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and wilds of southern Africa, where in- We are of opinion that the conceptions tervening wastes separate the savage cattle, of our well.intentioned countrymen who and the more than half savage boor, from desire to christianize India, are not always the establishments of civilized life, and the directed by knowledge. Are we sure that means of liberal, and intellectual inter- they do not impute to the deities of India, course. Should we not rejoice, then, to characters which they did not originally . see this beavenly doctrine Aourish where deserve ? They see them as they are; they the throngs of India bow before their abhor them as they now are characterized; representative idols, where millions of but, are they certain that what they so population worship they know not what? justly reprobate are not superstitious ad-where the ignorant multitude is more 'ditions ; the scum and dross of later ages? happy than the learned few ; where who has adequately inquired into the true those who would obtain knowledge are import of the Indian idols?--and till this prohibited from the attempt, on pain of be done, who can answer the reply which losing the members wherein those senses common sense may expect to all exhorreside, which they should direct to that tations to abandon them, “our fathers purpose. Friends to free examination had good reason for these institutions; ourselves, we execrate the law which and we follow the practices of our fathers ?" commands that melted lead should be Who has adequately illustrated the differpoured into the ears of any one, not of ent opinions that prevail among the Brahthe holy caste, who has heard a portion mins; the numerous sects into which the of the Sacred Books read; or that his eyes tribe is divided; the contrarieties of the should be plucked out, if he has perused practices they adopt, and of those arguthem; or his tongue be mutilated, if it ments by which they support them? Who has pronounced their contents. We say has properly contemplated even that strik, to all: hear; read; inquire; contem-ing institution, the difference of caste? plate; understand; obey ; practice; nor The writer before us treats it as absurd, do we exclude even the supercilious Bra- and even criminal, as now established; min from our invitations, and we offer but he does not seem to be aware, that, in him with great readiness every desirable the early ages of mankind, the allotment accommodation for the purpose.
of distinct professions to distinct families Nevertheless, there is a sense in which might originate in the most benevolent the various distincions existing among motives, and be confirmed by the greatest mankind may be attributed to the deter- political wisdom. He does not appear to mination of infinite wisdom. National consider the multiplication of castes to marks and peculiarities are as conspicuous their present extent, as a corruption of to the eye of accurate observation, as their primary intention ; nor has he exgeographical boundaries. The same Power plained the evil that would arise to an that has placed the Hindoo beneath an agricultural people, if the professions ueardent sun, and the Laplander amid cessary to the comfort and enjoyment of eternal shows, the same wisdom that has life were separated into six or eight divigiven the glossy jet to the natives of sions, each of which derived a stipulated Africa, and the tawney red to those of maintenance from the soil. Before we America, has tolerated for ages distinc- can judge properly of the institutions of tions no less striking, in the modes of India we must divest our minds of all the thinking, and in the observances, of these consequences of considering money as different and distant people. Can we wealth ; of all the conceptions of benefits expect that what appeals to the sanction derived from commerces of every supof deep antiquity, and what, in fact, is position that ambition may be gratified by entitled to make this appeal, whatever be extended conquests, of all reference to our opinion on it, should suddenly vanish promotions in rank; and we must restrict at the introduction of better things ? them to the simple contemplation of a When were the mists of error so fugitive tribe of men atrached to the soil, deriving as to disperse before a single ray of truth? from that their suppori, and deeming that Chaotic confusion is not to be reduced to district peculiarly holy wherein they had order by power inferior to that " which first seen the light, and wherein they commanded light to shine out of dark., hoped most devoutly to close their eyes. vess," when the proper time was come.' The Brahmins are 0:04 origically of Hindoostan. They were driven from judgment. Their subjects ate under our their primitive seat by war and distress, protection, as natives of their territories: They brought with them tħe customs of we desire to do them all the good we can; their ancestors, transmitted to them but if they decline our kind offices of a through many ages, and they cannot help religious nature, no failure of duty is imfeeling a most profound veneration for the putable to government, on that account. dicta of antiquity. They are entitled to Mr. Cunningham has favoured us with inany allowances; and it does not become a very sensible and well arranged treatise us to treat with harshness a tribe of men, on the subject of introducing christianiiy who have in their time been the deposita- into India. We do not think every assere ties of all the wisdom and learning which tiot be makes is indisputably correct
