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provement, and put them in a proper train | Professor Martyn, is of opinion that Brifor the culture of grain, &c." We fear tish oak is superior. As his letter tends that the writer's notions were somewhat to correct an error in nomenclature, we too sanguine on this subject ; though we shall insert it. do rot mean to deny, that the bringing of

On the Sorts of Onk. Tands into some kind of culture, with a

SIR; I have read Mr. Gisborne's letter revie'v to further operations, may be so coinmending inquiries to be made respecting conducted as to prove eventually biglily ihe growth and properties of the iron oak, beneficial. This gentleman thinks, in as ii is called. I am not much acquainted opposition to a prevailing opinion, that with it; but if she Lucombe oak be a variety " the whitest, most durable, and easiest of this, it is of a different species from our bleached fax, may be produced from British oaks; it is called by Linnæus quercus crops where the seed has been completely cerris, and the timber is much inferior in ripened.” It is so, he says, in Holland;

value. It is improper to call them evergreen and if the adoption of any process used in oaks, because they do not retain their leaves

more than eight or nine months, and it tends Holland, would enable us to establish this

to confound ihem with this ilcx, or genuine fact, and to act upon it, the advantage to

evergreen oak, which is a tree of a nature the nation would be immense; as we are, torally different. more or less, at all times at the mercy of From the single acorn sent with the cup, our enemy, for a supply of the seed ne- it appears that the iron oak is the quercus cessary to furnish the material for one of cerris, or a variety of it; and it is, without our most considerable manufactures. We doubt, totally difierent from quercus agilops, believe, that at this time, our sentiments the cup of whose acorn, as Mr. Gisborne are in unison with those of a great portion well observes, is so extremely unlike the of the population of Ireland. There are many good ideas in this paper; but not

All my experience on the subject of oaks much vovelty. The comparative trials goes to recommend our common British oak; and experiments recommended by Mr. S. who plant for the timber, particularly for

in preference to all foreign ones. Gentlemer to be made, may afford useful hints.

naval purposes, should be attentive to have We cannot do justice to Dr. Richard

acorns gathered under their own direction, son's Essay on the Irish Fiorin grass; if it from trees which have their foliage with wide possesses all the good qualities the Dr. at- bold openings, or situations terminating tributes to it, we wish to enjoy a more bluntly, and placed close to the branch, withfamiliar acquaintance with it in Britain. It out the intervention of any foot-stalk; and would greatly improve many wastes and the acorns themselves growing singly, or at plashies now worthless. It is capable, says

most two logether, on long fruit-stalks. There Dr. R., of clothing the driest soils. It adorns has the leaves on foot-stalks, and the acorns

is an oak not uncominon in England, which the cliffs of the Giant's Causeway, “and in clusters, sitting close to the branch ; whiclı forces its roots into the crevices of the being a more handsome and free growing tree, rocks, and even into the dispinutive inter

may be apt to seduce unwary planters, but vals between the Causeway pillars." Aihe timber is greatly inferior, and for naval plate of this grass, accompanies the essay. purposes wholly unfit. It is known among

Mr. Madock's embankments and other ine woodmen in some counties by the name improvements in Caernarvonshire, have of durmast, and in others by the name of fir, already found their place in the PANORA- or fir-pine oak..I am, Sir, &c. &c.

THOMAS MARTYN. M. Compare Vol. IV.


385. Mr. Fulton, whose paper on small canals Frith Street, Soho, Feb. 27, 1796. is inserted in this volume, we presume to Mr. Robertson wishes for registers and be the same writer who fiivoured the pub. observations on the weather, in reference lic with a Treatise on that subject. to the lunar cycle of nineteen years. It He is by birth an American ; and we be- may seem somewhat strange that we lieve is now in France: (his paper is dated should wish for the same from India, for 1795). Recent experiments on this sub- a like period : but we apprebend that the jert might be interesting.

