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would be a sufficient motive to desire the acquisition of M. de Florian's work to all those who wish to unite pleasure with in, Agriculture the Source of the Wealth of struccion.
Britain; a Reply to the Objections urged by It is interspersed with some of those Mr. Mills, the Edinburgh Reviewers, and poetical romances, pastorals, and legen
others, against the Doctrines of the Pame dary tales, for the simplicity of which Flo
phlet, enuitled “ Britain independent of rian has been so justly admired. The fol.
Commerce." By William Speuce, F. L. S. lowing is extracted as a specimen; its subject is a fact well remembered in the
pp. 110. Price 3s. Cadell and Daviesi, province where it happened. The rock
London, 1808. from whence the two lovers precipitated MR. SPENCE has seen cause, since themselves still bears the name of la Pena the first edition of his “ Britaiu indepen, de los Enamorados, and is in the neigh- dent of Commerce" was published, to bous hood of Archidona, a small town in qualify some of those expressions which the fertile province of Andalusia, about were probably the effect of haste in com. twelve leagues south of Cordova. position. We feel more inclined to agree
with bis main principles, as now guarded LE ROCHER DES DEUX AMANS.
and limited, than as they stood formerly. Romance.
Certainly bis made of illustrating and enLe beau Fernand, prisonnier d'un roi Maure,
forcing them, did not present them in the Osnit aimer la fille du vainqueur;
form most likely to procure them friends. La belle Elzire est celle qu'il adore ;
Mr. S. insists, that man derives all his Elzire est pour lui la même ardeur :
real wealth from the soil. Had this afFilles de roi n'ont-elles pas un cæur ?
firmation been offered in a theological
sense, with an exhortation to admire and Tous deux long-temps ont gardé le silence; adore the bounty of Providence, we must Mais en amour un regard est compris.
have admitted it as an undeniable truth Ceux de Fernand promettoient la constance, had it been offered in a philosophical sense, Et ceux d'Elzire en promettoient le prix : we could not have denied that Nature bad Sans se rien dire, ils s'étoient tout appris, made abundant provision for the support Un jour, hélas ! ce coup'e trop sensible
of her children ; but, so many consides'étoit rendu sur d'arides côteaux,
rations intermingle themselves with poSous un racher, près d'un abime horrible
litical inquiries, which imply a departure Où deux torrens précipitent leurs eaux :
from the state or provisions of nature, Poes ren amans tous les déserts sont beaux,
that we hesitate as politicians in admitting Ils s'y juroient une amour éternelle,
as unquestionable, principles, which, as
naturalists, we acknowledge without re. Quand le roi Maure, en secret informé,
serve. Accourt, suivi d'une troupe cruelle;
The fact is, that the real wants of Par ses soldats tout chemin est fermé;
man are supplied by the earth which he Point de pardon, ce roi n'a point aimé.
inliabits : but the desires of man, arising Vers le sammet de la roche effrayante
from an artificial state of society, are con.. Les deux amans ont déjà pris l'essor ;
formable to the exigencies of that state, Le roi les syit: Elaire palpitanic
and things become necessary that have Vole au torrent, se place sur le bord :
no natural claim to such a character. Coeur bien épris n'a jamais craint la mort, Even the paper on which we write " Arrête, arrête, ou je suis ta victime,"
is a necessary, unless literature should Difelle au roi,“ si tu fais un seul pas,
be banished from the world. But, ere it " Au même instant je tombe en cet abîme
assumed the form of paper, it has under. “Avec l'époux que je tiens dans mes bras ; gone various processes of manufacture, " Mourir ensemble est un si doux trépas !
and from these it has acquired a fitness for
the purposes to which it is applied, that Le roi se trouble, il s'arrête, il balance ;
could be little expected by whoever Mais un barbare, un soldat furieux,
beheld it growing in the field, in the Court vers Elzire.....ciel! elle s'élance ;
form of a vegetable: yet from this fite. L'onde engloutit ces amans malheureux :
ness arises its value. Nature then pre. Las ! ils sont morts en s'embrassant tous deux.
sented this substance; for, as man creates VOL. V. [Lit. Pan. Dec. 1908.]