. the world contained. The first thing to He has no personal acquaiotance with be done is, to convince them that they India. He derives his information from are iovited to exchange a worse profession those who had no reference to religious for a better; that they are requested, as opinions in what they wrote: and we rational creatures, to exercise their judg. could have informed him, that much ment, in comparing what is offered to intelligence suitable to his purpose is not them with what they possess : to receive to be obtained without special favour. gold, and relinquisb iinsel. But this must The university of Cambridge has sancbe the result of conviction : it requires tioned this performance, and we coincide * line upon line, and precept upon pre in the opinion that both the choice of cept:" it is not the work of an hour or subject, and the sanction they have beof a day. The opportunity must first be stowed on Mr. C. do honour to that afforded; the seed must first be sown; learned body. and after it has endured, perhaps, a long Mr. C. treats first on the duty of introwinter in the ground, it will shoot up in ducing christianity into Asia :-founded spring, and gratify the attentire husband on the power of Great Britain for that man with the joys of harvest. Valess purpose-the wrongs we have done to it were in consequence of conviction, the India—the benefits we derive from herprofession of christianity by all the Brah our dominion the “ malignant and permins in India would yield us no pleasure ; nicious character of that superstition of and if the smallest effort of force were which the Hindoos are victims." The used to promote it, we should deem it moral characters of (he Hindoos our author 'inconsistent with the true and genuine sets in the worst light. (We have set it in character of the Gospel of peace. a light bad enough. Compare Pahora
“ To every thing there is a time;" ma, Vol. III. p. 135.) He enlarges on and the time for taking proper measures their treachery-indolence--and cruelty.towards teginning a great work, may He investigates their religious ceremonies be the subject of consideration, as well - laws, and customs. Their civil and as the beginning itself may be the subject political institutions, such as polygamy
of exertion, long before the benefits in- defective education-concubinage--sla***tended be considerable or general. Wc very_and castes; and afterwards, their
hope and trust, that the dispersion of the religion, are treated particularly in the Sacred Scriptures in the languages of India first Part. The second part inquires into among the people of that country, will the means of diffusing christian knowledge prove the operative cause of great good to in Asia. Oar author examines into the them; and this we most heartily recom- probable obstacles to be encountered in mend as the very highest act of benevo this undertaking, such as the opposition lence. But we hesitate when we are told of the Brahmins--the obstinate adherence that the sovereignty we have acquired in of the Hindoos to their customs, &e.India imposes on us the duty of introduc- their indifference (the most serious obstaing christianity; we are not clearly con- cleofall,in our opinion).-Henevertheless, vinced, that a religious duty can arise out finds facilities in the internal state of the of a political compact. We are not folo country-the situation and character of lowers of Mahomet, who adopted that the people their passiveness and their principle, without scruple. We have political situations. The me ins recom.
never seen treaties, in which the native mended by Mr. C. are a complete Church Pripcez teknquished their right of privale establishment in India--the distribution
of the Scriptures-settled ministers Now although there is truth in this stateschools. The last division of the work went, still some observations will serve to adverts to the consequences of diffusing weaken the force of it. christian knowledge in Asia.
In the first place, this ske'ch of our counOur readers will perceive that this plan rynen in India would not faithfully delinecomprizes an extensive view of the sub-1 lity of our eastern empire ; its high place in
ate the present generation. The greater stabiject. On many things we agree with the the eyes of the world ; its present political writer: on others we hesitate : his infer- form; she exalted yirtues, as well as talents ences do not consist witb our knowledge. of some of those who have swayed its deleWe think some of his expressions incor- gated sceptre, have contributed to raise the rect. Yet on the whole, we are glad British character to a higher standard. If that a subject of such maguirnde should there is still perhaps discernible in our eastern receive a fuli, free, and unreserved discus-countrymen some philosophical indifference, siou in all its parts, that the steps to be and supereliious pride; yet that delicate sens
tiinent of honour, that yenerous love of nationtaken may be the better understood, and at cquity, which were banished for a sea. every
y exertion to be made, instead of being son, have again asserted their rights to the at random, may be well directed and bosons of Englishmen. These being public heartily pursued.
