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re till invn hearing.
tice in your education; they have not well instructed you in the rules of common civility. You say that we, who understand and practise those rules, believed all your stories, why do you refuse to believe ours?"
When any of them come into your towns, your people are apt to crowd round them, gaze upon them, and incommode them where they desire to be private : this they esteem great rudeness, and the effect of the want of instruction in the rules of civility and good manners. “We have," say they," as much curiosity as you, and when you come into our towns, we wish for opportunities for looking at you; but for this purpose we hide ourselves behind bushes, where you are to pass, and never intrude ourselves into your company."
Their manner of entering one another's villages has likewise its rules. It is reckoned uncivil in travelling strangers to enter a village abruptly, without giving notice of their approach. Therefore, as soon as they arrive within hearing, they stop and halloo, remaining there till invited to enter. Two old men usually come out to them, and lead them in. There is in every village a vacant dwelling, called the stranger's house. Here they are placed, while the old men go round from hut to hut, acquainting the inhabitants that strangers are arrived, who are probably hungry and weary, and every one sends them what he can spare of victuals and skins to repose on. When the strangers are refreshed, pipes and tobacco are brought: and then, but not before, conversation begins, with inquiries who they are, whither bound, what news, &c. and it usually ends with offers of service, if the strangers have occasion for guides, or any necessaries for continuing their journey; and nothing is exacted for the entertainment,
The same hospitality, esteemed among them as a principal virtue, is practised by private persons; of which Conrad Weiser, our interpreter, gave me the following instance. He had been naturalized among the Six Nations, and spoke well the Mohock language. In going through the Indian country, to carry a message from our governor to the council at Onondaga, he called at the habitation of Canassettego, an old acquaintance, who embraced him, spread furs for him to' sit on, placed before him some boiled beans and venison, and mixed some rum and water for his drink. When he was well refreshed, and had lit his pipe, ca nassettego began to converse with him : asked him how he had fared the many years since they had seen each other, whence he then came, what occasioned the journey, &c. Conrad answered all his questions; and when the discourse began to flag, the Indian, to con
tinue it, said, “ Conrad, you have lived long among the white people, and know something of their customs; I have been sometimes at Albany, and have observed, that once in seven days they shut up their shops and assemble all in the great house ; tell nie what it is for ; What do they do there?” “They meet there,” says Conrad, to hear and learn good things." "I do not doubt," says the Indian, “ that they tell you so ; they bave told me the same: but I doubt the truth of what they say, and I will tell you my reasons. I went Jately to Albany to sell my skins, and buy blankets, knives, powder, rum, &c. You know I used generally to deal with Hans Hanson ; but I was a Ititle inclined. this time try some other merchants. However, I called first upon Hans, and asked him what he would give for beaver. He said he could not give more than four shillings a pound: but, says he, I cannot talk on business now; this is the day when we meet together to learn good things, and I am going to the meeting. So I thought to myself, since I cannot do any business to-day, I may as well go to the meeting too, and I went with him. There stood up a man in black, and began to talk to the people very angrily. I did not understand what he said ; but perceiving that he looked much at me and at Hanson, I imagined he was angry, at seeing me there; so I went out, sat down near the house, struck fire, and lit my pipe, waiting till the meeting should break up. I thought too, that the man had mentioned something of beaver; and I suspected it might be the subject of their meeting. So, when they came out, I accosted my merchant, “Well, Hans, (says 1,) I hope you have agreed to give more than four shillings a pound."" No,” says he, “I cannot give so much; I cannot give more than three shillings and sixpence." I then spoke to several other dealers, but they all sung the same song, three and sixpence, three and sixpence. This made it clear to me that my suspicion was right; and that, whatever they pretended of meeting to learn good things, the real purpose was to consult how to cheat Indians in the price of beaver. Consider but a little, Conrad, and you must be of my opinion. If they met so often to learn good things, they would certainly have learned some before this time. But they are still ignorant. You know our practice: If a white man, in travelling through our country enters one of our cabins, we all treat bim as I do you; we dry him if he is wet, we warm him if he is cold, and give him meat and drink, that he may ally l:is thirst and hunger; and we spread sustfirs for historist and cpon: we demand
not lears to be ins we were chould be, as they are
nothing in return.* But if I go into a white man's house at Albany, and ask for victuals and drink, they say, where is your money? And if I haye none, they say, Get out, you Indian dog. You see that they have not learned those little good things that we need no meetings to be instructed in, because our mothers taught them us when we were children ; and therefore it is impossible their meetings should be, as they say, for any such purpose, or have any such effect; they are only to contrive the cheating of Indians in the price of beaver."
TO M. DUBOURG, CONCERNING THE DISSENTIONS BETWEEN ENGLAND AND AMERICA.