nothing, unless it had been presented by principles, and submitting further explanature, he could not have obtained it; nations to the public. After this verdict, but convention, ingenuity, and the state we shall avail ourselves of some of the of society, fix a relative price on it in information which sets our author's dilireturn for labour exer:ed, in preparing gence and ability in a favourable point it for use
of view. So often have the following senThe same may be said of the gold with timents been repeated, that we have been which it is purchased : should mankind half persuaded to believe them : but we be suddenly disposed to disregard this have waited so long without seeing them nietal, a lump of clav would be of greater realized, that we have become unbelievers value, than an ingot of gold,
again. The proper " improvement" of If, instead of bypothetical inferences, them, as divines speak, bas appeared in Mr. S. had presented us with the actual the Panorama repeatedly, in the shape of state of a people, a tribe, or a village, exhortations to our workinen to integrity, wholly dependent on the earth for sup diligence and skill. plies, he would have furnished a fair op
Because our trade has increased for the last portunity, for the question, whether the 20 years, we fancy that it must continue to state of that people, or the present state increase : but in this we shall probably find of Britain, be most desirable for our ourselves mistaken. The constant scenes of island ? His supposition of the product warfare which the Continent has exhibited of the land (corn) being divided by in. since the French revolution, have destroyed termediate stages among the proprietor
its manufactures, and given us the monopoly of the soil, the builder, the tailor, the nearly, both of its market, and the Aniería physician, &c. is realized in India ; and he can inarket. But now the ascendancy of might have found, in Dr. Buchanan's Buonaparte promises to the manufactures of
the rest of Europe, the continuance of tran“ Travels in Mysore," several accounts quillity for many years to come, we cannot of the proportions legally allotted to vari- I doubt that they will speedily regain their forous handicrafts :--to the smith, for re- nuer eminence: and if we cogipare the price pairs of iron implements used in .husban- of labour among :hem, with its price in this dry; to the washerman for the luxury country, we shall see grounds for believins, of cleau cloides : to the barber for value that their rivalship will, before long, materialreceived in care and aitention bestowed on
lv diminish our trade. It is a vulgar error to the snug and attractive decoration of the imagine that we can manufacture the princi.
pal articles of our export so much cheaper couplenance, &c.
That those people than the continental manufacturers can, ojay
be as happy as B:itons, we do not Whaa Mr. Adams was in Silesia in 1800, he deny, neither do we suppose that their tells us that at that time, in the town of morals, or real worth would improve or Grünberg, 25,000 pieces of broad cloth were increase in proportion to influx annually made, the finest equal to English of wealth. That some advantages might broad cloth, and 50 per cent cheaper; and be otained by means of a greater por- that they were accustomed to send cloth to tion of metallic riches, we think our- | Poland, Russia, Hamburgii, and Berlin. If
, selves justified in affirming, and whoever then, the Silesians could, in 1800, sell broad could show mankind the
cloth 50 per cent, cheaper than we could, of deriving
way only advantages from such a medium, when the present tranquil state of the Conwould go far to reconcile us to the worship which Buonaparte has now conferred upon
tinent, and the monopoly of that market of Plutus.
them, shall have reinstated their manufactures But we cannot enlarge on this subject. in their former prosperity, what should hinMr. Spence supposed himself to be mis- der them, in a very few years, from attracting understood by Mr. Mills, who wrote a large portion of ihe demand of America for against his former work, and by the woollens ? So with respect to the other main Edinburgh Reviewer, who answered, in articles of our export. The manufacturers of stead of reviewing it. He adds some
the Continent can obtain the raw materials of severe remarks on the account of his hardware, cotton, leather, pottery, as cheap pamphlet, which appeared in the Month: machinery: they will soon acquire capital;
as we : they can and do adopt all our improvei ly Review, the origin and cause of which and they will not have to pay above half the we must hope, for the honour of the corps, wages of labour that we pay. It seems im. he has not justly traced.
possible, then, but that the Continent, in the Mr. S. bas done right in vindicating his lapse of no protracted period, will become a
Yery forinidable rival to us, in many of our for 40 millions in France are equal to 80 milmost inportant branches of irade.
