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the materials are equally convenient, the expense

AMERICA, SOUTH, of those three modes will not materially differ, Vaccination..--St. Salvador (Brazils), June 13, but that the rate of expense depends principally 1808.-The Vaccine inoculation has been first on the number of hills and bridges, distance of practised in St. Salvador towards the close of the materials, breadth of the road, and price of labour; year 1804, and since spread through all the proand 5th, that the general adoption of broad whecls vinces by orders from the Prince of Brazils. "His for the transportation of lieavy loads, is necessary royal biglaness appointed Dr. J, A. Barbosa to sutu the full enjoyment of the advantages expected perintend and promote the new practice, and so from the most substantial artificial roads. On the beneficial have been its effects, that the Smalldegree of eonvexity, and on the proper shape to be Pox, which was very destructive here, has almost given to the natural bed of the road under the artifi-totally disappeared. cial stratum, a diversity of opinions seems to prevail.

INDIES, F.AST. Recapitulation of Resources.--The improve- Spontarenus Combustion of wet Paper ments which have been respectfully suggested as in a hot Climate. The following is to be anost important, in order to facilitate the com- added to those instances of spontaneous çon. munication between the great geographical divi- bustion, which we lately submitted to our sions of the United Statcs; will now be recapitula- readers. [Vide Panorama, Vol. V p. 135.] ied; and their expense compared with the resour. The ship Albion, Capt. James Robertson, ces applicable to that objcct. 1. From north to south, in a direction parallel

was buint at Whampoa in China, in Deto the sea coast :


cember, 1807, under the following circum1. Canals opening an navigation

stanoes: On the morning of the 4th, the hon. for sea vessels froin Massachusetts to

Company's treasure left Canton, and Captain North Carolina, being more than

Robertson proceeded down the river, with two-thirds of the Atlantic sea-coast of

a quantity of money belonging to the owners, the United States, and across all the

but did not reach the ship until about half principle capes, Cape Fear excepted 3,000,000 past six in the evening; going over the gang. 2. A great turnpike road from Maine

way, Captain Robertson observed to the offito Gcorgia, along the whole extent of the Atlantic sea-coast..........

cer, who at this time was employed receiving

-4,800,000 II. From east to west, forming com

the honorable company's treasure, and had munications across the mountains be

then upwards of one million and a half of tween the Atlantic and Western rivers :

dollars on board, that there was a strong 1. Improvement of the navigation of

smell of fire ; went below to discem if posfour great Atlantic rivers, including

sible from whence it proceeded, and obsercanals parallel to them..... 1,500,000 ving the people at work in the main hatch2. Four first-rate turnpike roads from

way, inquired wliether or not they pera those rivers across the mountains, to

ceived any smell of fire, to which they rethe four corresponding western rivers 2,800,000 plied, in the negative. Captain R then 3. Canal around the fall of the Ohio.. 300,000 when to the fore hatchway, uncovered it, 4. Improvement of roads to Detroit, St. Louis, and New Orleans....

and removed the hatches, when the flame

200,000 III. In a northern and north-west

burst forth with great fury so high as the wardly direction, forming inland naviga

main stay. Tle ordered the hatches to be put tions between the Atlantic sea-coast,

on again and used every endeavour to smother and the great lakes and the St. Laurence:

the flames but without effect. - At 3 A.M. 1. Inland navigation between the North

of the 5th, the ebb tide having nade, she river and lake Champlain....... 800,000 went over ou her broad side ; the decks by 2. Great inland navigation opening the

this time were so much heated, as to oblige whole way by canals, from the North

the people to quit her. At four in the river to lake, Ontario..... 2,200,000 afternoon she was completely burnt tu 3. Canal round the falls and rapids of

the water's edge. Such was the fury of the Niagara, opening a sloop navigation

fames that the treasure between decks was from lake Ontario to the upper lakes, 'as far as the extremities of luke Mic

