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but the intervening and, also opposes that xvii. 23. ayasan E.« To the hypothesis. In ejaculation no copulatives " unknown God." Dr. M.'s long note are added : “ my Lord ! my God!" on this passage evinces an embarrassment is the natural language on such occasions. on his mind, that we should riot be sur“ My Lord, AND my God," has much prised to see taken advantage of by more the air of being the result of con- those who will dislike the general reasonviction or consideration.

ing of his volume. Acts ii' 36. Tas oixos Ispaña. If we To set this matter in its true light, we take these words, as they oight correctly may consider, that God, as the Great to be taken, they require no article Operator throughout nature, is, at the “ all Israel's descendants,"-Would not same time, in a sense, well known, and the article after was ivave attached the in another sense unknown. "The heavens notion of a dwelling house to cīzos: declare the glory of God," the productions xii. 15. ο άγγελος αυτ8 εςιν.

of his power on the earth demonstrate his « his“ angel."—We apprehend there

existence, his greatness, goodness, wis

dom, &c. so that any man may know would be no impropriety in taking the word anget in several places of the N. T. God, by attention to his works yet no

man can know God thoroughly: his opefor the separate human spirit ; and we should quote this passage in support of

rations are profound secrets, and even that idea. Dr. M.'s reading composed appointed to produce effects which we

the most interesting principles that he bas froin those of MSS. is very expressive call nature, are absolutely unknown to of astonishment and exclamation :.“ his the most profound philosophers of this "separate spirit it is! speakers concluding that Peter had been enlightened age itself. executed in prison.

Let us exemplify our meaning by anoxvi. 6. Ti Ada. Mr. IVakefield ken as Nature, the Mother of all things.

ther thought The Goddess Isis was taa! translates in that part of Asia,” and thinks in all ber operations ; she was only one that in the N. T. Asia Minor is ineant, goddess, yet all gods and goddesses in How

the article can affect the meaning, i one ; and we bave an inscription which am not able to conjecture. The fact, howo includes this apparently contradictory ever, is, as Schleusner remarks, 'that in the character: N. T. Asia always signifies either Asia

TE TIBI Minor, or else only the part of it adjacent to

YNA QUÆ ES OMNIA Ephesus, and of which Ephesus was the

DEA ISIS capital. The countries with which we find

“ To thee Goddess Isis, who art one, Asia associated in some passages, induce

“ thou also art all."-But the inscrip. us to withhold our assent from the opinion tion on the temple of Isis at Sais, as reof Schleusner. It is ranged, Actsji. g. ported by Plutarch, is still more to our with Cappadocia and Pontus, provinces purpose: “I AM ALL THAT WAS, THAT very distant from Ephesus ;' and i Peter i. 1. with Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, HAS EVER LIFTED UP MY VEIL." Could and Bythinia : it cannot in either of these the worshippers of Isis in this temple places import the whole of Asia Mi- acknowledge entire ignorance of their nor, since it appears to be a district, like Goddess ? - that was impossible : yet those associated with it: yet it cannot be they considered her as unknown; for such taken for the province of which Ephesus is the import of the expression - her was the capital, since that was on the

« veit never having been lifted up.' extremity westward: whereas Cappa

Could an altar hare, boen inscribed docia, &c. were on the extremity east- to an unknown Goddess, Isis?"-since ward ; and several provinces intervened. the very mention of her name proves she. The Asia of this passage is also connected

was known, and so far knowo), as to rewith Galatia," and Bøthinia: we infer, quire the article, "to the unknown Godtherefore, that the article has an especial