lions in Britain. The cost of keeping up
naval and military establishments being there We beg leave to think that the Conti- only half as much as in this country, 40 mil. nent will not “ soon acquire capital,”. lions in France are equal to 80 millions here. while military ideas pervade it: and na- - There is one view of the effect which the ture would rather justify the considering augmentation in the price of every thing in of Britain as a rival to the Continent, this country hás had, which, though it is than vice versa.
but distantly connected with this subject, The following notes speak for them- this augmentation of price has virtually et,
deserves to be pointed out. I mean ; That selves :
tinguished a large portion of the national An historical fact is worthy the attention of debt. Thus, for the 100 millions of that those who talk of the unexampled amount of debt contracted in the American war, we oor taxes. William the Conqueror, 700 years now really pay only half as much interest as ayo, when scarcely a manufacture, much less
was agreed to be paid when it was born, commerce existed, from his 1200 manors, rowed; which is the same thing as if and other internal sources, derived at revenue 50 millions of the debt were wiped off. of £1060 a day; which, as the pound sterl. That this is true, must be allower!, if we leave ing then contained thrice as much silver as it a circulating medium out of question. The now does, and was besides at leasi twenty holder of £10,000 stock, bonght during the times more valuable, makes his annual reve- American war, could at that time have purnue amount to upwards of £25,00.1,000 of chased twice as much with the interest of it, the present day. (See Masere's Ilisl. Anglic. as he now can. He has virtually, therefore, Selecta Monumenin, p. 258). Now if Eng. lost half of his capital ; and the nation in land, 700 years ago, with a population of reality only pays him half the sum it agreed. two or three millions, using a wretched mode to pay. This view of the national debt, of agriculture, and without manufactures and which, as far as I know, is new, will enable cominerce, could afford to the government a us to concicve how such a debt may be in.' revenue of £25,000,000 ; in what respect is creased to a vast extent without inducing nait so very marvellous that Great Britain, with tional ruin, or even absorbing all the revenue a population of eleven millions, and under a of the land proprietors. By increasing the system of agriculture the most productive in price of commodities in proportion as it in the world, should now be able to supply the creases, (for 10 this cause principally, I anı slate with £60,000,000 yearly; which, in persuaded, should be attributed our rise of proportion, is not half so much as was then prices, and not, as the Edinburgh Reviewer paid? And what need is there to give to her has contended, to any influx of the precious commerce and inanufactures any share of metals or auginentation of paper money), it the merit of bearing this burthen, when the virtually ili a great measure extinguishes itself ability of her agriculture alone, to bear a in its progress. If the original lenders to the much a greater load, has been proved ? slate had had the wisdom to stipulate for a
The mode of estimating our taxes-not by corn interest, the nation would be burthioned the nominal money amount, but by the com- with the payment of an interest to them, modities which they will purchase, and the nearly twice as great as it now pays. men they will subsist-would help us to avoid In our opinion 40 millions in France the very common error of supposing that our real wealth bas doubled within these 20 years, of her naval establishment, supposing the
are not equal to 80 millions here : the cost because we can now pay 60 millions in taxes, magnitude equal, probasly equals the with as much ease as we could then pay 30 millions. The fact is, that within the last
British, About 20 years ago, a French 20 years, the price of every thing has more
writerin a Treatise on the Mechanism than doubled. When, therefore, we pay
of Society :" explained the effect of the 60 millions in taxes at present, we do not rise of the prices of commodities, as a teelly pay more than 30 millions would have diminution of the interest paid by the na. been 20 years ago ; and we can now as easily tion for its debt : Mr. S.'s thought iherepay the fornyer sum, as we could then have fore is not new; but it does not follow, paid the latter. This consideration, 100, will that it is not original in him, as he cershew us the erros of estimating the relative tainly has not seen that treatise. The power of the continental states and our own, by the nominal amount of the revenues of
want of capital equal to extensive eseach. Thus, some would suppose that France, tablishments, or of a briskly moving mewith a revenue equal to 40 millions sterling, dium of payment, is much greater on the is much poorer than Britain with one of 60 Continent than Mr. S. has formed any illions. But, in wih, she is inuch richer; ' conception of.