effects of the lunar influence, are much Variations are not always improvements; more decided in that country, than in our Mr. Gisborne recommends,ʻin strong own; and that there, if any where, the terms, a species of oak, which he calls true basis of a just theory of those in iron udk ; but our valuable correspondent, Auences may be laid: 'the miner effects of which may afterwards be traced and detected in our northern cline, although checked and varied by many in- | A Journal of the Voyages and Travels of cidental oppositions from other principles.

a Corps of Discovery, under the Command

of Captain Lewis and Captain Clarke, of A curious fact, in elucidation of what the Army of the United States; from the may be done by management, is mention. Mouth of the River Missouri, through ed by the hon. baron Hepburn, on the the interior Parts of North America, to subject of the potatoe. It is creditable to the Pacific Ocean ; during the Years 1804, the industry and intelligence of our neigh- 1805, and 1806. By Patrick Gass, one bours the Dutch ; we suppose the British of the Personis employed in the Expedition. were too much occupied to inquire into it.

Bro. pp. 381. Price 9. Pittsburgh : The Dutch first introduced potatoes in Printed for David M.Keehan, London: Bengal nearly forty years ago; they sold theni

Re-printed for J. Budd, 1808. in Calcutta ai more than five shillings a pound, and long kept the monopoly of the potatoe

The expedition of which this volume market ihere, by coveealing the proper mode contains an account, is truly interesting to of culture. Although the British planted America. The United States could not the seed, appareutly in the saine manner as but desire to discover the extent ot that the Dutch, ihey never could reap one pota- | Continent on which they are placed, and toe ; for the haulm or stem grew, and conti- Ito ascertain the nature, population and nued growing with such rapid and luxuriant productions of those immense regions vegetation, it never formed a fruit; but the that lie 16 the west of their dominions. Dutch had discovered, that the haulm should be cut over several times in the early part of The sea.coast of western America had the season ;

and by thus exhausting the lusu: been visited by Europeans for the purpose riant and superabundant vegetation, the plant of discovery ; a small part of it by the ultimately produced its fruit uoder ground. Russians from Asia; but a much larger But I have been assured by sundry gentlemen, portion of it by the inimortal Cooke, and who more recently have returned from India, afterwards by Vancouver, as well as not only that the potatoe is universally culti- La Peyrouse, and others. Traffic also had vated there, and from its cheapness and abun-induced navigators to visit this coast, and dance is in daily consumption by the lower classes of the natives, bui that the plant has duced, for an instant, proved lucrative,

the trade in sea-otter skins, which it probecome naturalized to the climate, and pro- and stimulating. The jealous policy of duces apples, with less luxuriance of stem. I beg leave with deference to suggest the

the Chinese government did not suffer propriety of importing potatoes from various

that trade to continue, and now, we presoils and climates, some better and some in- sume, that the natives may follow their ferior to our own, and distributing these im occupations without interruption. But, portations, in small quantities, to growers of though there has long been an absolute accurate and attentive observations.

certainty, that North America is one vast From our extracts it appears, that not Continent, yet its geography remained merely agriculturists by profession, but unknown; for those who in pursuit of naturalists and philosophers, may increase skins (the chief if not the only induces their knowledge by the facts stated in ment to enterprize) penetrated up the these papers. But their chief value is, rivers and other waters to the westward, their practical utility, especially to those added little to the science, nor could the who have favourable opportunities of de- distance to which they roved, be considered termining by the test of well-conducted as great, in proportion to those parts that experiment the merit of the suggestions

still remained undiscovered. they record. We honour the attempt to

The Hudson's Bay Company, which continue and increase the agricultural im was most likely to derive advantage from provement of our country, and we trust, researches into the interior of America, that whatever attention it may be the duty engaged Mr. Hearne in an expedition, of the statesman, or the interest of the that lasted from Dec. 7th 1770, to June merchant, to pay tor ships, colonies, and 30th 1772. This traveller explored the commerce," yet, the nation will never country lying pretty far north, as well as remit its attention to the welfare and pros- west, to the latitude of 72. He saw the perity of its agriculture.

