Abbildungen der Seite

-employed in Navigating the same (including their repeated Voyages), which Entered INWARDS and Cleared -51h January, 1808 ;-Distinguishing each year, and British from Foreign Vessels; also, distinguishing



European Kingdoms or

2891 517961 25069 4041 576465 29323 2870 508045 19523 3453 487602 24946 U. $. of America.. 7016003 1047 392 102366 4660) 49 12682 7001 433 108093 5246 Foreign Colonies in Ame

18 rica and W. Iudies 4341 337

5 797 50


6 1086 Brit. Dominions in Eu

rope, viz. Ireland, Gibraltar, Malta, Guern

7174 590928 34792 69 10384 588) 7333 607461 37430 20 3863 207 Brit. Colonies in America and W. Indies....1046 267200 14908 31

450 27 1034 252852 16476 Africa, &c.

20 3029 221 5 675 42 141 32014 4264 19 4915/ 412 East Indies and Cape of Good Hope

591 54188

1 212 1715042388 4785

17 Greenland, Southern

126 136 40640 4669 Fishery, &c. .

38970 4879 Total of Great Britain 11414 149429087166151769188334733|116081495209 94408 3932 605821 30924

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

YEAR 1806. Luropean Kingdoms or States

2719 455289 2302113183460003 24284 2197 362264 18591 2872 418857 20284 U. S. of America...

53 11347 748 508135634 610339 8731 447 536 138856 6691 Foreign Colonies in America and W. Indies 101 1975

1372 95 63 14172 1475 3 534 30 Brit. Dominions in Eu

sope, viz. Ireland, Gibraltar, Malta, Guernsey, &c.

7985 637109 39124 83 13963 762 8382 665441 39416 29 5903 302 Brit. Colonies in America and W. Indies. 1149' 293748 16636 250 14 1237 304590 191541

205 9 Africa, &c. 23 3609 294)

989 59 161 - 36347 4748 15 3239 277 East Indies and Cape of Good Hope. 4238239 4295

74 57301

576 39 Greenland, Southern Fishery, &c....... 137 41348 4701


981 37456 4627 Total of Great B itain|12118 1482664 889883793 612904 31554 12251 1486302 94557 3459 568170 29632

YEAR 1807. European Kingdoms or States

2634 441032 22081 3414507996 24749 2167 349320 181453173 456649 23207 U.S. of America

84 18229 1091 602 159731 7032, 37 8168 443 657 172276 sote Foreign Colonies in America and W. Indies 50 11746

914 92224 113 78 17566 1870| 8 1352 106 Brit. Dominions in Eu

rope, viz. Ireland, Gibraltar, Malta, Guernsey, &e.

7020574076 34366 62 10193 594 7536 618603 37222 1391 Brit. Colonies in America and W. Indies. 1227 314208) 17877

1347) 334684 21030 242 10 Africa, &c. 4197

110 22543 2,89 East Indies and Cape of Good Hope .... 52 38600 4140

5242715 4460 Greenland, Southern Fishery, &c.:..... 117 345794239

1011 30504 3761 Total of Great Britain 11213 1436667| 84997 4087 680144 32488 11428 2424103 897203846 63191031411

William IRVING, Inspector General of 1.aports and Exports.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

that the sea prevails, from time to time, Mr. Parkinson's Organic Remains of a

over tracts that have been solid ground.

But history, records no such continued
Former World, Vol. II.
(Concluded from page 437.)

progress, as may enable us to form any

estimate as to the period when is included To form a correct judgment on many in its waves the height of our present of the operations of nature, requires the mountains. We admit for instance, that united powers of bistory, observation, the Delta of Egypt was antiently a marshy and experience. The brevity of human shallow, that it was gained from the life forbids us from indulging the expec- sea, and rendered dry land ; but this astation, that much can be obtained by per-sists us nothing in the present inquiry, sopal investigation; the most indefatigable since we kuow that Egypt itself then exnaturalist thai ever existed, could not ac. isted, and that grounds but a few feet quire a thousandth part so much know- higher than this marsh were not subjected ledge, as he was well aware, remained to the same overflow. . The most ancient unexplored by the labours of science : records we have, demonstrate, that Syria and, the result of the inquiries of those was extant, in nearly, if not quite, its who have most asiduously traced the pro- present condition throughout ; , and the ceedings of nature, has been a co viciion shores of the Mediterranean, notwithof human incompetence, and human standing the frequency of earthquakes in liability to error. If this be true, of the their neighbourhood, Lave retained from researches of modern times, and on sub- the earliest ages the same general forms, jects open to observation, because extant bays, and promontories, and so nearly the in the world around us, how much great sanie poris, harbours, and creeks, as to er difficulties, may we suppose, attend render the theory of gradual exchange of our inquiries into those evidences of a land and water, liable to great exceptions. prior world, and into the properties of For, if in the course of three or four thouthose remains, which accident from time sand years, no variations deserving attento time, turns up from their beds of long tion have tak place, to wbat an infinitely repose for our inspection and contem- remote period does it refer ihat surprising,