« dess, Isis. "-But, it any person, in meaning here ? and marks a peculiar dis- | any country wholly absorbed in idolatry, trict

and where, as the satirist sayš, it was much




easier to find a God than a man, were | Disposer of themi: yet Unknown, since minced to erect an altar to the Supreme men bave sought Him, though uncertain of Spirit, who operated throughont nature, finding Him, not withstanding his Omniprethis Suprime, being distinguished by no sence:9.d. God is every where always."? appellation, bv wl it means should he ac- Amid this uncertainty of finding God, no comp inka bis in ention? If he inscribed wonder men have erred, and represented his iimplement of worship, to The un- the Godhead in the human form :--but

known Gid,"mihis phrase we say (on the time during which God remained the principles supported by Dr. M.) in- thus unknown is now over ; and he coms cludes an allusion to something of which mands repentance and reformation, bethe readers, his countrymen, have had cause he hath appointed a judgment, by some information : and had this altar been a partaker of human nature, yet a divine erected by Epimenides the philosopher, person, who, even, has triumphed over on occasion of a pestilence, as has been death itself, as proof of his apsupposed, it must have thus been dis pointment. These sentiments are evitinguished "to The unknown God,"— dently grounded on the inscription, and sul intelligitur, wbo sent such an aMic- they accord perfectly with the apostle's tion-on such an occasion, Sic. The professed intention of " declaring to article would have fixed an allusion to that them, nim whom they worshipped as circumstance. Whereas, were no allusion " unknown" On the whole, we see to any specific event designed, nor to any no reason for acceding to Dr. M.'s opinion, particular (idol) deity, but to the Su- that“ if the altar noticed by Si. Panl premie generally; to no God known by “ had been dedicated to the One True, his countrymen under any appellation," though unknown God, the inscription any distinctive title, or epithet, derived 66 would have been either T.12. 'Ar. from time, place, office, or supposed pecu- 6 NIET 22. OD121, or E.12. ’AT. liar attribute ; in short, to a deity of whose os NS2IT121." The Dr. auds, “ since nature and perfections, they had no

it is neither of these, I accede to Mr. adequate or even tolerable conception : " Wakefield's translation " to an un: the writer could not have acconiplish- “ known God.” ed his purpose better than by the pre- 1. Cor. xi. 8.-12. Dr. M. would have sent inscription, as it stands in the Greek. understood this passage more clearly, bad

Is it too much to infer, that this was he rendered amp (u man,) the mule a public inscription, from the following ser, and thv yuvaixo (the woman) the words : “ Him, whom ye Vorship as un

female set. KNOWN, Him declare I unto you ?" Moreover, that this altar was not hid.

In desperate cases a conjecture apparent den, or concealed, may fairly be inferred ly beside the mark may be tolerated : is from the expressions of Lucian in the

it mossible that évola, if comPhilopatris, that it was customary to pounded of and roix, mai impoit swear by the unknown God, at Athens. formless, shapeless, depriving the person If we might advance a step farther, and who wore it, o zi resemblance to the husuppose that in the court of the Areopa. man figure ? If so, it very aptly describes gus, which St. Paul was now addressing, the wrappers, mumers, or long envelopes, oaths were, or had been administered, in worn by the eastern women whenever the uame of the “ unknown God," the they quit their own houses. It dis. propriety of the subject of address cho. guises the wearer so effectuaily, that to sen by St. Paul would appear with un- recognise her is impossible ; even ber commion strength.

husband may pass her in perfect ignorance If we attend closely to the apostle's that she is his wife: and, in short, it reasoning in his discourse, we shall find banishes all idea of human proportion or an uniform coincidence with this view of comeliness. This might be a Corinthian the subject. He dilates on the nature of term for this most unwieldy garment: God, the Maker of the world, the Lord and might express this species of veil, of heaven, the Supreme, above all services then in use; as it is at present.

But this of man, the universal Benefactor, in res. 1 is no more than a guess in the dark. pect to live, and breath, and all natural Χν, 8. τω έκτρωματι.