numbers, congregations, &c. That which
he calls “ a Moravian meeting held in Some Account of the Ancient and Present Cole Hall," is a society of Sandemanian
Slate of Shrewsbury. pp. 557. Price 75. baptists: and he has omitted a small chapel Shrewsbury, Sandford, 1808.
in Hill's Lane, occupied by Welsh me
thodists: it was originally in the Wesleyan The first thing we looked for, on
interest. The baptist congregation in opening this volume, was a plan of the Shrewsbury is supposed to be the oldest in town; we could find pone :-nor any the kingdom : the principals of that pergeneral view of the town, nor of the suasion believe that it was established in principal churches, nor of the town ball
. the reign of Elizabeth. The first minisTo be sure, it is not the first time we have ter is supposed to have been a Mr. Penry, looked into a book for what it ought to who died for his principles in 1578. A contain, without finding it; but such dis-Mr. Thompson was their minister in 1618; appointments, be it known, add very little in 1628 they built their meeting-house in to the good humour of a corps of review. Golden Cross Street.
We found indeed, a plate or two of We return to the work before us. seals, and with these ended our findings,
“ Shrewsbury was by the Saxons called in the illustrative department.
Scrobbesbyrig, or Scrobbesbyri, and by Nevertheless, this volume is creditable the Britons Pen-gwerre; both signify to the diligence and perseverance of its nearly the same ; “ the head (-land, or author. That we could have willingly knoll,] of the Alder Groves." The Briexchanged some parts of it, which we
tons built here a city, which became the think rather long, for information on capital of that division of Wales called others which are litile more than men- Powis ; the palace stood on the spot lately tioned by the writer, is true: but if occupied by St. Chad's church. The Sas. he could not obtain' satisfactory accounts ons after their conquest, changed its name. of these, he has incurred no blame by his Ethelred kept his Christmas bere, in 1006. conciseness.
In the time of Edward the Confessor it During the length of time which this contained 252 houses : a mint bad been work bas been in the press (as the author established by Edward the Elder : it was himself acknowledges) Shrewsbury has under the direction of three officers, who rapidly increased in population ; and not
were obliged to pay the king twenty shilwithstanding the war, in commerce, also. lings at the end of fifteen days, while the We learn, that there are at this time many money was current.
The fortune of more applicants, for houses, than can be Shrewsbury followed the vicissitudes accommodated : and that the committee of war or peace, with the Welsh ils of inhabitants are so conscicus of the neighbours, till the union of the principresent defective state of the pavement, pality to the English crown. Jo p. 35. lighting, watching, &c. of their town, we meet with a very proper correction of that they intend applying to parliament for a point of English history. The greater an act to authorise intended improvements. part of our writers make Salisbury' the The same protraction at the press, we pre- scene of the Duke of Buckingham's exesume, accounts for the omission of several cution by order of Richard III. The commercial concerns : as that of the cot. Duke was taken in the neighbourhood of ton manufactory in Coleham, by Messrs. Shrewsbury; Richard was at Coventry: Hulberts, in 1803 : the very extensive Shrewsbury therefore was the place of the linen manufactory of Messrs. Benyons Duke's punishment : since there was but and Bage, who separated from Mr. Mar- a week between his apprehension and shall in 1805 ; and the Salopian brewery death." of Sir John Heathcote and Co. in 1806. The external appearance of Shrewsbury
Our author is a churchmau; his account is highly prepossessing : its interior is a of the dissenting places of worship is specimen of an ancient English town: contained in a few lines, for each : he does the streets are narrow, irregular
, badly not mention the dames of the present mi- paved, the gable ends of the houses turned nisters ; nor hint at any eminent men toward the street; and “she close woodenknown among them, whether protestant, built alley, called " a Shut”: [shoof, or or catholic ; he forms no estimate of their branching oft] in the provincial dialect of
the place, is everywhere seen connecting that some of the citizens have formerly the principal streets with each other." mistaken marvellously, may be inferred The population in 1695 was about 7,383 from their misnomers on natural history: persons ; in 1750 about 8,141 ; in 1801, / a whale and a dolphin at Shrewsbury ! A it was 19,479. The trade of the town storgeon is extraordinary enough! What a was formerly very great in Welsh fan- prodigy would this furnish to the Chronels :
: they were thirty years ago sold for nicle of sonie future Baker ! 23. to 2s. 6d. per yard; they now produce In a small museum is the dried body of a 45. 6d. to 5s. The following is an instance sturgeon, which was caught September 12th, of very commendable precaution against 1802, in a wear adjoining the island a quarter conflagration.