run into masses of from two to ten thousand chigan

.1,000,000 dollars weight.-Suspicion of misconduct or

carelessness fell on the people on board, and Making together...... 16,600,000 it was said, that a sea-cunny had dropped a

candle in the fore-hold, and concealed the We réfer our readers to Panorama, Vol 1, p. | desertion among the people, this was not

accident through fear ; but as there was no 1323-Vol. II. pp. 373, 1153–Vol. 111. pp. 389,

states autheri856-Vol. IV. pp. 555, 750, 790—where will be believed.--A later account found such other useful intelligence, as, with tically, that the loss of the Albion was not the present interesting Report, will completely occasioned through carelessness as had been elucidate the present state of the United States. conjecture, but in consequence of sone -For comparison with the methodi of arranging paper umbrellas, received on board as cargo, the turnpike roads in England, see page 1. et seq. packed up not thoroughly dry, which had of our present volume for three Reports of Com caught fire in the hold. Similar accidents mittee of the hon. House of Commons.

have occurred through the same means. Yol. Y. (Lit. Pan. Jan. 1809.]

2 E

Arrivals from China.-Bombay, Jan. 9,, many accidents happening to people who 1808,-We are happy to announce the safe land upon it. We insert the following acarrival of a large and raluable convoy of count of a narrow escape from one of these ships from China and other places, during animals, in the hope that it inay induce the course of the last seven days ; three of people to be cautious how they venture upon them, namely, the Anna, Friendship and the island. It will also point out tn those Cornwallis, have made a remarkable voyage, who are good swimmers, the best method of to and from China, having completed the escaping froid tigers, as they seldom take 10 same in 4 months and 23 days. The Anna the water, unless much pressed by hunger, left this port on the 2d, and the others on A bhuri, laden willi water" for she. Casie the 13th of Augnist last.

Edin, havings through the mismanagement Nautical Remarks.- Situation, and de- of the people, goi aground on Saugor scription of the two following rocks, the Island, Nir. "Tyrer went with a boal's crew authenticity of which may be relied upon : to endeavour to get her off ; and for the sake Pale of Cotron Rock.-N. Latitude, 57 18. of the walk, leaped on shore, whilst bis East Long., (from London) 90: 44.-It is boat pulled towards the bhuri ; and striking about the size of a large room, is highly indianes upon the haunt of a large tona!

The above account is from the verbal infor. Liger, which by the noise he niade, fortimation, confirmed by the journal of a nately gave Mr. Tyrer warning of the danger gentleman, who has been twice upon the he was approaching: immediately op sceirs rock.-Le Meme's Reef, N. Latitude, the ferocious animal, Mr. T. sprang towarus 1:20. East Long. (from London) 94: 20. the water, and the riger plunged after bin,

The reef is 8 or 10 feet above the surface with all the cagerness of pursuit. M. T. of the sea, and extends about a inile from although an excellent swimmer, observing east to west. This account is from the in his adversary gaining upon him, with a preformation of the same gentleman above sence of mind, which ultimately saved him alluded to, who was with Monsieur Le from the fangs of the inouster, dived, and Meme at the time he discovered the rock, continued under water as long as possible ; and went upon it. He afterwards saw il, when, on again raising his head abote ibe and attempted to get upon it, but was pre- surface, he had the pleasure to behold his vented by a heavy swell of the sea.

