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Sich is the picture of St. Helena, as From the scanty parehes of herbage on the drawn in various parts of his introductory heights contiguous in the sea, neither black chapter by Mr. Brooke. He describes catile nor sheep, even nad nature fitted them also, che civil and inilitary establish:vent for iraversing such craggy precipices, could
derive inlich sušienance. of the island; and narrates the events
But in those cliffs which have taken place in it, trom its dis
which in many parts are inaccessible to men,
the goat finds excellent browzing, and covery, May 21, 1501, by the Portuguese, thrives where other animals would perish.. by the loss of one of their ships on it. It To obtain a good breed of these creatures was greatly improved, as a residence, by became an object of very early attention. Fernando Lopez, an unfortunate Portu- 1 Orders were sent by the company to Bombay grese nobleman, whio preferrea a volun. and Surat, to forward to St. Helena a protry exile in it, to a disgraceful reception portion of ram and ewe goats on every homeat home,
That nation preserved their ward-wound strip, until a suflicient breeding secret concerning this island, nearly 90 stock was procured. But if by this it was
intended to introduce a larger species, the years : they were at length expelled by the Dutch'; who abandoned St Helena, what has been stured by the writer of Caven
measure would hardly appear necessary afier on establishing themselves at the Cipe, in dishe's Voyage. The Secundity of the goats 105', and the English East India Cone in a very few years multiplied their number pany settled on it ihe same year.
lo such a degree that they were regarded as surprised by the Duch in 1972 ; but was vild animals, and honted down by dogs and speedily regained by the English: and has zons without resiralli, This practice was continue l ever since under British au:ho. interdicted in the year 1678, by proclamarity.
lion ; but masters of families aud houseNr. B. states the progressive improve-keepers were permited, on applicatio:: to the ment of the island, from cabal and anar
Lovernor and council, to appropriate Rocks
torneir own use, and to maintaili len on chy to loyalty and repose : together with the parts of the Company's waste lanvis now the plans and enticavours of various go: I called Coat Ranges : the Company reserving vernors for obviating defects, as well of the 10 ihemselves James's Valley and its vicinity port, as of the interior of the island ; and for their own goats. we learn, that it now exceeds, in conve.
Before the destruction of the goats had niencies as well as in strength, whatever it been asserted to and agreed on, it was stipemigiit boast of, in former times.
We laled, ihat those persons who had enjoyed cannot to low our author into the partici
the advantages of keeping flocks on the Com. lars of this history : for them we must
pany's wasie land, should bare the limits of refer to the work. Neiher can we enu
ine respective ranges defined, and registered,
and, al ine expiration of the len years, the merate the various attempts to introduce fermer indulgencies siould be resicred. the cultivation of the vine, for the pur. That was, there one, al brst considered as pose of making wine ; of cotton, of in. an indulgence, was, kon that occasion, digo, of sogar, of tobacco, wbich grows constituted a rişlit. Laws were coacred spontaneously in some places. The scarcity which adinitted and vested in cerca persons, of fuel on this island seems to be an in the right of keeping goals or certain parts of superable bar to whatever requires the the Cunipam's waste lund. The land itself aid of fire to prepare it for exportation. The value of this sp.cies of property dejiends
still remains in property to the Company, Seasons of dryness, also, which return
on the safety or danger of we range, its exevery seven or eight years, are very tent, capability, and other local circumserious' bindrances to the regularity of stances. The privilege of keeping one hunthose returns that are the best supports of dred goats in one situation will perhaps sell a pianter's exertions.
for one hundred pounds, whilst in another The following extract describes a pecu- \ il is scarcely worth thirty pounds. The right liarity, equally observable and amusing. in each range is generally possessed by two, The superabundance of goats on this three, or more proprietors, by whon stated island, where there are no wild animals days are fixed for impounding the goals; a to dinjinish their numbers, will be re
task of difficulty and danger to any but those
inured to it from childhood. A spectator, marked by the philosophic reader : it may uwzccustomed to the scenery and rural ecobe compared to an occurrence at the Mau- nomy of the island, cannot but be struck rities, as related by Buffon, where the with tlie singularity of a St. Helena goat: progeny from a single pair of birds be- pounding. The eye, fearfully wandering Cilic at length the plague of the island. over the abyss beneath, here and there
catches a glance of the rill that murmurs 1 peal is made by punishment consisting in at the foot of the decliviiv.
