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bave transferred into their hands. Had 4 Voyage to the Denerary, containing a this augmentation of value been the result
Statistical Account of the Settlements there, of Dutch capital, labour, and understandand of those on the Essequebo, the Bera ing, freely exercised under British goþice, and other contiguous Rivers of Gos- those we have hinted at, might have slept
vernment, objections of the pature of zna. By Henry Bolingbroke, Esq. of
in silence. Norwich, Depuiy Vendue Master at Su
The consideration of the cost bestowed rinam. ?to. pp. 400. Price London,
on shese colonies, and their increased Phillips, 1807
productio: in consequence of British ins What is the characteristic of the provements, naturally leads their British British nation, at present ?-Improve- proprietors to desire, that, whenever peace ment. An almost restless desire of pro- arrives, they should be retained under our ducing greater effects than have been national protection. Hence arises a diffi. accomplished by former generations. We culty: if they be given up to our present have improved our native island; and very enemies, the parties who now hold them greatly and honourably, too. We have must either relinquish them, to a great improved our colonies; and if year after disadvantage, if they desire to continue year does not discover a progress, the British subjects; or if they prefer the public is dissatisfied, if not disappointed. continuing with their possessions, they We have carried this principle so far, that must transfer their allegiance to a foreign when the chance of war has given us a power, and they become aliens from possession of our enemies' colonies, we their parent state. In proportion to their have improved them, too; and we cer- increased importance will be the reluca tainly restored the Dutch settlements tance of Britain to part wiih them, and to that power, at the peace of Amiens, the embarrassment of our negociators ari. in a condition incomparably superior sing from the difficulty of fixing on au to that in which they were when equivalent for them. This consideration, they surrendered to us. Whether it was with others usual on such occasions, reduce wise, in individuals, to engage such, con- the jargon of uti possidetis, statu quo, şiderablę sums as they did, on the specu- and other Latin barbarisms, to their true lation of what the arrangements at a peace value. might be, we do not inquire; but it will We sinqerely wish that the spirit of be admitted, by foreigners, at least, that pacification would allow the British goche amelioration of the soil, and the aug- vernment to take its choice of the diffi. mentation of the products of the colonies culties we have stated. Very far should of Demerary, &c. at the expence of fifteen we be from interposing obstacles to such or twenty millions sterling, was a specu- a happy incident. But, in the meantime, lation that Britain, and Britain only, we accept with pleasure every attempt to would haie couceived, or undertaken, or inform uş, not only on the actual condi, could have accomplished.
tion of our distant possessions, but on We confess
, 'that we have not seldom their capabilities, and what may be hoped doubted the propriety of such speculations: for from them, though at a distant day. and if, at the close of the present contest, When a nation has many colonies, these establishments should be returned some will be more favoured than others; to their former masters, we do not discover their real value will be greater ; or the the advantage tliat will accrue to our importance attached to them from circumnation from the labour, the judgment, stances, rather relative than intrinsic, will and the expenditure of our fellow-subjects. be more prominent. The writer before It will be found, in that case, that we us asserts, įhat ihe colonies of Demerary, have shewn the Hollanders the way to &c. bave hitherto been greatly undermake the most of their property. If they valued; and that neither the Batavian continue to follow the example we have government nor the British, has duly set them, though it may be honourable appreciated them. He is entitled to conjo us to have pvercome difficulties which siderable allowance, when he thus declares they found insuperable; yet the honour his opinion. He ought to esteem them will very barely compensate for the in more highly than others can, in propor; preased power of rivalship, that we shall tion to his better acquaintance with them, VOL. v. [Lit. Pan. Feb. 1809.]
if they deserve it ; and it is perfectly na- perty may be acquired in these colonies ; tural that he should express that esteem by but the manner of enjoying it, is very language in which others may suppose confined. The means of intellectual grathey discover traces of partiality.