antagonist swimming leisurely back to land. Chinese Junk at Calcutta.-Feb. 23, The boat coming up, he shortly after got 1808. A Chinese junk is now in the river ; safely on board of her, thus escaping a tery sbe is supposed to come from Mergni. This imninent danger. is said to be the first instance of the kind. Ceremony in Jews' Synagogue at Cochis. During a storm on Monday, March 17, the-Bombay, Jan. 27, 1808.A correspondent · Chinamen had an opportunity of shewing has favoured us with some account of a ceretheir humanity to nine Lascars, who were wony, that took place last Christmas day, in tossing, about at the mercy of the element the synagogue of white Jews near Cochin ; in the neighbourhood of the junk. The from which we extract the following Chinamen ihrew a log of wood overboard, “ All things being prepared in the synagogue, connected to their vessel by a rope, which the Rabbis, and Elders, with the whole of served as a lifebuoy, and by that means, the the people, male and female, assembled and unfortunate sufferers, were drawn on board, arranged, each in their allowed places. The though nearly lifeless. One singular circum- Dewan of the Rajah of Travancore, attended stance may be mentioned, which serves to by the Britislı Residenı, approached in proillustrate the violence of this storm : a six- céssion and entered the synagogue at sun-set oared pinuace, belonging to the Lady Bar- of the 25th December. They were received Jow), which was lying upon the beach near by the Elders at the gate of the congregation ibe top of the Esplanade, was thrown up standing up, and were led to seats, which the bank, carried across the Respondencia had been prepared for them, in front of the walk, and lodged among the bricks on the ark; and under the extended wings of the opposite side. This we should have thought cherubim.---Being seated, the service of the incredible--had we not witnessed the cir- evening commenced.Thechief priest, stand. ouinstances. It can only be accounted ing before the altar of the Lord, in the for by supposing, that slic had been upset presence of the congregation, spread forth by the riolence of the waves, and afterwards his hands towards heaven, and with prayer repeatedly overturned by violent gusts of and supplication, the whole standing, litwind,

plored a blessing upon His Majesty the King Tigers on Saugor Island; escaped by of Great Britain and Ireland. --All the peomeimming and diving.--Sangor Island has ple saying, Amen. - The words of the fac so long been considered as the farourite haunt vourite air of God.. save the king, baring of egers; that we are not surprised at sol boen previously translated into the Hebrew

language, were then chaunted, the whole , in many instances, widely differ from yours, congregation joined to the chorus. Follow and whose nation is at ihis period unfortuing this, a benediction was impluted for his ' nately at war with your own, but at the same Frighuess the Ram Rajah of Travancore; and time feel happy in the occasion now afforded i compliment, suited to the solemn occasion, as of bearing honourable testimony to the 'way addressed, by the chief priest, to the re- perseverance you have evinced in the attempt, sident, and to the Dewan. The service being and ultimate snccess in so arduous an underconcluded. the Dewan of Travancore, in a taking. We have also to request you will

few words neatly delivered, expressed for his hare the goodness lo express to your officers 'inasier and himself, the high sense which the grateful sense we entertain of the kind was entertained of the honour and favour attentions they have on all occasions shewn conferred on them; and turning round 10 us.--Mrs. Miek begs leave to add her tribute the elders, requested, that the Rajah of of praise, and truly grateful thanks for the Travancore might be permitted to make an extremely polite and delicate manner in which offering of a crowp of gold, to be placed you have at all times conducted yourself within the ark of the cabernacle, upon the towards her.-With sincere good wishes for sacred book of the law; and requested your health and happiness, we remain, dear further, that he binself might be permitted Sir, your much obliged and very obedient'serto make an offering of a rich chandelier to vapis, (Signed) R. Turton, Lient. Colonel, illuminaic the Sanctuary.-- These requests Bengal Artilleri:-). P: K'easterry, Captain, having been gratefully acceded to, and suita- Madras Est.-0. Bean, late Commander of Lly acknowledged ; the Resident, and the De- the Gilwell.-IV. Richardson, late Com. of wan, retired in the same nianner, and with the Althea.-R. Dickie, late Commander of like ceremony, as had been observed on the Elizabeth.-W.C. Ord, late Passenger on their entrance.