change, the effect of which engrosses our The contents of the hills which diversi astonished observation ? fy the face of our planet, and of inost of We commonly call the first chapters of the mountains whose summits we have Genesis, a History of the Creation of been able to ascend, bear ample testimony the World; but the sacred writer has to the early existence of a different order couched his narration in terms which are of-things, from what they now present. not restricted to that import. He describes When we find the remains of creatures the arrangement, conformation, and compeculiar to the waters, in the midst of posing of the world :--that it was crealed continents, and at heights very much out of nothing, at the period he mentions, above the level of the sea, we are led by he does pot say. But, whatever was the thé simple ivdactions of common sense, to beauty and excellence of that disposition, conclude, that these heights are not the of the earth's superficies, the same writer patural resorts of the subjects they contain. informs us, that it was broken up and deOnly, two ways of accounting for these faced by a general deluge ; and in adoptappearances present themselves : eiiber ing this event as that which effected the tlje sea once covered these mountains, as displacing of the creatures and strata its proper" bed; or some prodigions alluded to, we have the advantage of fixe violence has turn these subjects from their ing a date, and marking what, without uktive abodes, a'id deposited them where this assistance, extends to an indefinite we find them, in an improper bod. Either period, --a period as little comprehensible kliey were gradually deposited where they as eternity' itself. The evidence of hisare, or siiderly deposited: 'either du- tory, then, though of the negative kind, ring a lapse of ages, or on occasion of has great weight on this subject : it does some preternatural convulsion.

not so much as hint at the effects of ... History acquaints us with the recovery, causes constantly but slowly operating, is it is deemed, of several small portions suthcient to account for phevomena, the of land fron the sea ; and we k0w, also, results of which we discover : but it does, '.'

plation !


(in the Mosaic records) reláte an occur- a list of names from which they would rence which is adequate to the production derive neither instruction nor amusement; of all the consequences that come to our but we content ourselves with stating that knowledge: and this by the confusion at- Mr. P. examines and describes a variety tendant on one sudden shock.

of tubipores, madrepores, aloyonias, &c. ; These hints, thougo very concise, we and no less than twenty-one different bave thought proper to suggest by species of encrinites. He notices, also, way of introduction to a report on Mr. obscure hints concerning others; and Parkinson's second volume of " Organic congratulates his native island, that of Remains of a former World." We re- these fossils fourteen are found in differ. member the time when Divines were ent parts of the country, alarmed at the speculation that any species In our first volume, page 840, we de. of animal called into existence by the scribed under the title of "

great effects Great Maker of all things, might suffer froni little causes," the labours of those extinction: "individuals," said they,'' pe millions of creatures, the diminutiveness rish, but the species remains." We of which, together with the difficulty of confess that we never discerned the 0. observing and comprehending their na.' gency of this argument. Amid the ture and manners, shall be admitted in wreck of nature, many of her produc- excuse of the inattention of former ages tions might perish : they were not abo- to them. These, we know, exist ; and lutely indispensable, surely, to the fu- in infinite numbers, · Whether others alture world. We go further, and believe, lied to them in some respects by nature, that some have perished ; and this though diversified, may not at this time perhaps in great mercy to mankind. For people the bottom, the rocks, the rewho knows, what consumption of the cesses, the clefts, the depths and the products of the earth was necessary to shallows of the ocean, what mortal sbal} support those creatures, and who can tell dare to affirm? Probability is the utwhether under the diminished fertility of most to which our powers extend; and the ground, they might not have contend the probability is, that all parts of the ed too effectually for food against the true great deep swarm with life; and that lord of the soil, however reduced to too in forms, of which we have no con labour, and to earn his subsistence by the ception, nor can have ; till fortunate sweat of his brow ?.

circumstances place specimens within our In the volume before us, Mr. P. does observation. The first class of these not so much as allude to such devourers : animals, Corals, is likely to be known but, as his first volume treated on vege- to the generality of our readers, from tables, this treats on a class of animals the frequency of specimens of different that till lately were considered as form. kinds. ing a part of the vegetable tribes. Mo. We would not be understood to assert dern discoveries have placed them as a that the corals which are familiar among connecting link between the two king- us, are of the same species, with such as doms : and has included them under the are fourd fossil, or that they closely rename of Zoophytes, or animal plants. semble them ; but they are sofficient for