tification are rare; those of the senses We are always favourable to notes taken are in plenty. Property, however, by the on the spot; to observations made with change of sovereignty, at the last peace, the subject under the immediate inspec- was sunk to half its cost; and at that tiou of the observer. The present volume price was offered in vain. The losses is composed from letters written by the sustained by the colony in consequence of author while resident in the colony, and returned bills, and oiher mercantile misthough this occasionally produces an fortunes attendant on the renewal of the irregularity in the language, yet it also war, are staud by Mr. B. at £1,135,000; adds a force which is far from injurious and this, not withstanding some alleviation There is a philosophical spirit of disquisi- was obtained from an order of the king tion in some parts of the work, which is in council. Mr. B. states the following less commendabla. A loose state of morals particulars of this injury : never was, and never can be truly adven
Damages on bills returned..... £230,000 tageous to any community: and however
Expences of law suits, noting, use may conceal the evils of licentiousness
protesting, postage, interest, from those accustomed to behold it, yet &c.....
10,000 they are evils, notwithstanding. Their Captures made by the British.. 1,000,000 nature is not changed, although it may be overlooked. Providence has connected
L1,260,000 cause and effect together, by indissoluble
Recorered by order of the king
125,000 binds, and if any treat the absence of morals as no injury to the commonwealth,
£1,135,000 they assume a false principle, and must be mistaken. We could have been glad if this volume bad given no occasion to
This diminution of capital, could not similar remarks. But, as we find much
but produce serere sufferings in a colony 10 commend in it, we shall take advantage only lising into importance
. This was of what affords us the opportunity; with perhaps inevitable. However, it did not out fastidiously urging further censure.
alienate the minds of the Dutch planters: Mr. B. assures us, that our old West nor blind them to the advantages they had India islands are worn out; and that the derived from British spirit and capital. people of Barbadoes sent to the Demerary
The enterprise of capturing these districts “ many vessels for cargoes of earth, with
was far enough from being of the most which they manured their lands."' This arduous description; and when it is known, traffic would have been carried on to a
that the British fieet was waited for; and considerable extent, but the bottoms of
that many ships laden with goods accomthe vessels were infested by the worms. panied the assailants, we cannot rank the The seasons in these settlements are two
atchievement among the most-brilliant, wet and two dry, in the year: the former though it may deserve a place, if our commences in December, and continues author be correct, among the most belle
ficial. January and February; also June, July, and August: the latter occupies the inter
Stabroek is the capital of the colony ;
and if the reader desires to know what vening Tionths.
Mr. B. speaks favourably of the cli- kind of a capital it is, Mr. B. will demate of the West Indies; but the scribe it to him. fatal effects of indulgence in new rum,
Stabrook was to me quite a new sight. I expressively and justly called “ kell recollected no English town whịch bore the devil,” he states very forcibly. We least resemblance. It stands on the flat believe that intemperance slays its ten strand, and canals, where black and tawny thousands; but that the climate, and the children were plunging about like didappers, seasoning does not slay its thousands, will houses, with colonnaded porticoes and balco.