On the oppo- disgrace :-even that untraciable site side a dreary rudged mountain is seen to-rise stupendous; hise and there a small by consulting their sense of dignity.
of inen, the Malays, has been managed patch of herbage is uiscernible, but the genustal appearance exhibits litle more than
They were incorporated into two comhuge iippens og
bis, and the apertures of panies, and trained to artillery practice. cavers, which afford shelter to the nimble They prored extremely useful; and, duinhabitants of these wilds. The interven
ring the two years which they remained tion of hanging clouds, which sometimes on the island, were no less conspicuous for obscure the depth of the valiey from sight, their discipline than for their peaceable con. leaves the uncontrolled imagination to rove
duct. But this inay certainly be attributed in the idea of unfuthomable profundity. The to the peculiar manner in which they were ' blacks by whom the goats are impounded treated. No European was suffered to strike spread themselves on the outskirts of the
or chastise them ou any pretence whatever ;'. range, to collect the stragolers, and impel
and they were punished by no other authothem in a direction towards the pound, by rity than the sentence of a court martial, loud shoucs, and rolling down stones. The composed of Malay officers. cchoes resounding through the vallies and The facilities afforded by St. Helena, cliffs, in the midst of such rude scenery, have in recovering many hundreds of soldiers, an effect !ruly romantic After the lapse of who liad quitted' India in an enfeebled an hour, or more, detac red Aocks of a condition, in contributing to "sudden and dozen goats, or upwardi, are seen, like so many moving sperks, followed by their their shipping, as on the Cape, and since
spirited attacks on the Dutch, as well on hunters, who will cautious footsteps trend their dangerous will through ledges where a
Mr. B. composed his volume, to the exsingle slip would precipitace them to destruc- pedition against Buenos Ayres, are so tion. As they approaeh bearer to their place many instances of the advantages to be of destination, the diferent flochs unite inco derived from this post of observation. An one ; the goats nove writza slower step, and Appendix containing charters, regulations, the cries of the blacks the heard with quicker &c. for the colony concludes the volume. repetition and a shorter note, until, arriving near the entrance of the pound, the goais rush in with rapidity, and as many of thein | Communications to the Board of Agriculo are taken as are required for use. prieior has his respective mark cui in the
lure; on Subjects relative to the Husbandanimals' ears; and during the process of ry, ,
and internal Improvement of the Couns following the Aocks, the blacks, by observe try. Vol. VI. Part I. Price 15s. bus. pp. ing those kils that keep with their masters' 207.' W. Nicoll, London, 1808. ewes, are enabled to put on them their pro
The Board of Agriculture is one of per mark when impounderl
. Mistakes in this instance are rarels known to occur.
Il those institutions, that do equal honour often happens that in driving the goats a few and service to the age which has effecied will break away, and effect their escape ; but their establishment. From the united they are sometimes re-taken and secured by efforts of a number of intelligent and the celerity of their pursuers,' who run scientific men, many beneficial results among the ledges, and spring from rock to must ensue, although che communications rock, on the brink of precipices that would of an individual may be thought of sınalle justify a description such as Sliakespeare has importance alone. The variety of subgiven of Dover Cliff. As many of the planters are as active and espert as the blacks in jects, 100, that are treated on, in such a this exercise, they are well calculated for the collection as that before us, contributes service of riflemen, a corps in which they essentially to the usefulness of the work, are embodied. A range, called the Devil's and may not seldoni afford instruction to a Hole, on the $. W. side of the island, is so party on one subject, whose researches very sleep and dangerous, that the proprietors are intendedly directed to another. seldom procure a goat froin it without the aid A work that consists of short essays is of a fowling-picce.
