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water they had contained was quite dissipated. Of the bones forming the pelvis, there
- Mons. Veysonell supposed sponges to have are five central cuneiform bones
been formed by certain worms, which in-rossa innominata)..
habited the labyrinthean windings of the

.. five ribs ... sponge ; and believed, that whatever life

fire clavicles was found in these substances, existed in these

.....fire scapula 5 worms, and not in the substance of the

.arms......six bones in spouge, which he was convinced, was an

each of the inanimate body. This point was, however,

ten arms... 60 determined by Mr. Ellis, who in a letter to

.hands. Each hand Dr. Solander, relates the observations which

being formed of he had made ; by which he ascertained, that

two fingers, and these worms, which he found in the sponge

each finger conin great numbers, were a very small kind of

sisting of at least nereis, or sea scolopendra ; and that they

40ossiculæ, these, were not the fabricators of the sponge, but

in 20. fingers, had pierced their way into its soft substance,

make.......

800 and made it only their place of retreat and

.. tentacula, 30 prosecurity. Upon examining, in sea water, a

eeeding from each variety of the crumb of bread sponge, the

of the 6 bones in tops of which were full of tubular cavities or

each of the ten papillæ, he could plainly observe these litile

arms, make......... 1,800 iubes to receive and pass the water to and

..30 proceeding, on fro; so that he inferred, that the sponge is an

....iheaverage, from animal sui generis, whose mouths are so

...each of the 800 many holes or ends of branched tubes, open

......bones of the fin. ing on its surface ; with these, he supposes,

...gers, make....... 24,000 it receives its nourishment, and discharges, like the polypes, its excrements.

Total......... 26,680 Mr. Ellis also discovered, that the texture is very different in different species of sponge : Respecting the inferior termination of the some being composed wholly of interwoven trunk of this animal our knowledge is so exreticulated fibres, whilst others are composed ceedingly limited, as not to have furnished of little masses of straight fibres of different us with sufficient materials to have allowed sizes, from the most minute spiculæ to strong its mention in the preceding character of this elastic shining spines, like small needles of animal.

one-third of an inch long; besides these, he Our readers will readily suppose that : observes, there is an intermediate sort, be

tween the reticulated and the finer fascicu. a composition comprising so many thoulated kinds, which seem to partake of both sands of feeble joints, most of them but • sorts.

slightly connected with their supports, That fossil which is usually called the and those supports not above a tenth part slone lilly, but which is in truth an ani- needs be liable to fracture and dislocation

of an inch in substantial diameter, must nial, has undergone an extremely close from causes of daily occurrence, and only examination by our author : and as it af- moderate activity. What then may we fords an instance of the wonderful exertions of creative wisdom, we shall tran- sioned by such a convulsion as the deluge?

suppose would be the destruction occascribe Mr. P's calculation of the number and that we find any specimen sufficientof members contained in its head and ly preserved to give us an insight into their arms. The number of joints comprised Structure is much more wonderful, than in its stalk is unknown; as ne complete their rarity. Not more than two or three specimen has been found. Of course the length of this stalk is uncertain.

recent specimens allied in nature to this

Zoophyre are known to the curious. A careful examination ascertains the curious faci, that, independant of the number found in the same quarries are very great ;

The quantities of this kind of animal of pieces which may be contained in the ver- and the varieties of structure are so contebral column, and which, from its probable great lengih, máy be very numerous, the siderable'as to justify the idea of many fosil skeleton of the superior part of this different species. The cap encrinites is animal consists of at least twenty-six thousand found throughout a circuit of several miles pieces: To shew this, the following state in extent; and what Mr. P. observes on meat iş anuexed :

that subject, is true of many others.

1

653)

We at present know little more of it than, cerely regret if the author were to muthat the pertrified remains of its vertebraltilate the communication of his senticolumn, either in detached pieces, or agglu- ments, yet we hope to see the ensuing votinated together in masses of limestone or

lumes completed with as little delay, and marble, have long been found in quarries of an immense extent in some of the northern do justice to their subject. As the order .

at no greater expense, than is necessary to counties of this island.