inclose the main sireet: while wooden require accumulated evidence to persuade nies shaded by a projecting roof, are orderly
Even our author's own experience, arranged between 'spacious intervals in three P. $9,) militates against his opinion. Pro- parallel lines. They are seldom above two
story high : they stand on low brick founda- , assemble to sell their truck; such as fruit, tions, and are roofed with a red wood, which vegetables, fowls, eggs, and where the huckI took for mahogany. No where the glitter sters expose for sale articles of European maof a glass casement; Venetian blinds, or nufacture (much in the same manner as the jealousees as they are called by the inhabi- pedlars do in England) in addition to, salt tants, close every window; and the rooms bees, pork, and fish, bread, cheese, pipes, project in all directions to catch the luxury of tobacco, and other articles, in small quanti. a thorough draft of air, so that the ground. ties, to enable the negroes to supply them. plan of a dwelling is mostly in the shape of a selves agreeably to the length of their purses. cross. There are no trees in the streets as in Hucksters are free women of color, who purHolland ; the town would have been plea- chase their coinmodities of merchants at two santer with this imitation of the old country; or three inonths credit, and retail them out in but casks and bales lie about, as if every road the manner described. Many of them are, was a wharf, and numerons warehouses are indeed, wealthy, and possess ten, fifteen, and intermingled with the dwellings. Even the twenty negroes, all of whom they employ in public buildings are of wood. Blacks clad this traffic. It is by no meaus an uncom. only with a blue pantaloon, or with a mere mon thing for negroes in this line to be tratowel of checking supported by a string about velling about the country for several weeks the loius, come to perform every office. Here together, sometimes with an attendant, have and there a white man in a muslin shirt, ing trunks of goods to a considerable amount, and gingham crowsers is seen smoking his say two hundred pounds, and when a good segar, and giving directions from under an opportunity offers, they remit to their misumbrella to his sable messengers; or is led | tresses what money they have taken. It is about in a phaeton drawn by ponies to sue really surprizing what a large sum is thus perintend the shipping of his goods. A noon- returned by these people going from one es day sultriness and silence prevail : every mo. late to another. The permission of the ma. tion is performed with such tranquillity for nager on every plantation is always necessary, fear of kicking up a dust, that one would belore the buckster ventures to the negro suppose the very labourers at work in a houses, where the bargains are made. Those church during service,
that have not money barter their fowls, pigs, By the time I had unpacked, washed, and s gars, for what they stand in need of. "The dressed, dinner was reads, namely at five. hucksiers are provided with such an assort
A dinner at Stabroeli is a sort of mercan. ment as to be able to supply the negro with a tile medley of the imitable parts of the man- coarse check, or the nianager with a fine ners of remote nations. There was soup 10 cambric, for his shirts. Coloured women of begin with, as in France, and salted ling to all descriptions are extravagantly fond of begin with as in Holland : there was an En- dress. bui those resident in ihe country, not glish huge joint of beef and a couple of Mos having such an opportunity as the Stabroek covy ducks': there was an Italian desert of ladics of seeing every thing new as it arrives, Bologna sausages and sallad, anchovies and feel a lively sensation of joy and pleasure at olives: there was fruit of all kinds, pine-ap- the sight of a huckster, and anticipate the ples, guavas, oranges, shaddocks and avoiras. pleasure of tumbling over the contents of her Wipe was taken during the repast, and por- trunks; and if it contains any new articles of ter between the courses, for a lonne bouche. fashion, their hearts beat high with wishes 10
At dusk, spermaceti candles were lighied, obtain them. If a joe or a dollar be still and placed within large cones of glass, to remaining, it is sure to go: should their prevent the wind from blowing them aside. purse be empty, they make no hesitation iq Segars were offered to us at the whist table, asking for credit :/ such is the general cha. and most of the party smoaked, and drank ):acter and conduct of coloured women. coffee. A hammock, protected by a gauze The market is copiously supplied with curtain against the mosquitoes, was allotted butchers' meat, but at a most extravagant me to sleep in, until beds could be put up. rate : mutton 3s. veal Es. 6d, beef 2s. Id.
The household establishment I found to pork 10d. per pound. With fish, the town consist of cight male and two female negro- is not so well provided as the country, no servants ; a strange disproportion. The house fish-monger bas ever yet engaged in the busiwas spacious, airy, and open, with pervious ness upon a scale sufficiently extensive to shutters, to admit everywhere a free circula- supply the population. The utmost endeation of air.
vour yet made is that of some negroes, who Mr. B. gives a very favourable account hire ihemselves of their masters, at so much of the negroes in several parts of his a day or month, and go a liule beyond the. work. We shall offer some of his re- mouth of the river in canoes, returning by marks.
one or iwo o'clock and selling what they may
have canight. A very glutinous fish, called a There is a market-place where the negroes paukama, which is esteemed a dainty, is taken in a curions manner. It finds a prin- ; massa, you sabbe talk me country," was the cipal part of its sustenance in hollow trees, exclamation. I had now an opportunity of logs of wood, and in the skeletons of old proving Mango Park's correctness, and desired ships, which from laying in mud by the Peter to turn the question 1 bad put to him water side, soon decay. These they risit for into English, which he did, with several food during food tide, but at ebb are left in others, and from their agreeing with the the cavities of the wood, out of which the translation, he convinced me that the trarch negroes draw them by a hook fastened to in Africa deserved credit and confidence. he end of a stick.'
