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apartment (Dr+ M. must consider the ini. air, and if we add to their Hebrew origin, tåre of the caravanserais in the east we that they are also poetical compositions, their refer again to Calmet.) in which Mary frequeut omission of the article in cases, in might be delivered. - Acts iv. 31. the which it would probably have been found in topos, place, apartment, room, in which

an original Greek narration, can excite no the apostles were assembled, for worship, translation of the Song of Deborah with the

surprise. Whoever will compare the LXX. as is evident; was shaken; and this though Hebrew, will perceive that it has in inost not in the temple) may be considered as instances, so far as the article is concerned, a holy place for the time being. And so con farined with the strict letter of the original, we understand our Lord : " whoever sees and that it is so far anarthrous as scarcely to the abomination of desolation standing, be tolerable Greek. as conqueror, on any holy place any

I have been led into these observations, not place set apart to divine worship, any

at all more by the words which introduce the Synagogue in any of the cities of Israel, present note, than by some other passages to (or Judah) let him take the bint, apd

be found in the two Thanksgivings : in those escape directly." The destruction of many employed, where it is now omitted ; in the

passages, indeed, the article inight have been holy places was effected in fact, by the

present instance, δια ΤΑ σπλαγχνα

would Romans, long before they attacked the have made it necessary to write TOT : TOT temple. Had the application of the sign 10. quão: as it stands, the whole precisely agrees Been delayed till the Romans stood in the with the Hebrew form, and is also perfectly holy place, the temple, the Evangelist's defensible on principles, with which the caution " wboso readeth let him under reader is by this time well acquainted, stand, bad been totally useless. If a cautionary precept, referring to enemies, treating the subjects examined in his

As a specimen of Dr. M.'s manner of be put in practice a few days or weeks too botes, we select that on Luke ii: 7. doon, the damage is trifling: if a few hours too late, destruction may punish the hest. MSS. but not any of Matthäi's-stñand

V. 7. év tñ pátm. A few of Wetstein's tardy.

Griesbach has prefixed to it the mark of posAs a valued correspondent favoured us sible spuriousness. The presence of the article with some thoughts on the songs of Mary in the received text has been drawn into the disand of Zachariah, [Compare Panorama, pute respecting the place of our Saviour's birih. Vol. II. pp. 749, 1199] we shall insert Dr. Baronius, principally on the authority of a M's remarks on the grammatical character passage in Justin Martyr's Dial. with Trypho, of the same poems, by way of showing how in the vicinity of Bethlehem, and not in

makes the birth-place of Christ lo hare been nearly be agrees with our friend FIDELIS. Bethlehem itself; and the place of his nati.

Luke V. 78. dià omnárxva éréxs es vity is frequently by the fathers denominated wr. Every attentive reader of the two songs panagiou or ärlpov. Casaubon (Exerciti. p. of Thanksgiving of Mary and Zacharias con- 145) has cousidered this subject also. at great tained in this chapter must have remarked in length; and he argues, that the article shews them certain peculiarities of style; but the the pati in question to be that which beonly whe, with which I am concerned, is, longed to the stable of the malámuck nienthat they are extremely anarthrous. I do tioned in the same verse: illud præseps, quod not, indeed), mean to affirm, that they ever erat in stabula pertinenle ad diversorium. violate the rules, but only that they display His argument is not altogeiher jpvalidated, the utmost" latitude of omission, which the supposing the various reading to be the true rules allow : and this is nothing more than one, which, however, is not probable, for we might antecedently have expected; they the preposition might cause the absence of the might be supposed to retain some traces of the article,' eveu though párm were intended decharacter of their originals, which certainly finitely. But the great difficulty is to ascere were not Gorreko Mlielsælis say's (in his tain the meaning of parm; for, though the Anmerka) of the latter of them that is article would prove, that not any patun was appears to have been spoken in Hebrew, not ineant, still it would leave the import of the