4 Curid born donations: the Maker of ail men, and out of due time. Eng. Vers. Dr. M.

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objects with great reason to this render- \ and áuny being strong and well known.
ing: since ekiroma in the LXX. is used asseverations of the truth.
to denote a child dead in the womb, such James i i. The sun arisen with a
an one, it it might be said to be born,

burning heat. Dr. M. should have ad. certainly could not be said to see any- verred to the history of Jonah and his thing after it was born. We are vor, gourd. We are told expressly, that however, wholly satisfied with the Dri's

· when the sun did arise, God prepared notion, that the last offspring of mul

a vehement east wind,”--the suffocatiparous animals is smaller and weaker tine whi, xaúow.

TSOM inisted than those born before it, as applied in bis piercing rays, to increase the sufferings illustration of this terın. We wish our auihor had inquired wheiher this word

of the disappointed prophet.

On the famous text i Juhn v: 7. Dr. might not be used by St. Paul to denote M states very strong reasons both for and what we commonly call a posthumous against its authenticity; and concludes child : a child born after his father's death And it may be remarked, that the other by observing: “ on the whole, I am led to apostles were appointed to their office

suspect, that though so much labour

and critical acuteness have been bestorn, in St. Paul's language) during the

" towed on these celebrated verses, more life of Christ on earth : whereas St. r'an)

“ is vet to be done, before the mystery 80 appointed, by Christ after his death. Or, certainly, all the apostles, “wholly developed."

" in which they are involved can be

We invile the eren including Matthias and Barnabas, I learned Dr. and others, to consider the were converted during our Lord's lite and bypothesis of tuo editions, started by our ministry; (and conversion is often expres correspondent FIDELIS. [Panorama, Vol. sed by birth) but St. Paul was one, and the only one, converted by our Lord in per-author on the grammatical concatenation of

11. pp. 205, 531.) The remarks of our son after his decease : he was, therefore, the passage, are exactly suel, as might be whether this word express it or not, a posthumous buth, and Lying the only one, of revision by the original author.

expected From av insertion in consequence might allude to this circumstance by using ihe article. Moreover, when the bus

We cannot with convenience prolong band dies during the pregnancy of his these remaks. Our readers will perceive wife, it is evident that the child born that we consider the inportance of the after his death, is the posthumons chiru Dris labours as justifying an attention of listrir. Mai touc, nich m.

which we canno: pay to every work. We ports loss, bear the sense of a parent lost?

have been highly gratified with the tenor 2 Cor. 1. 20. We give the Dr.'s note have admired the isleady acumen of the

of the volume; and in many instances on this passage, partly, as an instance of writer. Much, however, is sti I wanting, the improved sense of a passage, by at- | before this department of criticism can tention to the articles : and partly to jus- be esteemed as complete: and muh more tify our friendly censure of this worthy before those English expressions shall writer, (which some have deemed 'harsh) have been suggested o: selectel, which, for not having given us English versions in the opinion of competent judges, will often enough

approach the pearest to a fair and adequate Verse 20. örat yap gaayyenia. Oč, iv representation of the original. ail. 7o vai aci fy aüles To áunyi. Tie Those also, who have noticed the dif. authors of our Eng. Version, from not attend- ferent import of words, in distant parts ing to the articles, have here, I think, ob- of the same country, or the acceptation scured the perspicuity of the original : they of a term, in one town or districi, in a have rendered or for all the promises of Govel, in hiin are Yea and in him Amen :" and the

sense peculiar to that place, will discern other English translators, Macknight, Il'uke

additional branch of investigation. field, and Newcome, have taken the words in

We would not willingly say, that good the same order. I would render " for how Grerk, at Aibens, was not good at Comany so ever be the promises of God, in him rinth, at Ephesus, or at Rome : yet we (Christ) is the Yea and in him the Amen;" know, for certain, that good English in meaning, whatever God hath promised, he London, is not always so este med in will through Christ assuredly fulfil, vai Edinburgh, or in Dublin,


are no less striking; and we peruse with A History of the Island of St. Helena, lations established by a Gorernor Roberts,

infinite satisfaction, the account of regufrom its Discovery by the Portuguese, to the or the steady policy pursued in later times, Year 1806; to which is added an Appen. by a Brooke, or a Patton. dix. Dedicated, by Permission, to the The observation is trite, that the cor. Honourable the Court of Directors for Af- ruption of the best things is the worst of fairs of the United English East-India corruption. The instances of depravity, Company. By T. H. Brooke, Secretary to in the character of the chaplains to this the Government of St. Helena. Price island, narrated by our author, white