London, October 2, 1770. I SEE with pleasure, that we think pretty much alike on the subjects of English America. We of the colonies have never insisted that we ought to be exempt from contributing to the common expenses necessary to support the prosperity of the empire. We only assert that having parliaments of our own, and not having representatives in that of Great Britain, our parliaments are the only judges of what we can and what we ought to contribute in this case ; and that the English parliament has no right to take our money without our consent. In fact, the British empire is not a single state; it comprehends many ; and though the parliament of Great Britain has arrogated to itself the power of taxing the colonies, it has no more right to do so than it has to tax Hanover. We have the same king, but not the same legislature.
The dispute between the two countries has already cost England many millions sterling, which it has lost in its commerce, and America has in this respect
s the colonin has arrogated
between uns sterling,
* It is remarkable that in all ages and countries, hospitality has been allowed as the virtue of those, whom the civilized were pleased to call barbarians : the Greeks celebrated the Scythians for it ; the Saracens possessed it eminently; and it is to this day the reigning virtue of the wild Arabs. St. Paul, too, in the rela. tion of his voyage and shipwreck, on the island of Melita, says, “ The barbarous people showed us no little kindness ; for they kindled a fire, and received us every one, because of the present rain, and because of the cold." This note is taken from a small collection of Franklin's papers printed for Dilly,
been a proportionable gainer. This commerce consisted principally of superfluities; objects of luxury, and fashion, which we can well do without ; and the resolution we have formed, of importing no more till our grievances are redressed, has enabled many of our infant manufactures to take root ; and it will not be easy to make our people abandon them in future, even should a connexion more cordial than ever succeed the present troubles.--I have, indeed, no doubt, that the parliament of England will finally abandon its present pretensions, and leave us to the peaceable enjoyment of our rights and privileges. B. FRANKLIN.
A COMPARISON OF THE CONDUCT OF THE ANCIENT
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
A ZEALOUS advocate for the proposed Federal Con- ' stitution in a certain public assembly said, that the repugnance of a great part of mankind to good government was such, that he believed, that if an angel from heaven was to bring down a constitution formed there for our use, it would nevertheless meet with violent opposition." He was reproved for the supposed extravagance of the sentiment; and he did not justify it. -Probably it might not have immediately occurred to him, that the experiment had been tried, and that the event was recorded in the most faithful of all histories, the Holy Bible ; otherwise he might, as it seems to me, have supported his opinion by that unexceptionable authority.
The Supreme Being had been pleased to nourish up a single family, by continued acts of his attentive providence, until it became a great people: and having rescued them from bondage by many miracles performed by his servant Moses, he personally delivered to that chosen servant, in presence of the whole nation, a constitution and code of laws for their observance; accompanied and sanctioned with promises of great rewards, and threats of severe punishments, as the consequence of their obedience or disobedience.
This constitution, though the Deity himself was to be at its head (and it is therefore called by political writers a theocracy) could not be carried into execution but by means of his ministers: Aaron and his sons were therefore commissioned to be, with Moses, the first established ministry of the new government.
One would have thought that the appointment of men, who had distinguished themselves in procuring the liberty of their nation, and had hazarded their lives in openly opposing the will of a powerful monarch who would have retained that nation in slavery, might have been an appointment acceptable to a grateful people; and that a constitution framed for them by the Deity himself, might on that account have been secure of a universal welcome reception. Yet there were, in every one of the twelve tribes, some discontented, restless spirits, who were continually exciting them to reject the proposed new government, and this from various motives.
Many still retained an affection for Egypt, the land of their nativity; and these, whenever they felt any inconvenience or hardship, through the natural and unavoidable effect of their change of situation, exclaimed against their leaders as the authors of their trouble ; and were not only for returning into Egypt, but for stoning their deliverers. Those inclined to idolatry were displeased that their golden calf was destroyed. Many of the chiefs thought the new constitution might be injurious to their particular interests: that the profitable places would be engrossed by the families and friends of Moses and Aaron, and others equally well born excluded. In Josephus, and the Talmud, we learn some particulars, not so fully narrated in the Scripture. We are there told, " that Korah was ambitious of the priesthood; and offended that it was conferred on Aaron ; and this, as he said, by the authority of Moses only, without the consent of the people. He accused Moses of having, by various artifices, fraudulently obtained the government, and deprived the people of their liberties; and of conspiring with Aaron to perpetuate the tyranny in their family. Thus, though Korah's real motive was the supplanting of Aaron, he persuaded the people that he meant only the public good; and they, moved by his insinuations, began to cry out, -Let us maintain the common liberty of our respective tribes; we have freed ourselves from the slavery imposed upon us by the Egyptians, and shall we suffer ourselves to be made slaves by Moses?
* Numbers, ch. xiv.
Numbers, ch. xvi. ver. 3. “And they gathered themselves together against Moses and against Aaron, and said unto them, Ye take too much upon you, seeing all the congregations are holy, every one of them,-wherefore then lift ye up yourselves above the congregatio: ?”