the Althea.-Port Napoleon, Nov. 1, 1807. Conflict of Gods at Negapatam. - The Scurvy. To the Editor. --The preservation city of Negapatain is very considerable, having of seamen from the scurvy," and eren the cure 17 large and 68 small pagodas, in which of that disease so far as it has yet been inveslamps are kept butning all night before their rigated, being best effected by fresh succulent

idols: there are also tive mosques, two vegetables, you will oblige me by the insertion Catholic and two Protestant churches.-Mr. of the inclosed letter from Mr. Charles Eda Vos relates the following incident as having man, surgeon of his majesty's strip Russell,

lately taken place :-A few days ago, when as shewing, in a clear and distinct manner, the Malabars were carrying their idols in pro- the practicability of employing the Kew Nocession through the streets, it happened that pal, as it is called here, for that valuable purthey carried the god Seeva thirough a part of pose, to which it appears peculiarly adapted, the city which belongs to the god Vishnu; by being so far an air piant as la preserve life, in consequence of which a violent tuinuli and the capacity of vegetation, for inonths after was excited, in which one of the gods was an entire renuoral from the earth, or waterbeaten, two houses were demolished, three ing gardens.-J. ANDERSON.-March, 1808. men killed, and several others wounded, H. M. Ship Russell, Madras Roads, 3d

French truc Polilencss.--As we some time March, 1808.-Sir, The plaut, by the name ago gave an account of thie unmanly behaviour of Kew Nopal, which you were so polite as of a French sea officer,* we have great plea to furnish nie with lovry its effects in scurvy, sure in exhibiting a character diarnetrically thut was so general among the crew of his wuaopposite The Rollowing leiter is an honour. jesty's s!ip Russell, after a cruize of three able testimony, and speaks for itself. months, entirely confined to sea diet, I have

To E. Motard, Esq. Cap!. Com: of the the pleasure to say, proved so agreeable to those French Frigate, La Semillante. --Dear Sir, who had it given them in iis raw'state, that Having at length'rçached that port which the they compared it to sorrell, and I have no chance of war has desined us w enter, we doubt but it would hare proved highly useful hasten to request you will be pleased to accept could it have been continued; but owing to a oor sierre and warmest acknowledgements diarrhea, which generally occurs out the first for the very inny polite and kind attentions use of every kind of fresh diet, I was obliged you have shown 10 our wants and comforts, to desist from giving the Nopal or any other during a period of nearly ten wecks we remain succulent vegetable, and to pay attention to ed on board the frigate you command. We the state of the bowels by opiates, and occaare well aware of the irksomeriess of the si-sionally, by a little creta or tome absorbent to tagion in which you have been placed in correct the acidity in the stomach. As I conhaving to coaciliáre the twinds of a hody of | sidered the whole of the crew as being more men, whose language, and even habits of life,

Compare Panoramn, Vol. II, p. 104, Compare Panorain., Vol. III.


408 for Dr. Anderson's forundr i letters on this Vol. IV. p. 1819.7


or less affected with the scurvy, and the ne- Porte has bitherto so inviolably respected. cessity of their having vegetables with their Turks and Greeks are to serve indiserimioately boiled fresh meat, I made use of the Nopal in in the corps of Seymans., Mustapha las a manner more admissible, which was to put already, at Rudschuk, many Greeks ainong a proportion every day in the coppers with his best troops, and on the inth October, liis their soup'; this I think is a preferable mode, confidant and his banker made their entry it being less likely to affect the bowels than in under an escort of sixty Seymans, who were a raw slale.Having been so little able to all Armeniaus.--The Grand Vizier caused, speak of iis benefit from our not having quitted in the month of October, a great number of the coast, I can only say, that from a know- casgis (rowers and fishermen) to come to the ledge of the’utility of vegetables in scurvy, environs of the capital, in order to make I will endeavour to obriate any effects on the them serve on board the fleet. The ancient bowels by opiates, and hope that the next corps of Javissaries every day decreases. time I have the pleasure of writing to you The Grand Vizier has just caused to be on the subject, to be able to speak of the be. executed the most powerful supporters of that nefit obtained, as it is so easily taken care of corps, who were the most strenuously opposed by keeping it in the air.-Therefore request to the Nizamgedid, the ci-devant Siemen you will furnish me with a further supply, Baschi, and the Inspectors of Arsenals, as we have nothing that will keep so long in a. Khwigi Oglu and Mustapha Aga. This last fresh succulent state.--I have the honour to be, | having called to the 25th cohort of Janissaries, Sir, your obedient servant, CHARLES ED- to which he belonged, for assistance, Mus. MUND, Surgeon of H. M. Ship Russell. lapha immediately killed him with a blow of TURKEY.