Mr. Da Costa reinarks, that the whole adopted by Mr. P. advances towards clasmetallic tract of the county of Derby is, as

ses of animal life with which the pnblic is it were, one continued quarry of this marble ; more familiar, they will present impormost of the strata of limestone are of this tant advantages above what is already pubkind, ie being the cominon stone which is lished, in respect to illustration by comburnt for lime. The upper parts of these parison, and of these we shall not fail to strata, he obseryes, are always filled with take all due advantages. amazing quantities of these bodies and other marine remains, which seem to have been lodged there by subsidence; and to have | Midas; or, 'a Serious Inquiry concerning formed a crust over the limestone, This crust Taste and Genius ; including a Proposal is generally of a very great thickness, and

for the certain Advancement of the Elegant when they have passed it, they find the lime. stone to contain fewer marine remains : and at

Arts, &c. By Anthony Fisgrave, LL.D. greater depths it even becomes quite pure and crown 8vo. pp. 224. Price 75. Murray, free from them. The marble does not al- London 1808. ways display the forms of these remains with

We certainly have read this volume, equal fineness and perfection : Rickledale, and can safely commend the execution of Monyash, and Breks, he mentions as affording ihe most beautiful. At present, none

it so far as concerns the paper and print ; perhaps, exceeds that which is obtained in there are passages in it, too, that, we unthe neighbourhood of Ashford in the Waters. derstand, and the tenor of which we Da Costa remarked, fifty years since, of the approve. But, considered as a whole it Derbyshire marble, that it is degraded by

is degraded by is injudicious, for the author gives his the common name of limestone, and the readers too much trouble to find out a country people, ignorant of its value only meaning; and after they bave so done, burn it for limne, alıhough for hardness, beau- they are not certain that the author's meanty, and susceptibility of polish, it may ing is the same as that which they have with the most esteeined foreign marbles. Mr. Mawes, in his Instructive Mineralogy contain mysterious allusions to certain

discovered. Whether this book may not of Derbyshire, observes, that the limestone, the whole of which stratum is composed of parts of the conduct of a certain body of marine exurize, is of various thickness, from artists, on certain occasions, we are at a four fathoms to more than two hundred ; be- loss to determine. It may be very severe neath which, separated from the former by a on Messrs. Pallette, Pencil and Co.; nay, stratum of toadstone, it is ascertained that we apprehend that the patrons of art, there is another stratum of limestone, bes not excluding the sacred character of yond which no mine in Derbyshire has pene. Majesty itself, are glanced at in it: but, traled.

the author to secure himself from proseWe believe that we have communicated cution for a libel, and to puzzle the attore to our readers as accurate a notion, though" cey-general who would never be able to a general one, of the nature and contents make out his inuendoes, has also puz

of these .volumes, as, our limits ad- zled his readers. Had Dr. Fisgrave taken
- mit. The learning and diligence display advice of Justice Shallow, who sagaciously

ed in them, are truly honourable to their observes, " there are but two ways
author.. For the pature of the subject, and either to reveal a thing, or to conceal it;'
is difficulties, he is not responsible : that it might have proved to his advantage;
he has endeavoured to lessen those while the public would have concluded
difficulties, will be gratefully, accepted that
by succeeding naturalists. We repeat our The author had a meaning, and no doubt,
Tegret that the expense of the coloured The reader had the sense to find it out.
plates annexed, which are truly laudable, But that the author may "

vot suffer with other considerations, should place under the dulness of our 'lamp-exhausted these dissertations beyond the reach of faculties, we shall permit him to give an the major part of students. We should sin. analysis of his book in his own words..

vie

My work, (szys Dr. F.) commences with to say, that the judges' would be rejudged song observations on the opinions maintained by their compatriots, be their verdict what by divers learned persons on the continent, it might. that genius being a plant of peculiar delicacy

As to the old story of the contention of would not thrive on every soil; and conse

