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proofs of an unlimited confidence and devoted affection. He omitted no opportunity to send her whatever he thought would contribute to her convenience and comfort, accompanied by numerous little tokens of remembrance and love. So much did he rely on her prudence and capacity, that, when abroad, he entrusted to her the management of his private affairs. Many years after her death, in writing to a young lady, he says : “ Frugality is an enriching virtue, a virtue I never could acquire myself, but I was once lucky enough to find it in my wife, who therefore became a fortune to me.” A little song which he wrote in her praise, is marked with a playful tenderness, and contains sentiments creditable to his feelings as a man and a husband. In his autobiography and letters he often mentions his wife, and always with kindness and respect, such as could proceed only from genuine sensibility and a high estimate of her character and virtues.
As regards Franklin's sentiments and feelings on death there will hereafter occur 9. striking opportunity for their manifestation, viz., when he himself was near to the brink of the grave, and had a clear view of his condition. With reference, however, to the manner in which he reasoned on the decease of those dear to him, while he was in the vigour of his days, there is a remarkable illustration in a letter addressed to Miss Hubbard on the death of his brother, Mr. John Franklin, which may be appropriately cited here.
“I condole with you," says the writer ; "we have lost a most dear and valuable relative. But it is the will of God and nature, that these mortal bodies be laid aside, when the soul is to enter into real life. This is rather an embryo state,-a preparation for living. A man is not completely born until he be dead. Why then should we grieve that a new child is born among the immortals--a new member added to their happy society? We are spirits. That bodies should be lent us, while they can afford us pleasure, assist us in acquiring knowledge, or doing good to our fellow creatures, is a kind and benevolent act of God. When they become unfit for these purposes, and afford us pain instead of pleasure
instead of an aid, become an incumbrance, and answer none of the intentions for which they were given--it is equally kind and benevolent that a way is provided by which we may get rid of them. Death is that way. We ourselves in some cases prudently choose a partial death. A mangled painful limb, which cannot be restored, we willingly cut off. He who plucks out a tooth, parts with it freely, since the pain goes with it; and he who quits the whole body, parts at once with all pains, and possibilities of pains and diseases it was liable to, or capable of making him suffer.
“Our friend and we were invited abroad on a party of pleasure which is to last for ever. His chair was ready first, and he has gone before us. We could not all start conveniently together; and why should you and I grieve at this, since we are soon to follow, and know where to find him. Adieu.”
These striking views are fitted to afford great consolation to the good when meditating on the immortal state and destinies of those who are heirs to the kingdom of heaven ; and it would have been well had Franklin's philosophy, in the present instance, at least, recognised more pointedly the indispensable relationship between certain conditions and attainments on earth, and the glorious joys of the blessed in the endless ages of eternity.
It may be acceptable to relieve the details of national animosities and infatuation, with some specimens of Franklin's characteristic writings, especially when he betook himself to the composition of pieces intended for the improvement of manners, the amendment of heart and conduct, and the inculcation of lessons calculated to render life cheerful, innocent and happy. He was famous through life for a playful and gentle humour in the style of such writings, and even when engaged on subjects which seemed to repel any sally of the kind. The paper on the Morals of Chess is an instructive and very pleasant example of the author's manner, which may be aptly introduced with an anecdote, belonging however to a later period of his life than we have yet arrived at. The following is the amusing little story :
Franklin was so immoderately fond of chess, that one evening at Passy, he sat at that amusement from six in the afternoon till sun-rise. On the point of losing one of his games, his king was attacked by what is called a check, but an opportunity offering at the same time of giving a fatal blow to his adversary, provided he neglected the defence of his king, he chose to do so, though contrary to the rules, and made his move. “Sir,” said the French gentleman, his antagonist, “ you cannot do that, and leave your king in check," “ I see he is in check,” said the doctor, “but I shall not defend him. If he was a good king like yours, he would deserve the protection of his subjects; but he is a tyrant and has cost them already more than he is worth:-Take him, if you please ; I can do without him, and will fight out the rest of the battle, en Republican-as a commonwealth's man.
“ Playing at chess is the most ancient and universal game known among men ; for its original is beyond the memory of history, and it has for numberless ages, been the amusement of all the civilized nations of Asia—the Persians, the Indians, and the Chinese. Europe has had it above a thousand years; the Spaniards have spread it over their part of America, and it begins to make its appearance in these States. It is so interesting in itself as not to need the view of gain to induce engaging in it; and thence it is never played for money. Those, therefore, who have leisure for such diversions, cannot find one that is more innocent; and the following piece, written with a view to correct, (among a few young friends) some little improprieties in the practice of it,--shows at the same time that it may, in its effects on the mind, be not merely innocent but advantageous to the vanquished as well as the victor.