However, to prove further, I told Peter A negro, in the enjoyment of social hap- what I was reading, when he replied with piness, having his wife and children, a garden, energy, “ Massa, me been see that while his goats, pigs, and feathered stock to attend man in me country, in de town where me to, feels a degree of interest in the estate, live, he been come dere one night for sleep, which would scarcely be expected from an one blacksmith countryman fe: me been with emigrated African. By being transported to him, me been give him rice for he supper
, a new soil, and a more civilized country, and soon, soon, in the morning he been go these people become more humanized, more towards the Moor's country." From the enlightened; their minds undergo a new earnest manner in which this artless lale was formation, and they are enabled to distinguish delivered, I was convinced that Peter had the good treatment they receive here, from seen Mungo Park; the nane of the village, the arbitrary and unrelenting mandates of the and the reception he met with, agreed so petty kings and princes in their own country, exactly with what was narrated, that these where they are subject to be butchered like a could be no doubt of it. parcel of swine. Better, sure, are the Africans under the West India planters, protected
This recollection of our adventurous as they are by the colonial laws, transplanted countrynan will not, we hope, be deeminto a settlement, where their industry and ed misplaced in the Panorama. Had we talents will make them useful nxembers of the been in the boat, this negro should have community, than abandoned to the cruel and received some favour, for his kindness rude tyranny of an uncivilized master in to Mungo Park. Could enough be done their nvn country. The severe methods of for those black women who relieved him coercion, formerly used by the West Indian when in the deepest distress, should they planters, are traditional among the Africans, have been transported to any British settleand resulted from employing negro task-mas
ment? ters: Il• proportion as white overseers have become nunierons, has the treatinent im- Our author gives the most gratifying proved. During my residence in Demerary, account of the benevolence and charity of I made it a regular question of inquiry among this colony. A destitute widow and two plantation-negroes, whom I was constantly children were sent home, by a subscription in the habit of seeing and conversing with at of £500. An artilleryman who had lost remote places, as my chief occupation con; his arm in the service, received £240. sisted in travelling, whether they preferred Some Spanish prisoners who were naked their own country to this ; and I hereby make a solemn asseveration, which will remain were clothed at the expense of £100. upon record, that of several hundreds of All these very voluntary acts of compas, negroes, to whom I hare put the question at
sion. different periods, they have all given the We shall next avail ourselves of Mr. preference to their present situations. I will B's. description of the Indians. venture to assert, thai, in case of asking all the negres round in the colonies, there will The Carribbees are the most numeroas and be found ninety contents out of every huo. i warlike of the native tribes of Guyana. Dudred to whom the question should be put. ring peace they have no sovereigns or magis.
