorious ;
Et bonum quo antiquius, eo melius.
If you, born in these latter times,
When wit's more ripe, accept my rhymes,
And that to hear an old man sing
May to your wishes pleasure bring,
I life would wish, and that I might
Waste it for you, like taper-light. -

,
This Antioch, then, Antiochus the Great
Built up, this city, for his chiefest seat;
The fairest in all Syria, -

(1) holy-ales;] So Farmer.—The old eds. have "holy dayes.”

(3) purchase) i.e. gain, profit. (Here Steevens's emendation, "purpose," seems unnecessary.)

I tell you what mine authors say:
This king unto him took a fere, (3)
Who died and left a female heir,
So buxom, blithe, and full of face,
As heaven had lent her all his grace ;
With whom the father liking took,
And her to incest did provoke
Bad child; worse father! to entice his own
To evil should be done by none :
But custom what they did begin
Was with long use account no sin. (1)
The beauty of this sinful dame
Made many princes thither frame,
To seek her as a bed-fellow,
In marriage-pleasures play-fellow :
Which to prevent he made a law,-
To keep her still, and men in awe,-
That whoso ask'd her for his wife,
His riddle told not, lost his life:
So for her many a wight did die,
As yon grim looks do testify.
What now ensues, to the judgment of your eye
I give, my cause who best can justify. [Ecit.

SCENE I. Antioch. A room in the palace.

Enter ANTIOCHUS, PERICLES, and Attendants. Ant. Young prince of Tyre, you have at large receiv'd The danger of the task you undertake.

Per. I have, Antiochus, and, with a soul

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(3) fere,) The old eds. have "Peere.” [and “ Peer"]; a misprint for “Pheere,” more correctly written fere."

(1) But custom what they did begin

Was with long use account no sin.] Is usually altered to “By custom,” &c.; the modern editors perhaps not making sufficient allowance for the inaccurate style of the unknown author.—The old eds. have“. account'd ["accounted," and "counted "] no sinne."

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Embolden'd with the glory of her praise,
Think death no hazard in this enterprise.

Ant. Bring in our daughter, (5) clothed like a bride,
For the embracements even of Jove himself;
At whose conception, till Lucina reign'd,
Nature this dowry gave, to glad her presence,
The senate-house of planets all did sit,
To knit in her their best perfections.

Music. Enter the Daughter of Antiochus.

Per. See where she comes, apparell'd like the spring,
Graces her subjects, and her thoughts the king
Of every virtue gives renown to men!
Her face the book of praises, where is read
Nothing but curious pleasures, as from thence
Sorrow were ever raz'd, and testy wrath
Could never be her mild companion."
You gods that made me man, and sway in love,
That have inflam'd desire in my breast
To taste the fruit of yon celestial tree,
Or die in the adventure, be my helps,
As I am son and servant to your will,
To compass such a boundless (8) happiness!

Ant. Prince Pericles,
Per. That would be son to great Antiochus.

Ant. Before thee stands this fair Hesperides,
With golden fruit, but dangerous to be touch'd;

:

(5) Bring in our daughter,] The old eds. have “Musicke bring in," &c. ; a stage-direction having here (as is frequently the case) crept into the text. This “Music” (a puzzle to the modern editors) was evidently intended to accompany the entrance of the Daughter of Antiochus : it was set down thus early in the prompter's book that the musicians might be in readiness. See note 5 on Romeo and Juliet, vol. vi. p. 379.1865. Here Mr. Grant White and the Cambridge Editors (Globe Shakespeare) follow my arrangement.

( the] Not in the old eds.

(7) her mild companion.] i.e., as Mason rightly explains it, the companion of her mildness ;-which I mention lest any one should suppose that “mildis a misprint for "vild” (vile).

(3) boundless] The old eds. have “bond lesse.”

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