8s. pp. 409. Black, Parry, and Kings they contribute to account for the perturbI bury, London, 1808.

ed condition of the people, are adnioniIs not an island, in the midst of the attached to the sacred character, and of the

tory instances in proof of the importance ocean, a State complete in itself, secure consequence connected with preserving from the intrusions of ambitious neigh, it pure and respectable. bours, unaffected by their jealousies, and

Such are the inferences of the moralist : such a situation, if any where, we might / those of the politician are anticipated expect to find the Utopian scheme of Sir

, Thomas More established in perfection. propriety of retaining the island of St. We might suppose, that here the milder Helena, even if the Cape of Good Hope sistues of humanity, if they be really the country. There can be no doubt that it is

should remain under the dominion of this more powerful ingredients in the compo- well worth while to prevent our enemies sition of our nature, must have the most from establishing themselves in a post, favourable opportunity for displaying themselves in full vigour, and manifesting valuable vessels, and would afford them

which commands the track of our most that predominating influence, which some have attributed to them. The island of

an opportunity of committing depredaSt. Helena, distant 400 leagues from the tions, to an amount not easily estimated.

Of late, commercial enterprize, also, nearest land ; possessing a salubrious at- has acquired an interest in this island ; mosphere, bill and dale in pleasing vasiety, capable of affording whatever is not that its products are of much consenecessary to the support of life, most of quence in speculation, but that its conthose fruits that are the luxuries of tropi- venience, as a port of refreshment, es. Paradise ! Alas! there is still a something under certain circumstances, to be of very cal climates,--this island, surely must be a pecially to our South Sea Whalers, has

been sensibly felt, and may possibly prove, deficient; its inhabitants are mere mortals; ard the infirmities and imperfections of great importance. the mortal race, counteract all the delights,

We receive, therefore, Mr. Brooke's and einbitter all the enjoyments presented History with pleasure; especially as, from by the hand of Nature. Moral qualities this gentleman's official situation, we are are of greater consequence to the comfort induced to attribute the highest authority and happiness of our species, than all the tobis communications. Nevertheless, bounties which entertain the senses, than we think his volume defective by the ad tije inost voluptuouis assemblage intended sence of a map of the island ; and bad to gratify the capricious desires and imagi- he added a view of the principal town, nary wants of man.

his readers would bave accepted it as a Such is the moral which clearly gratification. results from the contents of the volume The island of St. Helena (says our autbor) before us. Misconduct of the officers, is situated in 15° 55' south latitude, and 30 niisbehaviour of the settlers, mutinies 49' west longitude from Greenwich. It

lies within the limit of the south-east trade anong the garrison; discontents, mus. njurings, and sufferings, compose the wind, and is distant 400 leagues, from the

greater part of the early history of this es- The extreme length of the island is, 103 Publishmeni. Nevertheless, ihe beneats miles, its breadth 64, its circumference mitending the beuevolent wisdom of about 28 miles, and its surface, in acres, ma individual when vested with authority, ! 30,300.

· The island, when observed at sea, pre- From these causes the luxuriance of vegesents to the eye the appearance of an abrupt tation increases in proportion 10 distance and and rugged rock, divested of tree, shrub, height from the sea'; and upon the very. or herbage. A nearer approach brings in suinmits of the interior bills oxen are to be view the centrat'cininences, distinguished by seen up to their knees in grass; and the a cofter outline, clothed with verdure, and process of digestion being forwarded by the toivering to the clouds. Ailvancing still repose which the aninal enjoys from the nearer, the scene again changes, and the general diffusion of springs in those situagreen summits are shut from sight by the tions, the upper lands are, on every account, intervening craggy, and stupendous cliffs, regarded as the prime pastures of the island. that seem to overbang the sea. Their