Apollo and Pan, before Midas, we have quently art of the best favour and quality, like good cheese, was the produce only of

seen it better applied, and, as we think, certain farms or particular disiricis. To such

more pleasingly told. Nevertheless, we opinions nevertheiess I express my objections; I would not choose to listen to ihe practing and intimate a firm belief that, under juci-of the reeds entrusted with our Author's cious treatment, genius will flourish in every secret, or to repeat after them their mowell governed and prosperous state ; even in notonous declaration, Midas, Midas, this our native island, in despite of the fogs hus asses' ears," and philosophers with which foreige ers say it is infested.

I next advert to the favourable disposition Juvenile Dramas, in three Volumes, - by which begins to manifest itself for the en- the Author of Summer Rambles, &c. Price couragen,ent of British art, and declare my

145. Longman and Co. London, 1808. readiness to become a volunteer in so honour. able a servicé ; wherein I am the more eager

We have no objection to the drama10 engage, from an apprehension that ine tic form of writing. Dialogue wbep weil means resorted to would be found inadequate. conducted bas beanies proper to itself. The efficacy of these means are then exa. It has also energies; and these may be mined; and patronage, 01. which the chief so directed as to render no inconsiderable reliurce is commonly placedl

, is condemned service to virtue. The author of these as an engine particularly destructive to fine, samas has well understood this advantalents; and after expatiating at some length tage. Each of them is calculated to coron the dangerous practice of pampering or cockering hopeful merit with that false kindl ful mind : the lessons they read are to the

rect some vicious inclination of the youthof tondness, which is pardonable only when applied by elderly saidens to their lap dogs purpose, the plots are simple, and the I have endeavoured to show that lionour, terminations of most of them are sufficientapprobation, and the different n:ochications ly striking, as well as pleasing. We may of praise, correctly and judiciously conferred, even acknowledge that we have derived is the true pabulon of genius: its valural less gravfication from many more labourand congenial aliment.

ed dramas intended for men, than from But bowerer wholesome this food, the these intended for juvenile readers. Persalutary effect thereof altogetlier depends 08 : the manner in which it is administered. It good, for every-day life, at least ; but this

haps the good young folks are a little too is not patronage, nor honours, nor praise, that we are in need of: British genius, like Juult is no disparagement. The author the courge of its lieroes, requires no siimu- may have seen more young ladies and genlants, it demands only to be wisely directed tlemen brought up to the enjoyment and to do whatever is possible for man to perform. distinction of carriages and servants, whose I am hence led to consider who are the per personal services to the indigent have been sops qualified to take the direction of art in exemplary, than we have. Such instances $0 critical a situation; and happily I here find should be commentorated if real, and if 110 di Niculiies: nature having niade an ex- too rare, they should so much the rather press arrangen:ent for this purpose. But be held up as objects of ensulation." being convinces thai a matter of such conse- The first drama is a lesson against qrence should be conducted with all possible decoruin and dignity, I deen this to be the thoughtlessness in the laying out of money : propter moment to introduce my proposil for the second is against the vanity of attenda high and imperial Court of Connoisseurship, ing to fashionable appearance; the third or grand nittional establishment, for the pro- is against dilatoriness and dissipation of pagation, dissemination, and preservation of ime; the fouith is against duplicity, and goud taste; and consequently the improve- fibbing ; le filih against peevish disconment of art: an expedient fully proportioned teot and jealousy ; the sixib against pride to the great occasion; natural, ctficacious, and assuinption of merit ; the seventh and practicable.

against the affeciation of endeavouring to On this proposal we give no opinion : serve every body, thereby serving nobody; the British public is little accustoined to the eighth against attaching tco much im. renerare wiihout examination the deci- portance to wealth and siate ; the ninth sious of such institutions; and we vouture I against envy and disobedience.