virtues, will give a lustre to the British chaWe shall not extract any of Mr. C's re- racter, in the eyes of the Hindoos, which a flections on the depraved state of morals deficiency in the milder and more reposed viş. among the Hindoos ; they are sufficiently tues will'scarcely destroy. - known and admitted. But shall rather select our specimens of the author's
man is the only portion of the Dutch possessinus in
The province of Jaffnapatnam in Ceylon ner of reasoning from his chapters on the the island, of whose religious state we have obstacles tó' the introduction of christia
any minute account. In the year 1668. it pity and the meanis of effecting that desi- appears that out of 273,759 ivhabitants, rable purpose. Certainly a serious diffi- 188,364 were professed Christians. In the culty heretofore has arisen from the little year 1802 the number of the Protestant superior virtue exhibited to the Hindoos Christians was 138,896, of Catholics 9632. by the Europeans resident among them. Mr. C. offers several reasons in support Why should they change their religion to of the necessity of a church establishment po moral advantage ? On this subject for India. In this he agrees with Major
Scott Waring, as may be seen in our The lower class of Portuguese Catholics in work, , Pomorama Vol. p. and the Bengal, who are the descendants of the Por. Major has since further explained bis sentuguese soldiers, and women of the lowest timents by a private communication, for Indian castes, would io general dishoncur which we acknowledge ourselves obliged any church of which they called themselves
to him. We select Mr. C's. third reason members. Our own countrymen also, particularly at one period, did little to redeem
as a specimen of his style and arguments. the European character from the censire of A third important.end secured by an estas the 'Hindoos. Many of them sought the blishinent would be a system of operationen shores of India as adventurers, and finding a well constructed and generally pursued. very scrupulous morality, litele better than a Now every man chooses his owu ground, burden, " unbaptized ihemselves, " (as Mr. and attempts to atchieve his victory by single Burke expressed it) in crossing the ocean.. combat. Then the movements would pns. Those whio landed upon our easiern berritory sess all the skill and compactness of wel with better views, still found the scene hy no disciplined arany; On the spot, the memberi means propitious to their growih in virtue.'of the Indian church would be able to exa The bustle of a camp, the mercenary routine mine the field of contest, and distribute the of the counting-bouse, the absence froin all | forces to the most advantage. There are public instruction, the want of that controll- many parts of India where the auachment.fo ing influence which the voice of a large chris-Caste, is less ardent than in oshers, and tian body exercises over every member of it; where a spirit of hostility 10 the old systeme all these oircumstances conspired to give such indicates some predisposition to a bellar. an expression to the character of Englishmen, i Points such as these would, upon, the propne as would conciliate little esteem for their sed plan, be watched, and the supplies poured religion*.
in where the demand was the greatest: ht is
also essential to any scheme of conversion, See Tennarit's Ind. Rec. Acc. 'Bapt. Miss. passim.
• Vid. Buchanan's Lissay. Bot. Miss. Acc.
Mr. C. says :
that every vacancy which occurs in a minise , languages, suited to the office for which they terial station should be immediately filled up. are designed. * At present, outof the twelve chaplains attached Those who differ from our author on to the town of Calcutta, and the presidencies the subject of episcopal ordination in of Madras and Bombay, there is an usual India, will probably think that individeficiency of four.* An interval of two years quals educated in such a seminary might almost always occurs before any vacancy is supplied. By this circumstance ihe interests receive all the powers that are regular and of religion are of course deeply wounded. necessary, in the place of their education. The Danish missionaries, in summing up the We attach great importance to the folcauses of lamentation for the venerable Swartz lowing hiots. and Gerické, call our attention frequently to
The different orders of schools in India their deserted congregations, and to disappointed inquirers—to sheep without a shep- children of illicit connectionst; 2. those
appear to be-1. those in Calcutta, for the herd. Now, no reniedy can be applied 10 this evil, at once adequate to the end proposed, originally set on foot (as it is said) br the and consistent with our ecclesiastical institu. the native children in useful literature, ex
Baptist missionaries, for the instruction of tions, but the appointment of an Indian epis- cluding all communication of christian knowrelieved by a power of ordination ; and this ledge ; 3. those in which the different classes
of missionaries, or their catechists preside, power cannot properly be vested in any bat
appointed for the children of converts or episcopal hands, Ar present the number of stations in India, ting Christian knowledge, in addition to that
others, with the express view of communica. where chaplains have been placed, bears a very which is practical or scientific. small proportion to that of ihe large cities of Hindostan, and much less to that of the popu- instruction the basis of every other is above all
That class of schools which makes religious lation. The souls of six provinces are in commendation, and may well be considered trusted nominally to six chaplains, of whom two are generally absent. Hence in many forming and civilizing a state. It will always
as among the most powerful engines of replaces the rites of baptism, marriage, and be desirable to give this order of seminaries burial, are often performed by Jaymien, avd as often entirely passed orert. The number every possible advantage : and, as the work of of ininisters therefore must plainly be increas conversion proceeds, by degrees to draw of ed. Now it is probable that the establish the maintenance of the other institutions,
of ihe national fund unemployed for ment would give such additional respectability and pour it all into this channel. This and attractions to the ministerial rank in India, that sufficient and eligible persons and is perhaps practicable to a greater extent
measure indeed must always be kept in view, would be found to fill the principal stations. There would still, however, remain innume- In tiines of famine or distress, great numbers
at the present moment than we are aware. Table villages for which po provision is made,
of children are offered for sale, as slaves, by and where, from their having no English resident, there would be small inducements for rained, be placed in these schools? And
the natives. Might not children, thus ob. the clergy to establish themselves. For such
would it not be a splendid enployment of stations it appears expedient to follow the that power over them which Providence has usages of the ancient church, and to employ
given us, at the same inoment we strike off a subordinate class of ministers. These per
the chains from their body, to introduce sous might hold the rank of catechists ; night
them to the “ be responsible to ihe minister of the adjoining
glorious liberty of the children
of God!" station ; and either remain stationary in one village; or, whilst the number of converts We believe, that the Brahmins pur. are few, inight have the charge of several in-chase children, to educate them for their trusted to them. This measure has been service : the Catholics, if we rightly adopted, though not ypon system, by the recollect, do the same : but whether this missionaries in the kingdom of Tanjore.