It is extremely difficult, as we cannot comparison by reference, for the purpose transcribe the plates, to convey to those of illustration ; and we should be glad if to whom studies of this kind are now, we could on the other articles refer to il. any ideas on the nature, forms, ur pro- lustrative subjects equally accessible. Mr. perties of this description of creatures ; P. remarks, or to remind them of such objects by So great is the : resemblance wbich corala comparison as may serve the purposes of bear to vegetables as to have long occasioned, illustration. Those who are most fami- as has been already observed, their being liar with them, are constantly detecting considered as subjects of the vegetable king. errors in the conjectures of themselves, dom. They are in general attached to other or others; and our author in many places

substances by a part, analogous, in its form, regrets exceedingly , the absence of better mifying into bañches, which, as certain

to a root; from which proceeds a trunk, rainformation than he has been able to times, appear to be set with flowerets and obtain.

fruits of beautiful and fantastic forins. Their We shall not obtrude on our readers "real nature was first ascertained by Peysonell,

who, in 1727, communicated his observa- , this circumstance direct our contemplation ! tions respecting them to the Roval Academy A body, difiering from any animal substance of Sciences at Paris. This accurale ouserver, now known, has been formed, by the enero not only shewed that corals vielded, on the gies of animal life, in the depths of the application of heat, such products as pecu

ocean of a former world; and is now found liarly belonged 10 animal substances; but imbedded in a rock, inany miles ipland, and olso pointed out several particulars respecting at a considerable height above the sea : and the coral polype, which could not fail of de- these, wonderful as they are, are not the termining, that corals belonged entirely to only circumstances of this case, which, in the animal kingdom, 'The observations of the present state of our knowledge, may be Jussieu, Reaumur, Dnnati, and others, con- considered as inexplicable. The substance, firmed this fact; which, however, was voi of which this body is composed, has underso generally received, but that several learned gone a most extraordinary change : originally men siill hesitated in adinitting, that the formed chiefly of carbonic acid and lime, forms which corals bear could be derived from with a small portion of animal matter, it has the powers of aniinal life alone. All doubts now become a mais, in which, except a were, however, removed by the observations portion of animal malter, these substances of Mr. Ellis, in his essay on the Natural are no longer to be found : the space which llistory of Corallines, and of many curious was formerly allotted to thein being now and uncommon Zoophytes.

filled almost entirely with the earih of By the experiments of Mr. Hatchett, in- Aint: and to add to the wonder, the silicified stilated for the purpose of ascertaining the nass is found imbedded io lime. component parts, as well as the mode of for. Under the division Madrepores, our aunation, of different zoophytes, our know. thor alludes to the impositions which lexige respecting these animais has been very cunning bas practised on credulity: wo considerably ivcreased. lie was enabled by these experiinents to aseertain, thai corals, fit to be relieved from the effects of such

may ask whether it be not a great bene-' . and the numerous tribe of zooplıytes, with which they are connected, difier in compo. artitice, by betier knowledge : and whesition, froin the varieties of bone and shell,

ther science can be more honourably enonly by the nature and quantity of the hard gaged than in conferring such benefits? ening principle, and by ihe state of the suh- One of the fossil corals which has been stance with which it is mixech or connected. considered as belonging to this family, is the The porcellaneous shells, such as cyprex, lapis arachn:olithe, or spider-stone, respecte &e. were found to be composed of animal ing which the celebrated Bruckman wroie an gluten and carbonate of lime; and to rescin- ingenious disquisition in a lesier to his friend ble, in their mode of formation, the enanel the learned Ringer. Frow ibis it appears of reeib : the earthy matter being blenxied that stores, which froin their marks and with the animal gluten. The pearly shells, form, bore a resemblance to the body of or those composed of nacre or moiher-o-pearl, a spider, froin which tre head and legs such as patellæ, &c. he found to be com- had been vemored, were frequently emposed of carbonate of lime, and a gelatinous, piered in some parts of Germany as a power. caruliginous, or membranaceous substance ; jul charm for the cure of all kinds of hæmorr. and that they resembled bone, in their hard- hans. These stones, according 10 the reening matter being secreted and deposited ceived vulgar opinion in those parts, were upon the membranaceous substance.

supposed to have been generated and voided We find these remains imbedded in our by a spider. It was also. imagined by the Hardest marbles, in which situation they

country people, that every spider, reinarisbave undergone changes that have leliable for iis magnitude, contained one of these but a small porrion of their original mat

stones: to obtain the expulsion of which,

the spider was to be enclosed in a glass vessel ter; (one of Mr. P's most interesting in which was also placed valerian or finely experiments, is the discovery of the re- powdered sugar, Bruckman, however, sliews mains of animal matter, in some of these that the spider stone is nothing else but a fiinty bodies, page 166), but have sub peitrited an:edliluvian coral, such as has been stituted matters so entirely different, yet named the Indian astroites, and that the preserving the primitive form, as may well fabulous account of it has most probably teen excite the astonishment of the beholder.