great Fruits, particularly vines, figs, oranges, elevation excites in the mind of a stranger and lemons, ripen best in the vallies near the an idea of being too near the land ; whilst

sed; which are also well adapted to the the seamari, acquainted with the coast, pro- growth of plantains and bananoes ; all these ceeds safely to the anchorage which may be fruits requiring a great degree of heat, and within a cable's length of the shore : and the enriched soil and shelter of the vallies. in his progress, the exterior aspect of the From a garden more interior, , but finely island, aod the disposition of its batteries watered and sheltered, of no greater extent and military works, impress an opinion of de-than three acres of ground, 24,000 dozen fensive strength. On rcunding, Munden's apples, of a large size, were gathered in one Point the eye is suddenly relieved by a riew

season, besides peaches, guaras, grapes, and of the town, seated in a nurrow valley beigs, in abundance. Cherries have been tween two lofty mountains ; and t!e inter- tried, but without success. Gooseberry and spersion of trees among the white houses, currant bushes turn to evergreens, and do has an effect picturesque and pleasing in a not bear fruit. The island, however, is not high degree. This valley, known by the to be considered as possessing a general fername of James's Valley, 'is on the N. W. and Lility. The greater part of it is a barreta, leeward side of the island, in which situa- reluctant waste. tion there is good anchorage froin 8 10 25 fathoms; and fresh water is conveyed in the population of the island is stated at 504

By the registered returns of the year 1805, leaden pipes to the wharf, from a spring a: two miles distance, which allords a plentiful 329 were free ; inaking a total of 2064, ex.

white inhabitants, 1560 blacks, of whom supply: In James's Town, the thermometer, ia of the company. Five thousand one hun

clusive of the garrison and civil establishinent the shade, seldom rises above 80 degrees ; dred and eight acres are in the hands of inbut the reflected heat from the sides of the dividuals, besides goat-ranges, which are the Valley, when there is little wind, and the outskirts of the island, attording, the chief sky is clear, resembles that of India. supply of fresh meat both to the inhabitants In the country the tenperature is much more and the hospital. moderate and uniform. Thunder, lightning, or storms, rarely dis

Lands, in general, are supposed to yield a turb the serenity of this mild atmosphere,

nett profit of between 7 and 8 per cent. in which so small a portion of electric Auid The price of labour is high; a carpenter canis supposed to exist, 'that it was imagined a

not be hired under six or seven shillings a niachine for collectirg it would be useless : day. A mason's wages vary from four in

labourer from btit experiment has exposed the error of this five shillings ; and those of supposition.

two shillings to half-a-crown, or to a black The clouds, floating at a certain heiglie man, engaged by the year, from ten to in the atmosphere, yield 'humidity to ihe twenty pounds. In this case clothing is higher parts of the island without discharging likewise to be provided, as well as mainany moisture of the low lauds; where, after tenance, and medical attendance in the event a long continuance of drought, the roots of of sickness. grass, &c. perish. The earih, in conse- The anchorage in the road is safe and shel. quence, loses its adhesion, and when a tered; and though the vessels riding there' Jieavy fall of rain occurs, it is washed from sometimes drive to sea, this is owing rather the declivities, which are thus divested of to the steep declivity of the bank, than 10 the means of vegetation, and either deepen the force or impression of the wind. The into ĝullies, or "stand in the form of pro- surf is occasionally high and dangerous ; buc ainences, where the texture is sufficiently the ocean beyond it is never ruffled by those hard to resist the effects of the rain; which hurricanes which in other climates occasion seems to be the natural history of all the so much distress. The approach from the barren sidges that in fantastic figures termi- south-east is sinooth and commoclious ; and nate abruptly at the sca, and form the ex- on departing for Earope, the ship glides terior of the island,

away before a gentle and a steady breeze,


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