" The game of chess is not merely an idle amusement. Several very valuable qualities of mind, useful in the course of human life, are to be acquired or strengthened by it'; so as to become habits, ready on all occasions. For life is a kind of chess, in which we have points to gain, and competitors or adversaries to contend with, and in which there is a vast variety of good and ill events, that are, in some degree, the effects of prudence or the want of it.
“1. Foresight, which looks a little into futurity, considers the consequences that may attend an action ; for it is continually occurring to the player—' If I move this piece, what will be the advantage of my new situation? What use can my adversary make of it to annoy me? What other moves can I make to support it, and to defend rayself against his attacks ?
“2. Circumspection, which surveys the whole chess-board, or scene of action, the relations of the several pieces and situations, the dangers we are respectively exposed to, the several possibilities of their aiding each other, the probabilities that the adversary may take this or that move, and attack this or the other piece, and what different means can be used to avoid his stroke, or turn its consequences against him.
“3. Caution, not to make our moves too hastily. This habit is best acquired by observing strictly the rules of the game, such as-' If you touch a piece, you must move it somewhere ; if you set it down, you must let it stand ; and it is therefore best that these rules should be observed, as the game more becomes the image of human life, and particularly of war; in which, if you have incautiously put yourself into a bad and dangerous position, you cannot obtain your enemy's leave to withdraw your troops and place them more securely, but you must abide all the consequences of your rashness.
“And lastly, we learn by chess the habit of not being discouraged by present bad appearances in the state of our affairs, the habit of hoping for a favourable change, and that of persevering in the search of resources. The game is so full of events, there is such variety of turns in it, the fortune of it is so subject to sudden vicissitudes, and one so frequently, after long contemplation, discovers the means of extricating one's self from a supposed insurmountable difficulty, that one is encouraged to continue the contest to the last, in hope of victory by our own skill, or at least of giving a stale-mate, by the negligence of our adversary. And whoever considers,-what in chess he often sees instances of, -that particular pieces of success are apt to produce presumption, and its consequent inattention, by which the loss may be recovered, will learn not to be too much discouraged by the present success of his adversary, nor to despair of final good fortune upon every little check he receives in the pursuit of it.
"That we may, therefore, be induced more frequently to choose this beneficial amusement in preference to others, which are not attended with the same advantages, every circumstance which may increase the pleasure of it should be regarded ; and every action or word that is unfair, disrespectful, or that in any way may give uneasiness should be avoided, as contrary to the immediate intention of both players, which is to pass the time agreeably.
" Therefore, first, if it is agreed to play according to the strict rules, then those rules are to be exactly observed by both parties, and should not be insisted on by one side while deviated from by the other; for this is not equitable.
“ Secondly. If it is agreed not to observe the rules exactly, but one party demands indulgences, he should then be as willing to allow them to the other.
66 Thirdly.-No false move should ever be made to extricate yourself out of a difficulty, or to gain an advantage. There can be no pleasure in playing with a person once detected in such unfair practices.
Fourthly.- If your adversary is long in playing you ought not to hurry him, or to express any uneasiness at his delay. You should not sing, nor whistle, nor look at your watch, nor take up a book to read, nor make a tapping with your feet on the floor, or with your fingers on the table, nor do anything that may disturb his attention. For all these things displease; and they do not show your skill in playing, but your craftiness or your rudeness.
“Fifthly. You ought not to endeavour to amuse or deceive your adversary by pretending to have made bad moves, and saying you have now lost the game, in order to make him secure, and careless, and inattentive to your schemes; for this is fraud and deceit, not skill in the game.
“Sixthly.-You must not, when you have gained a victory, use any triumphing or insulting expression, nor show too much pleasure ; but endeavour to console your adversary, and make him less dissatisfied with himself by every kind of civil expression that may be used with truth:- You understand the game better than I, but you are a little inattentive ;'or, such as you play too fast ;' or,' you had the best of the game, but something happened to divert your thoughts, and that turned it in my favour.'
"Seventhly. If you are a spectator while others play, observe the most perfect silence. For if you give advice you offend both parties ; him against whom you give it, because it may cause the loss of the game; and him in whose favour you give it, because, though it be good, and he follows it, he loses the pleasure he might have had if you had permitted him to think until it had occurred to himself. Even after a move or moves, you must not, by replacing the pieces, show how they might have been placed better; for that displeases and may occasion disputes and doubts about their true situation. All talking to the players lessens or diverts their attention, and it is therefore unpleasing. Nor should you give the least hint to either party by any kind of noise or motion.