derived from its spots, which are not unlike Mr. P. expresses this astonishment in the those which are discoverable on the belly of following language.

the spider, and from its foym, which frequenta

ly agrees with that of the body of a spider. To what a renvote period of past time, and I his latter circumstance be however auributto what astonishing changes in tbe structure ed to the cunning employment of art; and of the surface, at least, of this globe, does adids, that these stones geuerally far exceed

dian lig.

in weight ane size that of any spider or taran- Mr. P. is very learned on the subject tula that is known, not 'excepting the cele of fossil Alcyonia ; they were long con brated enormous Brasilian spider named sidered as fruits, of which they have indeed xhamdu-guaca.

the general appearance. They resemble The little conformity between such co tigs, pears, oranges, &c. and have the air of rals as are now fished up from the sea, having failen from trees, and underand these which are discovered in a fossil gone petrification in the earth. This para state, is converted by our author into an ticularly meets the writer's artention, and arguinent which contributes support to together with his remarks on the nature opinions we have already expressed.

of sponges is worthy of notice. I find myself under the necessity of ac.

The alcvonium is an animal which asknowledging, that I ani not certain of the existence of the recent analogue of any really of a fleshy, gelatinous, spongy, or leathery

suines a vegetable forni, and which is either mineralized coral.

This dissimilarity between the creatures of substance, baving an ooiward skin full of this and the creatures of the forner world, cells, with openings possessed by oviparous is a circunstance which appears to be so in- tentaculated hydra : the whole substance . explicabıle, that I can only admit it, without being fined to come other body by a seeining

attempting to account for it. It bowever fur: trunk or root. wishes us, I think, with a sti ong argument

Count Marsilli, who carefully examined against that theory, which supposes the not only the physical, but the chemical pro. changes which this planet has undergone are perties of these bodies, observes that incy are all attributable to the constant, regular, and all surrounded by a porous leather-like bark ; gradual processes of nature, which have been aud that the interior substance, is, in some, acting from an indefinite period of time, aid

a jelly-like and in others, a mass of light ash ed by the occasioned heavings of serata, ef- coloured acicular spines, which prick the fecued by subterraneous heat. By this system

hands on being handled, in the same inaiiner by the gradual interchange of situation as do the spines of the plant called the inbetween land and water, we might account for the mountains of fossil coral which are

From the diffcrent colours as well as forms found at considerable distances from the sea, which some of the species of these substanwere it not that so little agreement is observ- ces possess, they have obtained names expresable between the fossil and the recent coral. sive of their resemblance to certain fruits.

Had the coral of the mountain and the coral Thus the alcyonium lyncuriurn, being of a of the sea been con tantly the same, it globuse forin, of a fibrous internal structúre,

would, indeed, have furnished a powerful of a tubercular surface, and of a yellow evidence of the gradual change of relative colour, has been termed the sea orange : the place in the stfata, which were once covered a. lursa, being of a sub globose form, of in by the ocean, but which are now thousands pulpy substance, and of a green colour, bas of feet above its surface: the gradual recede been termed the green sea-orange or sea. ing of the sea would have sufficed for the ex- | apple : the a. cydonium, which is of a rouidplanation..

ish form, and of a yellow colour, has been But how, according to this theory, shall distinguished as the sea quince and the a we explain the disagreement between the ficus, from a very close resemblavice to the coral of the mountain and the coral of the fig in its form, has been called the sea-fig. sca? I see no esplanation which can be The sponge is a fised, flexible avinial, very !hus obtained ; everything being supposed to torpid, varying in its figure, and composed have proceeded in its regular course, the ani- either of reticulared fibres, or masses of small mals of the first creation must then have spiculae interwoven together, which are exactly resein bled those of the present hour. clothed with a living gelatinous Aesh full of Some vast change, of powerful and even small mouths or holes on iis, surface, ky unisereal influence, must be sought for, to which it sucks in and throws oul Ilie water, explain this wonderful circunstance : and The vitality of sponges had been suspected such, doubtless, can only be found in the de- by the ancients, even in the çime of Aristostruction of a former world. Thus, indeed, ile; they baring perceived a particular mo. we shall be enabled 10 account for the exis, tion in their substance, as if from slírinking, tence of various animals, in a mineral state, when they tore then off the socks. This whose analogues are known ; but it musi opinion of their possessing a degree of animal bę admitted, that even this circunstance is life was also entertained in the time of Plinv. not sufficient :o account for the existence of Count Marsilli confirmed this opinion by uba animals at the present period, of which no serving, on their being taken out of the sen, traces can be found in the ruins of that for- a systolic and diastolic motion, in ceriaja act world.

litle round looks, which lasted until the

« ZurückWeiter »