not susceptible of analysis: we shall there, We observe with satisfaction that cor. fore only observe, that the chief contents poral punishment has been disused among of this volume are --a paper on the plante the slaves, who are now incited by me- ing of waste lands, by the Bishop of Lan. dalsand rewards; and among the soldiery,to daff; another by the Rev. James Willis of whose feelings of personal honour an ap. Sopley, Hants; a letter by J. C. Curwen,
M. P. on soiling cattle ; experiments by to say that the larches are as thriving as I Edward Sheppard, esq. on Merino sheep'; could wish them to be ; thousauds of them with an account of the cultivation of hemp measuring
from fourteen to eighteen inches and fax in Russia, &c. by James Durno, 1 At the suine time, and on the samne moun
in circumference, at six feet from the ground. esq. British consul at Memel. The com- tain, but apart from the larches, 29,500 munications that follow these, contain va- Scotch firs were planted; these looked Nourishrious valuable hints, on different subjects, ing, and aonoally made good shoots for sirs as red oats, barley, ruta-baga, carrots, or eight years after planting; they then began beans, &c. on embankments, and reser- to decay, and are now, literally speaking, all voirs, on the methods of destroying in-dead. sects, on planting roads, on the poor, The land on which the experiment re&c. We are also favoured with an op-cently made by his lordship, and to which portunity of comparing the agriculture of his letter chiefly refers, is called Gomerour neighbours in Flanders, and Germany, show. with our own ; also that of far distant India. Other articles are added, of im- greatest part of it, nothing bure strong ling;
It is very rocky, producing, as to the portance in their places. The whole num. its elevation is so great, that it is seen in ber of papers is 32.
erery direction, at a great distance, rearing ** We think, however, that the date of its heinispherical head, above all other several of these communications being so mountains in the vicinity of Winandermere. far back as 1794, 96, or 98, the promises If the larches which are now planted, at six of further experiments, to be reported feet distance, quite round the sides, and oir when complete, should have given place to the top of this mountain, should thrive well, statements, which, we may fairly presume, entertain the strongest hopes, we may in
of which, from their present appearance, I have been made, of the result of those future become less solicitous about shelter for experiments, in the course of ten or a
this hardy tree, and less disposed to plant dozen years; or if their projectors had them closer than six feet apart, than many found cause to abandon them, the Secre- seem at present 10 be. If my expectations tary should have consulted the dignity of are disappointed, the failure will noi be withthe Board, by substituting less dubious out its use, as a warning to others. propositions, in a work intended to be The whole sum expended in planting
standard among a considerable class of the 320,500 larches, at 30s. a thousand, amounts community.
10 £48.), 155. say L483. The fencing the The Bishop of Landaff states the ad- the account, because the land must have been
plantation is not in this estimate, taken into vantages to be derived from the planting of fenced before it could have been let as a sheep waste lands, in a very favourable manner.
pasture, avd the relative advantage of plant. Boil, exposure, and other considerations. ing, instead of pastaring it, is the object must regulate such undertakings : yet, as under contemplation. If L483 be improved we are glad when we meet with moun- at the compound interest of £5 per cent. for tails, or moors, formerly rude and bar- sixty years, it will amount to L9,021 this ren, now adorned with growing woods, sum is the loss sustained in sixty years' bý we camot but recommend his lordship's planting 322,5c0 larches; but it is not the
whole loss. The rent of 379 acres will be paper' to particular attention. The reve.
lost for ten years ; this 'rent (say £47, at rend writer informs us, that,
25. 68. an acre) being improved for ten years, The land called Wansfell, on which I made will amount to £519, and will make the a plantation of forty-eight thousand larches whole loss in sixty years auount to £9,61% near Ambleside, and for which I received a If any one should be of opinion, that the gold medal in 1789, from the Society for the pasture will not, at the expiration of ten years, Encouragement of Arts, &c. has been, for (on account of the space which will then be several years, let at a greater rent, as a sheep occupied by the larches), be worth more than pasture, than I could have had for it before I £27 a year, we may add to the preceding planted it; nor are the trees injured in the sum £9,012, the amount of £20 a year (the slightest degree, by the sheep. As this was supposed diminution in the value of the pas
the first effort made in Westmoreland of plant. ture) improvell for fifty years; that amount ing very high ground with larches; and as I will be £4,186, and the whole loss in sixty was dissuaded from planting there, by the ge- years, by planting 322,500 Jarches on 379 peral opinion, that no trce would ever arrive in acres of land, worth half a crown an acre, that situation at the thickness (as was said) of will be £13,798. knife haft, I have great pleasure in being able Having thus slatoil, with sufficient mituteness, the amount of the whole loss which Great quantities of waste lands, (says he) can probably be sustained by this undertak- and of commons appurtenant to cultivated ing in sixty years, I might proceed to make a lands, and of open fields, have for some years circumstantial estimate of the profit which past been annually inclosed by acts of parliawill probably be derived frorn it at twenly inent, and the lands thus brought into seveyears hence, when one half of the trees, viz. ralty have been so improved by planting in 161,000 (supposing 500 to have perished) some places, and by mending the pasturage should be cut down ; and at forty years hence, in others, and by converting much into village when one half of the remainder, viz: 80,000, which had never been ploughed before, that (supposing another 500 to have perished) the whole kingdom is in these respects, as should be taken away; and at sixty years well as in its commercial relations, far more hence, when though another 500 should Nourishing than it was forty years ago. I have perished,) there will be 80,000 trees of indeed am not one of those who consider the sixty years growth, and not more than 302 on increased luxury of the country as a public an acre to be felled, if the then proprietor benefit, or as any proper criterion of public should have the heart to do it.