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Capernaum. (vii. 1.) We look therefore Dr. Middleton, on the Greek Article.

to the north west of that own for this

inountain, as our Lord's auditory in the Concluded from page 465.]

adjacent plain, contained people “ from We resume our consideration of several

" the sea-coast of Tyre and Sidon.” of the incidents discussed by Dr. M. in Something further attaches to this, if it his Notes on expressions and phrases lised were the scene of the Transfiguration : in the N. T. Thai we sometimes differ a conjecture not opposed by the expresa from him, will not be thought strange, sion of the Evangelist, ix. 29;

He by those acquainted with the subject : " went up into the mountain to probut, in general, our remarks will be found - sexcha-ize,"-and while he was proto support the Dr.'s leading principles : sencha-izing," i.e. performing those deand occasionally, where he himself had votions which he purposed, whether prayer,, been tempted to submit to circumstances or psalmody, or other that were proper that opposed them.

for such a place,~“he was transtigured.” *, Line vi. 10 εν τη προσευχή τε Θεέ On the whole, we do not think Dr. M.'s There is a ditference of opinion among arguments conclusive in favour of his the learned, whether proseucha ip this opinion. passage, means a place of prayer, or the

Luke xii. 54. Thy vepény. A few MSS. act of prayer. Dr M prefers the act of

Dr. praver: observing, 1. That the proseuche | Camu"ich are A .!--ahy. of the Jews were always situate near

Owen (ap Bowyer) approves the omission; “ water," wbich is true; but when the Dr: has its meaning We read in 1 kings, xvii,

out in this, as in other instances, the article restricts this to “ some river, or the sea,” 44. that the appearance of a

Cristain cloud we doubt the correctness of his restriction. rising out of the sea was regarded as a pros They, were probably, near to running nostic of rain. Now the sea lay westward waters, for the purpose of ablution ; but of Palestine ; and, therefore, the cloud, a rill in a mountain would answer this which rose out of the sea, might also be said

to rise from the west. purpose. 2. He says : “ If an oratory

If, then, we put " had been meant, it is not likely, that

these circumstances together, there is good "s of God would have been added, for

reason to suppose, that ihe cloud here spoken “ al oratories were of God." This, also,

of was a well known phenomenon, which

would naturally and properly be adveried to as in our opinion, may be doubted; cen- | 'H vagéan sidering ihat the Gentiles had their pro- has noticed a similar appearance attending

Wii. Bruck, in bis Trav: Is, seuche, and that, at this northern estre

the inundation of the Nile. Newcome, in mity of the land of Israel, they had esta- | his Revision of the Common Version, has blished their customs generally : the pro-adopted this explavation, and yet he transbability is, that for one Jewish prosericha, lates“ a cloud." I cannot help thinking, out of a town, there would be several that a revision would be extremely in perfect, Gentile retirements of a like description. or indeed would be nearly useless, if it were

This seems to account for the Evangelist's to overlook minute circumstances, such as distinguishing addition " of God

that before us. It is in niceties of this sort prinof the true God ; and it may be asked, improvement : its general fidelity has never

cipally, that our English translation admits whether, if be bad intended prayer only, been questioned ; and its style, notwithstandbe would have inserted this addition : ing the captious objections of Dr. Symonds, since all prayer in the case before us, is incomparably superior to any thing, which must be understood as being addressed to might be expected from the finical and pera the true God, without such explanation seried 'taste of our own age. It is simple ; it The passages referred to by Dr. M. have is harmonious; it is energetic; and, which not ihe explanatory words .“ of God." is of no smail importance, use has made it aad we believe no instance of the phrase in familiar, and time has rendered it sacred.

Without the least disposition to decry the that signification can be given, Rom. x.

laboure of the writer, to whoin I have alluded, 1. is different.

I

way express the hope, that whenever our We have already remarked, on Math.

version shall be revised by authority, the Vo 1. that the phmse“I* mountain,” | points last attended to will be those which import- a mountain well known. This respect a pretended inelegance of language. mountain cert.inly was in Galilee ; and A single instance of the suppression of a the next town where we find on Lord is local custom or popular opision, which can Vol. V. (Lit. Pan. Jan. 1809.]