sea ; but he did not see the western coast. Mr.-Mc, Kenzie (now. Sir Alexander) | tains : sometimes wild desarts, at others, took a less northerly course, in 1793, and scarcely penetrable woods. proceeding as nearly as possible due west, We cannot accompany the corpo in be arrived at the Ocean, unjustly named their journey; and therefore shall content Pacific, about latitude 52, being the first ourselves with extracting a few passages, European who had effected this hazardous by way of specimen. These we shall transit. This fortunate expedition roused arrange ander the divisions of geographithe emulation of America, and the United cal information :-information relating to States fitted out a company, with more the character and deportment of our adequate means than individuals could fellow men; and, lastly,—what concerns obtain, for the purpose of exploring other the animal creation. parts of this immense Continent. We

Monday, 27th MayWe have now got have in Panorama, Vol. II. p. 373, given into a country which presents liide to our an abstract of this journey in a letter from view, but scenes of barreness and desola. Capt. Clark to his brother Gen. Clark. tion; and see no encouraging prospects that

The volume before us is a transcript of it will terminate. Having proceeded by the a journal kept by one of the party, who course of this river the Missouri) about two was, it should appear, in a subordinate thousand three hundred miles, it may there

fore not be improper to make two or three station, and who has done nothing more

general observations respecting the country than preserve memorandums of daily oc

we have passed. currences. We have no doubt on the

Froin the mouth of the Missouri to that of authenticity of the journal: nor on the the river Platte, a distance of more than six general truth of the facts it contains. hundred miles, the land is generally of a As a work it is of some importance in good quality, with a sufficient quality of America ; but English readers will com- umber; in many places very rich, and the plain of it, as dry and little amusing in country pleasant and beautiful. style, and management. A dextrous From the confluence of the river Platte book wright among us, would have made with the Missouri to the sterile desert we of these materials, a pleasing perform- lately entered, a distance of upwards or ff

teen hundred miles, the soil is less rich, and, ance, without perverting any of the incidents, or detracting from the truth of the except in the bottoins, the land of an inferior narrative ; and those who think slightingly second-rate land. The country is rather billy,

in general be called good of the skill necessary to prepare a work than level, though not mountainous, rocks for the public eye, may be referred for a

or stony. The hills in their unsheltered state proof of its reality and necessity to the are mach exposed to be washed by heart journal before us.

rains. This kind of country and soil which

has fallen under our observation in our pro. The party consisting of forty-three men, including captains Lewis and Clarke, who siood, to a great distance on both sides of the

gress up the Missouri, extends, it is under commanded the expedition, crossed the river. Along the Missouri and the waters Mississippi to the west, May 14th 1804, which flow into it, cotton wood and sillors and proceeded up the Missouri, so far as are frequent in the bottoms and islands; but it is navigable: quitting this river, they the upland is almost entirely without cimber, marched westward, till they came to a and consists of large prairies or piaios, the stream that led them to the western ocean; boundaries of which the eye cannot reach, the first sight of which they obtained on

The grass is generally short on these immense Friday, Nov. 15th, 1805. They returned natural pastures, which in the proper seasons to St. Louis, on Friday, Sept. 191h, 1806, various colours. The views from the hills

are decorated with blossoms and Powers of after an absence of two years, four months, are interesting and grand. Wide extended and ten days.

plains with their hills and sales, stretching The distance travelled, was by estima- away in lessening wavy ridges, until by their tion, above 1000 miles from the head of distance they fade from the sight; lange rivers the Missouri, and from the month of that and streams in their rapid course, winding in river about 4133 miles.

various ipeanders ; groves of cotion-wood and In so great a distance, it may easily be landscapes in different directions, dividing

willow along the waters intersecting the supposed, that every description of land, them into various forms at length appearing and prospect, must be met with. Here like dark clouds and sinking in the horizon extensive plains, there immense moon these enlivened with she buffaloe, elk, deer, and other animals which in vast nuinbers feed | Thus while some savage nations coinupon the plains or pursue their prey, are the press the head on the sides, others we prominent objects, which coupase the extensive prospece reserved in the view, and surely, iese people deserve the head

izd compress it on the back and front : strike the aiteann of ile beholder. The islands in the di Couri ar of various leads deficicut in brairis.