strength and prosperity ; yet, when I see the There is a quantity of land, both in Great great bulk of the people (I speak not of the Britain and Ireland, of very little value in vicious refuse of an overgrown capital), to be its present state, and which cannot be convert- better fed, better clothed, better lodged, and ed, with profit to the undertaker, either into better educated, than the saine class either atable or good pasture land, but which be.
ever was, or now is any other part of the ing planted with larches, would immediately of this country to be extremely prosperous.
world, I cannot bat look upon the situation pay a rent of above thirty shillings a year. This assertion requires some illustration....
I am noi ignorant that our commerce is
the parent of our national opulence; and . It consists in cutting down the whole ar
that our opulence, rather then the number of twenty or thirty years growth, and replanting the ground. A reasonable doubt how- tional strength. But should commerce ever
our people, is the present sinew of our naerer may arise, whether the same will yield a
desert us, as it has deserted all other counsecond crop of larches as valuable as the first; tries in which it once flourished, I am anxbut supposing experience to prove this doubt ious that we should still be able to maintain to be ill founded, and five hundred acres to
our station as a free people, among the des be planted with larches at six or eight feet potic powers of Enrope. It would be far bet. distance, after twenty-five years let twenty acres be cut down, and the land be replant- peasants, than a nation of gentlemen, wear
ter for us, to be a free nation of labouring ed : when the whole is thus gone over, the ing chains of slavery gilt by the gold of com. first replanted part will be twenty-five years merce. old, and be ready for the axe; and all the 'other parts will be ready in succession, twenty
Certainly we would not have com. acres erery year, for ever ; affording a rent,
merce supplant the national attention to after the first twenty-five years, of £1,500 a agriculture, and as trade is proverbially year from 500 acres of waste land. This fickle, let us not rest our dependence rent is founded on the supposition of an acre unreservedly on such a basis, of larches of twenty-five years growth being Mr. Willis relates with approbation tho worth only £75 though there is good reason cautious experiments of his neighbour, to conjectore, that it will be worth more ; Mr. Clapcott. We heartily join in recomand a certainty that for the first twenty-five mending equal prudence, at first, to others, annual falls, its value xvill be increasing, on account of the increasing age of the wood.
who may intend to adopt more energetic
measures and to conduct their operations » This hint, may perhaps be of value to on a widen scale after they have profited some of our readers.--Why should any by results obtained with little labour and land be waste ?
'hazard. As we pay great deference to the opi. In March 1804, Mr. Clapcott ioclosed nion of those who have passed many years with an earth bank 3 feet high; 54. feet at in the world, and have had opportunities the bottom, 4 feet, at taps at is. 36). per lug, of estimating present times by comparison part of which is planted with farz, part with with former, we are happy to find his quicksets, a square field of six acres covered lórdship differ' strongly from those who the surface. The soil he made choice of for
with short heath and a few furz scattered on indulge a kind of despondency, on the lis experiments, was neither the best. nor the contemplation of evils among inankind, worst part of his allotment; it was such an which wbile every reasonable mind la average quality, as would farly and honestly ments, it should meet with fortitude.": litry the value of the land in the diiloveat
shapes of management, as might be employ. I have found the wool of his majesty's ud on lands in the state of nature.