the sabre; the executioner immediately cut Proceedings at Constantinople.--Nov. 25. off his head, as well as that of his up forluThe Grand Vizier has caused ihe Bachi Agi, nate companion.-The Grand Seignior has, Commandant of the Marine, and the fana by a decree, given to the Vizier unlimited uical enemy of every thing that was Turkish, powers for the augmentation of the forces, to be beheaded. This event has caused a great both by sea and land. This minister comsensation in this capital. We have been pletely paid the new troops before the cornequally astonished at learning of the deposition mencement of the Fast, and what is very of Hagi Pacha, Commandant of the Castles important, has established a chamber of of the Dardanelles, who has been sent into finances, particularly for the Seymans, at the exile. 'He has been replaced by Rakill Pacha, head of which he has placed the former who is considered as a zealous partizan of the treasurer, Bedellsch Effendi. He has replaced Porte. M. Bosgowich bas presented his the minister of finautes by the ancient credentials as Chargé d'Affaires from Prussia. Crausch-bachi (marshal of the court), Toh-The great camp of Daud-Pacha, near Con- sin-Achmet Effendi, who has for successor tlantinople, is now occupied by the particular Harnand Mehinisch Effendi, formerly presitroops of Mustapha Bairactar, and by the dent of the army accounts. Thanks be 10 Seymans which he has organized with incon- the indefatigable vigilance and energy of ceivable 'promptitude. All the others are Mustapha Bairactar, all these importaut gone to the grand army of Romelia, or re- changes have been peaceably effected.turned into their provinces. Of this number, Egypt continues to enjoy the most perfect the troops of the Beys and Ayans of Asia tranquillity. The Pacha of Bagdad pursues form the greater part. These, before their with vigour the important advantages which departure, engaged themselves, by a most he has lately gained over the Wechabites. sacred oath, before the Grand Vizier, to sacrifice all their personal animosities, and to appear at the first signal, to defend the Ma. OBSERVANDA INTERNA. hometan religion and the empire. Ismael Prorogation of Parliament.-Another ProBey of Seres, Kare Asmann Oglu, and clamation has been issued for further proKaleangh Oglu, were the first who set out ; | roguing Parliament from Jap. 16th to the 19th, they were followed by the celebrated Ciapin then to meet for the dispatch of business. Oglu.-Mustapha Bairactar is incessantly Fast Dail-A Proclamation has been ise occupied in augmenting the Seymans, which sued for appointing a fast for Feb. 8. in Enghe will raise to 160,000 inen; they are to land, and Feb. 9, 1809, for Scotland. have red, green, and white uniforms. These His Majesty's Declaration relative to the troops will be divided into buluks of 1600 Negociation proposed by France and Russie. men each: There will be for ench buluk a The overtures made to his majesty by the goBinbaschi, a Mublahsin (two staff officers), rernments of Russia and of France have not led 36 Jusbasches, and 160 Oubaschi (captains to negociation;, and the intercourse to which and fiertenants). The Grand Vizier has those overtures gave rise being terminated, bis entirely done away the obstacle which resulted majesty thinks it right thus promptly and pub. from a difference of religion, and which the licly io make known its iermination. The continued appearance of a negociation, when the government of Spain, acting in the name peace has been found to be utterly unattain. of his catholic majesty, Ferdinand VII, was able, could be advantageons only to the understood to be a party of the negociation.. eneiny.--It might enable France to sow | The reply relurned by France to this proposidisinist and jealousy m the councils of those lion of his inajesty casu off at once the thin who are combined to resist her oppressions : disguise, which had been assumed for a moand if, ainong the nations which groan under mentary purpose ; and displays, with less the tyranny of French alliance, or anong than ordinary reserve, the arrogance and in those which maintain against France a doube justice of that government. The universal ful and precarious independence, there should | Spanish nation is described by the degrading be any which even now are balancing be- appellation of the Spanish Insurgents ;* tween the certain ruin of a prolonged inactic and the demand for the admission of ihe govity, and the contingent dangers of an effort, vernment of Spain as a party to any negociato save themselves from that ruin; to nations tion, is reječied as inadmissable and inso situated the delusive prospect of a peace sulling. With astonishment as well as with between Great Britain and France could not grief his inajesty has received from the Empefail to be peculiarly injurious. Their prepa- ror of Russia a reply, similar in effect, alsations might be relaxed by the vain "hope of though less indecorous in tone 'and manner. returning tranquillity; or their purpose sha- The Emperor of Russia also stigmatizes as ken by the apprehension of being lefi to con. “ insurrection," the glorious efforts of the tend alone. - That such was, in fact, the Spanish people in behalf of their legitimate main object of France in the proposals trans- sovereign, and in defence of the independence mitted to his majesty from Erfurth, his ma- of their country ; thus giving the sanction of jesly entertained a strong persuasion.—But at his imperial majesty's authority to an usurpa. a moment when results so awful from their lion which has no parallel in the history of importance, and so tremendous from their the world. The king would readily have uncertainty, might be depending upon the embraced an opportunity of negociation, decision of peace or war, the king feli it due which might have afforded any hope or prosto himself to ascertain, beyond the possibility pect of a pesce, compatible with justice an of doubt, the views and intentions of his with honour. His majesty deeply laments