be strictly consistent with the principles of Poverty should not exclude then from the ministry, nor a want of instruction render primitive christianity, demands full inves. them inefficient members of il. For such
• In this college a preference, among the persons, let a seminary or college be provided in Great Britain, where they might receive younger members, might be given ip de chile instruction in divinity, and in the eastern dren of the English clergy.
* Vide Tendant's Ind. Rec. vol. i. where Vid. Tennant's Ind. Rec. Buchanan's this class of schools is mentioned, and, if the Memoir.
statement is correct, deservedly without much + Buchanan, Tenant, &c.
tigation before it is practised. That those who by losing Caste lose their livelihood, The Cambrian Traveller's Guide, and should be employed by government, may not be improper : but every care should
Pocket Companion; containing the colbe taken that interest may not becone
lected Information of the inost popular and įhe motive of conversion. We would not auihentic Writers, relating to the Princibave new converts starve, as they would
pality of Wales, and parts of the adjoining do in many cases, from the disregard of Counties ; augmented by considerable Adtheir former associates : neither would we
ditions, the Result of various Excursions, hold out to them emoluments or honours, &c. The whole interspersed with Historic as temptations. They might labour on and Biographic Notices, with Natural His. government lands : in manufactories ; in tory, Botany, Mineralogy; and with various other departments, which might 'Reniarks on the Commerce, Manufactures, afford them shelter and sustenance, pro-. Agriculture, Manners and Customs of tection and immunity from the mal-prac- thre Inhabitants. pp. 719. Price 7s. 6d. tices of whosoever might attempt to insult Stourport, George Nicholson ; Symonds, or molest them.
London, 1808. The importance of this question we consider as being very great. We cannot
This is a useful little book; and do it justice in our own opinion. We contains a great quantity of information therefore refer to Mr. C's. well reasoned selected from the best authorities. Those tract ; and though we think there are yet who intend visiting this highly picturesque many deficiencies to be supplied on the part of the British dominions, will be subject
, yet we doubt not, that the bring- thankful to Mr. Nicholson for. baving ing it before the public mind with perseve
furnished them with such an instructive rance will at length be attended with a suc- pocket companion. And those who may cess which will be justified by the judicious wish for the services to be derived from choice of the means employed to obtain it.
a gazetteer of the country, by occasional reference, will find this compendium a
dapted to their purpose. If we rightly An Analytical Alridgement of Locke's understand Mr. N. he has not only trans
Essay concerning Human Understanding.cribed very freely from other travellers, Crown 8vo. pp. 350. Price 5s. 60. Lunn, but has also himself travelled, on foot. London. 1808.
He does not, however, describe the track To commend Locke's Essay on the Hu-he pursued, nor does he recommend that man Understanding, at this day, is among mode of travelling : a strong little horse, the most superfluous of superfluvus under- or Welsh poney, to carry bag and baggage, takings. That work, however, is not easy | he thinks preferable. We recommend to analyse and abridge. We have been so the formation of a company of three or long used to attach to the expressions of four persons, with good humour and tembat great master in the art of thinking, perance, as indispensable associates in the a kind of superior power, that we know party: and, we believe, that the comnot how to be satisfied with any sub- plaints of uncivil reception at inns, &c. stitution. The essay was abridged, soon will very rarely occur. Notwithstanding after its appearance ; but that perfor- Mr. N's. recommendation of Smith's map mance did not satisfy the friends of the of Wales, we think his work deficient in original. The present appears to be care- not presenting that accessary: on which fully executed, and may be useful to should have been laid down the routes of those who are prevented by circumstances, former travellers, for the guidance of the from bestowing that time and considera- reader: his list of tourists should have tion on the author's treatise, which it so mentioned the time of the year when richly deserves. To render the approach- each journey began and ended. He es to the temple of learning more easy, should have given the local pronunciation and to diminish any of the thorns and of the Welsh names: as we know, that briars with which some paths to it abound, they sometimes suffer such abreviations, is a service to the community; and this ser- and ellisions, as completely puzzle "a více the author before us has undertaken Saxon." "Mr. N. has added useful indexes, with zeal, and accomplished to a certain of the planis that are found in the princi. degree with success.