of a mile below the castle. When alive, it In the year 1796, a considerable manu
weighed 192 pounds, and was nine feet long,
and three feet four inches round. It was factory of linen yarn was established at the healthy and full of spawn; and although in end of the suburb called Castle-Foregate, by Messrs. Benyons and Bage, of this place, ană struggling, the bones of the head, which Mr. Marshall of Leeds. This has already bench a day and a night after it was taken
were very thick, were fractured, it lived on a attained to great perfection under the spirited froin the water. and skilful inanagement of those gentlemen, from the sea is considered, perhaps not less
When the great distance who are entitled to just praise for their hul than 300 miles, and ihe various barriers it mane and judicious attentions to the healthy had to surmount, especially the formidable and morals of the numerous young persons wear near Gloucester, it is really wonderful whom they employ. The buildings are very how a fish of such a size could have forced his extensive, and are secured from the ravages way in safety so very far up the stream, or of fire by the exclusion of timber from aloost what could have been the stimulus to so every part of their construction, the roofs and dow frames, and all other parts where wood in 1637, a small whale was taken near the Aoors are supported on brick vaults, the win. / great an exertion. Similar instances, how
We learn that
ever, accur in former years. is used in buildings, are here of cast-iron
lown, and in 1748, a dolphin, in a wear The machinery, which is of wonderful con
below the castle ; both probably were sturtrivance, is worked by two steam engines.
geons, the latter measured three feet four We cannot introduce our author's ac- inches in length. Two enormous turtle count of the festivals, still maintained by shells remain as inonuments of the good living the corporation, the companies, &c.; they of Salopians in former days. are gaudy and amusing ; but their spirit By way of specimen of the author's declines. The castle, the walls, the gates, manner, we select his account of the the abbey, the churches, the bridge, &c. domestic habitations of our forefathers ; are attended to in their order : and the as they are drawn from extant authorities, eminent men of the town are duly that abound in the town of Shrewsbury, commemorated. It is fit the present inha- which has not for many centuries suffered bitants of Shrewsbury should know, that, extensively by fire, they are entitled to
In the yeare 1533, uppon twelffe dave in peculiar confidence. Shrowsbury, the dyvyll appearyd in sain The town houses of our forefathers, as far Alkinond's churche there, when the preest
as they relate to the prosent subject, may be was at higlie masse, with greate teinpesie and divided into the kernelled or embattled mandarkeness, so that as he passyd through the sion, the hall or unembatiled gentleniun's churche, he mountyd up the steeple in the house, and the tradesinan's habitation. The sayde churche, teringe the wyers of the sayde embattled mansion parook both of the castelclock, and put the prynt of hiys clawes uppon laied and collegiate forms. Like the former, the 4th bell, and tooke one of the pynnacles it was crowned wiih embrasures, and surawaye with hym, and for the lyme staved all rounded always in the country, and sometimes the bells in the churches within the say de even in towns, with a moat, but bad seldom ipwnc that they could neyther toll nor rynge. more ihan one lower, placed at the point of Taylor's MSS.
most strength, which consisted of ihree or :. To attribute this infernal devastation to roon. These were doubtless built on the
four stories, containing on eaclı foor a single the electrie Auid, would be to deprive principles of the keeps of castles. Like colthe Salopians of the bonour due to the exemplariness of that devotion, which
* The biskop's palace at Wells, a magnicould excite such a prodigious gust of Sa- ficent specimen of this kind of house, tras a tanic wrath in opposition to it. However, moat.