ache! We cannot butihink these flatsizes; in general not large, und during his Wdier, mostly overflowed.

i Cap'. Levis, myself, and some of the men, There are ludiar paibs along the Missouri, says Nir. G. went over to the 'Teelon Indian and soine in other parts of the countrs : camp. Their lodges are about eighty in Those alung ihat river du nou generally low number, and contain about ton persons each; its windings, but cui oli points of lind and ihe greater part wonen wuid children. The pursue a direct course. There are also roads

women weio empuyed in dressing busialue and paths made by the buffaloe and oher skins, foi clonings for thensives, and for animal.; some of ihe buffaloe roads are at covering their lugts. They are the most least ten feet wide.

friendly people I ever saw ;, but will pilier, Captain Clarke measured the height of the if they have an oj fortunity. They are also. falls, and found them in a distance of 17 very dirty: the water they make use of, miles to be 362 feet 9 inches. The first great is carried in the paunches of the aniinals they pitch 98 feet, the second 19 feet, the third kill, just as they are, en.pried, wione being 47 feet 8 inches, the fourth 26 feet; and a cleaned. The gave us ainsnes of victuals of number of small pitches, amounting altoge- various kinds; I had berer seen any thing ther to 362 feet 9 inches.

like soine of these dishes, por would I dull The party discovered, the ocean by of what ingredienis, or how they were

made. descending the Columbia river, which is deseribed as very beautiful," but the Mahas, of whom they killed 75 men,

About 15 days ago, they had a battle wih abounding in falls and rapids. It may be and took 25 womens prisoners

, whom they said to swarm with salmon, and other have now with them. They promised to fish : but salmon, especially, which ap-Capt. Lewis, that they would send the pripears to be the chief food of the natives soners back, and make peace. who reside in the neighbourhood of this About 3 o'clock, we went aboard the boal, stream. They preserve it by pounding accompanied with the old chuiet and his liede and drying.

In the evening, Capt. Clarke and some The manners of the inhabitants of this of the nien went over, and the Indians made vast 'tract differ no doubt, even more than preparations for a darce. At dark it coma could be observed by that cursory view of

menced. Capt. Lewis, myself, and some of them, which could be taken by these pas. Their band of music, or otehestra, was com

our party went up to see them performi. sengers, It should appear, however, that posed of about 12 persons beating on a bufias among thesesimple sons of nature, the same Joe hide, and shaking small bags that made a disposition prevails which some have char-rattling noise. They had a large fire in the ged as criminal on more polished socie!y, centre of their camp: on one side the women, that of endeavouring to improve the works about 80 in number, forved in a solid of Omniscience by the caprices of fashion. column round the fire, with'sticks in their Speaking of a number of Indians that killed tied on them. They kept moving, or

hands, and the scalps of the Mchas they had visited them, Mr. Gass observes,

jumping round ibe hire, -rising and falling on We suppose them to be a band of the both feet at once ; keeping a continual noise, Flat-head nation, as all their heads are com- singing and yelling. In this manner: they presșed into the same form; though they do continued till 1 o'clock at niglit, when we not speak exactly the same language, bug returned to the brai with two of the chiefs. there is no great difference, and this may be

The lodges of the Rickarees, or Aricaa, dialect of the same. This singular and. desorruing operation is performed in infancy | ris, are thus described: in the following manner.

A piece of board In a circle of a size suited to the dimensions is placed against the back of the head, ex- of the intended lodge, they set up i6 forked. tending from the shoulders some distance posts five or six feet high, and lay pules from above it; another shorter piece extends from one fork io another.