I discovered in a singular manner that one trates; but doring war a chief is elecied, who of the sailor negroes artached w our establish- leads them to baule. Their weapons are ment, and who had been in Domerary about bows and arrows, and large clobs made of two years, bad seen Alungo Park, in his iron wood: they, also use poisoned shafts, travels in the interior of Africa. I was going which are discharged through a reed by the down to Essequebo in the sohooner, and, as force of the lungs. They are seldom at war was truy custom, I had put thrce or four books with other'tribes, but against the Spaniards into my portmanteau : Mango Park's Travels they carry on an almost constant hostility. was amoug the number. Ju looking over the Their houses are situated near each other, so rocabulary of the Mandingo tongue, I called that the blowing of a shell, which is their Peter,' a 'negro of that nation, and asked usual signal, will in a very short time assemble him a question in his own language. “Kie! many hundreds of the inhabitants. The Cartibbees excel the other tribes in industry. give orders for every thing, which may enable The chief employınents of the men are huniihem to celebrate it with pomp and magnifiing and fishing the women perform the cence. The riches of the nation are exa in-door labours; they also cultivate plantains hausted on this occasion, and all their ingeand cassava, upon as much ground as they nuity displayed. The neighbouring people choose, for there is no property in land among are invited to partake of the feast, and to be the Indians. Their hammocks are made witnesses of the solemnity. At this time, with great labnur: the cotton is spun with all who have died since the last solemn feast the hand, and in the process of weaving, the of that kind, are taken out of their graves. thread analogous to our shoot is passed under | Those who have been interred at the greatest every other threard of the warp separately, as distance from the villages are diligently sought in darning, raising them one by one with the for, and brought to this great rendezvous of finger. When the weaving is finished, the carcases. It is not difficult to conceive the hanmock is dyed with red figures. Some horror of this general disinterment, &c. I part of the produce of their industry they know not which ought to strike us most, the barter for European articles. For this purpose horror of so shocking a sight, or the tender they make canoes out of trees, hollowed by piety and affection of these poor people towards fire, some of which are seventy teet in length. their departed friends; for nothing deserves Beside these, they exchange wax, gourds full our adiniralion niore, than that eager diligence of the balsam capivi, cotton hammocks, dif- and attentiou with which they discharge this ferent kinds of wood, and staves. For these melancholy duty of their tenderness, &c. they get in return hooks, knives, hatchets,
This strange festival is more or less in use fire arms, combs, looking glasses, beads of among all the American savages bordering on glass and of coral. This barter-irade in my opinion, could be the monuoko, and is probably a remnant of
the gulf of Mexico, on the Missisipi as on greatly increased. By holding fairs at certain Mexican superstition, 'A pompous reinterknown seasons, and offering some hospitality to the savages, they could be induced to collect and are celebrated on the occasion, in the
ment is given to the dead; and games of all from remote places of the interior. They spirit of those which the ancient Greeks and would bring many curious productions, and Romans celebrated upon similiar occasions. gradually acquire a variety of wants. The Spaniarris have instituted such fairs at Buenos On another occasion, Mr. B. mentions Ayres with the happiest effect. It is true,
The arrival of forty canoes in New Amthey fix on the grand festivals of their religion sterdam, full of Indians; they consisted of for ihe assemblage, and hold showy proces upwards of four hundred, and had been -sions, in which the Indians delight to take a part, drest up with crowns of feathers. But their respective chiefs, to protect the towu
collected in different parts of the river by games of agility and bodily exercises, shooting and assist the inhabitants to regain possession with the bow, distributing swimming prizes, of the fort. On their landing, they were horse-races even, might be made to serve for the pretence of meeting. Fairs are the natural regularly ranged under their respective chiefmethods of distributing wares in conntries tains, the canoes were disencumbered of their insufficiently peopled tv maictain stationary inack. They were then conducted in separate
provisions, and hauled up above high water shops. li is an undoubted fact, that the Carribbees bodies to outhouses and other buildings, which
were lent them for quarters. It is needless to have, in some instances, devoured their enemies slain in battle. Of all the natives of say they were well received and accommoda
ted by ihe inhabitants with every necessary, Gayana, this practice is peculiar to the Caro which to their wild uncultivated taste was ribées.Cannibalism is the practice only of the
luxury. most savage and ferocious nations, of those The appearance of these naked warriors who have little sensibility of heart to render
was indeed singular. I have before remarked, them capable of loving, and who are devoid that she Indians are low in stature, stout, of the amiable qualities of the mind, which well made, with long black hair, and strings are the objects of love. It should be obs of beads round their ancles and wrists, the served also, that they only devour their ene. I only covering in point of dress is a piece of mies, and rather to satisfy their revenge, than blue India sallampores, except the captains or their hunger; of all passions, revenge is the heads of a clan, who ate distinguished by an wost destructive of love......
European suit of clothes, and the hereditary Of all their instances of regard to their or acquired staff of office. Their bows were deceased friends, none' is so striking as what slung at their backs, accompanied with a they call the feast of the dead, or the feast quiver full of poisoned arrows, and another of souls. The day for this ceremony is ap- pointed at the end with steel tike javşlins; in poíuled in the council of their chiets, who iheir hands they carried a club about two feet
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