enemies. It was difficult for his majesty to an issue, by which the sufferings of Europe believe, that the emperor' of Russia had de- are aggravated and prolonged. But neither voted himself so blindly and fatally to the the honour of his majesty, nor the generosity violence and ambition of the power with of the British nation, would admit his mawhich his imperial majesty had unfortunately, jesty's consenting to commence a negociation, become allied, as to be prepared openly 10 by the abandonment of a brave and loyal abet the usurpation of the Spanish monarchy; people, who are contending for the preservaand to acknowledge and mairtain the right tion of all that is dear to inan ; and whose assumed by France, to depose and imprison exertions in a cause so unquestionably just, friendly sovereigns, and forcibly to transfer to his majesty has solemnly pledged himself to herself the allegiance of independent nations. sustain.- Westminster, Dec. 15, 1808. When therefore it was proposed to his majesty Subscription in Aid of the Spanish Patriots. to enter into negociation for a general peace, -On Friday, Dec. 2, pursuant to adverin concert with his majesty's allies, and to tisement, a meeting of the merchants and treat either on the basis of the Uti Possidetis others took place at the City of London Tavero, (heretofore the subject of so much contro- for the purpose of supplying the Spanish Pa. versy), or on any oiher basis, consistent with triots with clothing, and other necessaries. justice, honour,' and equality, his "

majesty The Lord Mayor presided ; and Mr. Alderdetermined to meet this seeming fairness and man Rowcroft moved, " that it was the sense moderation, with fairness and moderation, of the meeting, that subscriptions should be on his majesty's part, real and sincere. -The immediately entered into, for supplying the

king professed his readiness to enter into such Spanish armies with necessaries." - This re| negociation in concurrence with his allies ; solution was carried unanimously, and with and undertook forth with to communicate to much applause." The meeting then proceedthem the proposals which his majesty haded to form a committee, composed of a great received. But as his majesty was not con. number of the most respectable merchants of nected with Spain by a formal treaty of London, for the purpose of carrying into aliance, his majesty thought it necessary to effect the objects for which they were assemdeclare, that the engagements which he had bled, and the following address was published contracted, in the face of the world, with by them, Dec. 13-** The committee appointthat nation, were considered by his majesty as ted on the 9th of December, by the merno less sacred, and no less binding upon his chants and inhabitants of London, to attend majesty, ihan the most solemn treaties; and to the application of a general subscription in to express his majesty's just confidence that aid of the brave Spanish Patriots, now strug

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