Aluinst these poles the eye-brows to the top of the first, and her lean other füles, raying from the

th våre then bound together with thongs or ground, and extending about four inches cous, made of skins, so as to press back the above ihe cross poles: These are to receive forehead, inake the head rise at the top, and the ends of the upper poles, that support the face it out above the cars,

roof. They next set up four large forks,


2"The paucity of dress of the women,

fifteen feet high, and about ten feet apart, | fire. These people make willow baskets so in the middle of the area ; and poles or beams close, and to such perfection, as to hold between these. The roof poles are then laid water, for which purpose they make use of on, extending from the lower poles aeross them. They make much use of the sunthe beams, which rest on the middle forks, Power and lainbs-quarter seed, which, with of such a length as to leave a hole at the top terries and wild-cherries pounded together, for a chimney. The whole is then covered compose the only bread they hare any knowwith willow branches, except the chimney, ledge of, or in use. The fish they take in and a hole below to pass through. On the this river are of excellent kinds, especially willow branches they lay grass and lastly the salmon, the roes of which, when dried clay. At the hole below they build a pen and pounded, make the best of soup. about four feet wide 'and projecting ten feet from the hut; and hang a buffaloe skin, at I of several nations were met with, there be

On the banks of the Columbia, natives the entrance of the hut for a door. This dabout, like every other kind, is chiefly per- ing three, or part of three, different tribes formed by the 'squaws (women). They settled together : their names unknown. raise corn, beans, and tobacco. Their tobacco They are almost without clothing, having is different from any I had before seen ; it no covering of any account, except some answers for smoking, but not for chewing; deer-skin robes and a few leggins of the same On our return, I crossed from the island materials. The women have scarce sufficient to the boat, with two squaws in a buffaloe to cover their nakedness. skin stretched on a frame marle of boughs, The custom prevails among these Indians wore together like a crate or basket for that of burying all the property of the deceased, purpose.

with the body. Amongst these savages, when The condition of the females, doomed any of them die, his baskets, bags, clothing, to. labour, among these people, is, alone,

horses and other property, are all interred: sufficient to mark this tribe as savage :

even his canoe is 'split into pieces and set

up round but the trade in their favours (which is a public profession) is infinitely more disgraceful and disgusting, whether in what extends to other tribes : affects to be called civilized life, or among The dress of the squaws here is different" the wild roamers on the banks of the from that of those up the river; it consists Missouri. The kind of boat described in of a long fringe made of soft bark, which this extract reminds us of the coracles of they tie round the waist, and which comes the ancient Britons.

down almost to their knees; und of a small

robe, made out of small skins cut into In another place our author observes: thongs, and wove somewhat like carpeting. * The natives of this country ought to The Clatsop Indians, the Chin-ook, Cathhave the credit. of making the finest la-mas, Cal-a-mex, and Chiltz nations, who cances, perhaps in the world, both as to | inhabit the sea coast, all dress in the same service and beauty; and are no less expert manner. The nien are wholly naked, except in working thein when made," which a small robe ; the women have only the agrees with the remarks of Sir Alexander addition of the short petticoat. Their lanM Kenzie, who says, “ I had imagined suage also is nearly the same;, and they all that the Canadians who accompanied me, the remains of the dead, all their property,

observe the same ceremony of depositing with were the most expert canoe-men in the

or placing it at their graves. I believe I saw world, but they are very inferior to these as many as an hundred canoes at one burying people (the natives near the coast), as they place of the Chin-noks, on the north side of themselves acknowledged, in conducting the Colombia, at its entrance into Halley's those vessels."

Bay; and there are a great many at the Among the spake Indians, says Mr. burying-place of every village

All the Indians from the rocky mountains Gass,

to the falls of Columbia, are an honest, While I lay here to-day, one of the natives ingenuous, and well disposed people; but shewed me their method of producing fire, from the falls to the sea-ccast, and along it, which is somewhat corious. They have two they are a ruscally, thieving sei. . sticks ready for the operation, the one about In the evening the men came in with the 9, and the other 18 inches long: the short meat of the two bears; and also our other stick they lay down flat, and ruh the end of hunters' who had killed three more, all'of the the other upon it in a perpendicular direction, grizly kind. We gave some of the meat to for a few minutes; and the friction raises a the natives at our camp, i710 cooked it in kind of dust, which in" a shori time takes their own way; which was done in the Voa. V. (Lit. Pan. Jan. 1809.)

2 B

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