2 A

i. e.

be shewn to have existed among the Jews in rather than as a name derived from his the age of the apostles, appears to me to be father.-We suspect that he was of the of infinitely higher importance ; because, party of Judas Gaulonites, who under by covcealing from the notice of the reader, pretence of maintaining the liberty of the circuinstances, which are beyond the reach Jewish nation, as the chosen people of of fabrication, we withhold from him per God, forbad the payment of tribute to haps the strongest evidence of the authenticity of the Scriptures, and conseguently of the the Romans: and that, this name was credibility of our religion,

given him by liis followers as a title of In these sentiments we heartily ac

honour. That he had aspired to tempoquiesce; and have therefore preferred a greatness and popularity, is certain.

He , of attention to localities, to mere verbal criticism, in the present article. Dr. M. manifesting the prevailing temper and disa might have found an observation in Har position of the people by the preference mer on the subject of this cloud. His they should declare of one of the crimje

nals, a fit candidate for their voices, in opinion is well founded. xix. 2. We do not investigate the ques. kingdom was not of this world.

opposition to Jesus of Nazareth, whose tion on the nature of the office held by

This idea, if admissible, gives the reas, Zaccheus : yet we believe our Excise

son for the article here. How far Barn might furnish illustrations of it: there rablas may correspond to Azazel, as imbeing several ranks of officers, superior porting cuiraordinary strength, and how to that which calculates the duty, as far the two goats (in the institution of supervisors, &c. and several receivers for the scape-goat) might be assimilated to districts, before the daty reaches the re

the two Jesus's, one of whom was drawn ceiver-general. We should probably - for Jehovah," to be sacrificed; the place Zaccheus as receiver of a district ; other was let go at large, we leave to the he must have acquired wealth by his office. meditation of ibose who delight in types. But, our chief reason for distinguishing Dr. M.'s note is, to confirm his notion in which he insists that" a Son of Man,"

John v. 27. Dr. M. has a long note, on the omission of the article, in Acts, is synonimous with "The Son of Man." xxiii. 5. It would be good English to We beg leave to observe, that it would be affirm :“I knew not that he was

undoubtedly correct, to say

" the Father Mayor,"—that office changing hands

“ hath given him (the Son) authority to every year : therefore-as St. Paul was

" execute judgment, because he (the Son) but recently arrived in Jerusalem ;-as

" is a partaker of human nature; "-pure the high-priesthood was at this time almost annual ;-as Ananias wore no disa spirit not being properly adapted to tinguishing insignia, (being, perhaps, Aesh, since it cannot be understood by

passing judgment on mortals clad in only high priest elect) there is no impro- such persons ; it can neither be visible bability that St. Paul was really uninformed of his dignity. One of the most into them, nor audible by them, &c. teresting articles in Michaelis, is that in whereas. " a Son of Man” like thenia

selves, in union with Divine Wisdom, wbich he accounts for this ignorance of

may judge them, withont any such in the apostle's.

congruity. This sense, seems to suit the xxiii. 13. Tòv Bapaßsãy. We have passage : and is distinct from that against been accustomed to infer from the testi- which the Dr. has directed his arguments. mony of Origen and others, such as some Verse 35, ο λυχνος ο καιόμενος. “Α MSS, the Armenian, and Syriac ver- " burning and shining light"-may be sions, that Barrabbas

certainly objectionable: would there be any im, called Jesus. For there appears to be propriety in rendering “ The light ! THE much greater apparent reason why this ardent !"-expressing by two titles, both name should be taken from this robber in light and heat in this prophet, John the many MSS. than why it should be added Baptist, and his discourses. in one MS. But, we wish it were

XX. 28. Not only does the remark of considered on what grounds this title the Evangelis, that Thomas spoke to was given to this person; and whether it Christ the words “my Lord, and my God," may not be understood as importing militate against the potion of their

TAL Son of Greatness," or of Strength, being an ejaculation add yested to heaven,

was

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