ram auch degenerated, from the compari, sult of these experiments, expenses, preluct, son of specimens in 1803 and the present year, and all things considered, were to regulate He lias been kept in the highest siate possible, his couduet, and determine the face of the on the besi pastures in the summer, and with extent of his future inclosures. This is a wise corn in the winter, and has been very hard and prudent inethod of commencing heain cul- worked. I do not find such depreciation in tivation. I have ever recommended my friends the wool of the female produce from his mato begin with small guantities, to proceed jesty's ewes ; they have not been kept in sach gra wally, and not to altempt to break up at High condition, and their ficeces are as fine as apv tine, a greater breadth then they can those of the original ewes, which died after faiibulis attend to in all its branches of cul. bringing two lambs each........... ture. Bv unus ferling their wav, before they Although some modern writers, and, advaixe o far, they can retract or pursue uongst others, M. De Lasteyrie, in his their undertaking, according to the success of Treatise on Spanish Sheep, bare asseried, it. However, contrary to this doctrine, and that the quality of-ulie wool does not depend I speak it with regret, many of my friends upon the nature of tire pasturage, I cannot hare speculaied too largely in their endeavours think they are borne out by facts or by sound to fertilize in sé wastes, without paying a
Thie, to a certain degree, as far as due and proper attention to the culture of being essential to the health of the animal, quality of the soil, without a sufficiency of nutritive pasiures are necessary to the producmagures, and with fine judgmeni, have tion of good and hea!!.y wool, I readily adconsequenuy failen into errors and mistakes, inii; having frequently observed, thai the attended with a hic::vy and fruitless espritse. wool of a fail-starved sleep is sickly, and This inconsiderate way of proceeding has void of proof in manufacture. . But, when brought the system of heath farmor into the aninial is kept brigh, and, by nutritious disrepule; kinds that have been broken ep food, pusiied forwart in iis growth, I ain bare been relinquished in disgust, and sufier convinced that the fibre enlarges with oilier, ed to return to a staie of nature, when the parts of the frame, and that, whenever an failure may be attributed, not to the inferior increased cighe of wool is so produced, a quality of the soil, hat to the inferior judg. deterioration in quality a tends it. mwent of the cultivator.
It is possible that in some places the ve. The ndvantages of irrigation were un- getation may be forced by culture, and known in Yorkshire, in 1900; and the this again, may force the sheep that first attempt at the practice by, Edward | feeds on it; a principle of deteriora: Wilkinson, esq. of Porterton lodge, near con from which the more natural pastures Witherby, was ridiculed by the country would be free. around it. The success of the method
Mr. Durno's paper on the management has completely repelled that unwise preol of hemp and tax is well entitled to conpossession against a novelty; and we hope sideration. As the cultivation of these that no gentleman will be deterred from plants is less likely to be adopted on a making any experiments that he thinks large scale, in Britain, than in some of likely to encceed, by the fear of encoun- her colonies, we recommend this paper tering the laugh of those who are little
to those who have connections in Canada, able to comprehend his reasons, or to es- or other parts. The succeeding paper on timate his intentions.
the culture of flax, by the late Robert Mr. Corwen speaks of schistus, hither- Somerville, esq. is interesting at bome : to considered as an enemy to vegetation, but while the raising of food is of such as being completely pulverized, by a mix. extraordinary consequence to Britain, as tore of hot lime ; and in this state, when it is at present, we know not how to re.. thinly spread, as making a good top dress commend any diversion of our agricul. ing; such incredibilities may ingenuity ef- tural strength from that necessary labour. feci! even almost in opposition to nature. Mr. S. however, affirms, that there is no
The interest we take in the improve- need “ to employ good arable lands in inent of British wool, was been manifest- this way, but that very large crops, of ed on many occasions, we have, therefore, toch hemp and tlax nay be obtained from read with atiention Mr. Sheppard's ac. moors, mosses, swamps, wastes, &e, with count of his experiments made with the little labour and at small expense, wbile the Merino breed of sheep. One particular tillage and other operations, given for the will engage the attention of the naturalist. fax crops, will greatly facilitate their in