Jews still used Hebrew in their prayers. Its word undetermined." Casaubon would render tongue may explain," he adds, " why the Michaelis, and the Eng. versiou have "; periods are so unrounded, consisting of many manger; which, of course, short clauses foreibly brought together." Both páton to be shie true reading. : Wakefield and "compositions have unquestionably a Hebrew Rosenmuller say, " in the stable ;" a sense

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which the word is known to bear and the meanness of the place might also justify "Schlesner understands il of the area before the terin, in the same inauner as in Theocrithe house, i space inclosed, but without any lus we have incov, ģu oiuntu, is much less corerivz, in which stood the cattle and in- satisfactory : from the mouth of Praxinoe plements of agriculture : it was, therefore, such a figure of speech is perfectly natural, as according to this notion, not uplike a farm- is, indeed, every syllable in the Adoniazuse; yard

but such a ludicrous hyperbole would ill ac. With respect to Casaubon's opinion, that cord with the character of any of the fatherš, the article refers us to something certain and and was still less to be expecied from several definite, so as to make patun Moradic, it can

of them : indeed their agreement plainly in. hardly be doubled: but I think he is mista-dicates, that they meant to be understood liteben in supposing that a manger would be spo

rally. ken of

thus detinively in relation to ihe The first thing to be done in examining xaliqull%. The stable and the ion might this question is, to obtain a true notion of , very well he thus contradistinguished, but not the eastern caravanserais, or inns: let the

so well the inn and the manger : of mangers following extract from Tavernier, p. 45, there would probably be several ; but if not, assist us in this : the very circumstance that there might be

« The Caravanserais are the Eastern inns, severil, would render this definite mode of speaking somewhat unnatural. But there is

far different from ours; for they are neither another consideration which seems to be of

so convenient, nor handsome : they are built importance, though I am not aware that any

square, much like cloysters, being usually attention has been paid to it. The context of but one story high: for it is rare to see one of the whole passage convinces me that the two stories. . A wide gate brings you into the Patin was not merely the place, in which court; and in the midst of the huilding in the Babe was laid, but the place also in which the front

, and upon the right and left hand, he was born and swaddled! I understand the there is a Ital) for persons of the best quality words Év tñ Qatyn to belong as much to še to keep together

. 'On each sicle of the hall

are LODGINGS for every man ly himself. xey as to ávénarvey, for else where did Mary's These lodgings are raised all along the court, delivery happen? Certainly not in the two or three steps "high, just behind which καιάλυμα, for there we are immediately told

are the stables, where many time it is as that there was not room: not room for whom? ' good lying as in the Chamber. Some will Not merely for the new-born in faut, bu rather lye there in the winter, because they aulois, for Mary and Joseph. . By pályn, are warm, and are roofed as well as the therefore, we must understand sone place, in chambers. Right against the head of every which they might find accomınodation, though horse there is a niche with a window into the less convenient than that which the ratanu | LODGING CHAMBER, out of which every ma

would have afforded them, had it not been man may see his horse is looked after. These occupied ; and such a pluce could not have been a

NICHES are usually so large, that three men manger. It might be either a stableoran inclosa may lye in them; and here the servants usualed arca ; but more probably the former; for an

ly dress their victuals.” inclosed area without any covering seems not to If we are not mistaken, this is a lively afford the shelter and privacy which the situa- comment on all the words which Dr. M. tion of Mary rendered indispensable, and more- finds difficult in the evangelist's history. over is not to be reconciled with the fathers, We have, Ist, lodging chambers answering who call the birthplace of Christ an avicov or to the topos of Luke: 2d, a stable, warm, anh22:10%, nor indeed with the tradition, rooted, and preferable to the chambers of which, according to all the travellers, still the main building ; 3d, in this stalle, se-, prevails in the cast, that the scene of the Na- parations, or apartmenis, called by Taver.' tivity was a grožio: i hat the stable might be nier niches, usually so large that three really such is made highly probable by the remark of Casaubon, who has observed, after

men may lye ip them. The word phaine, Sirabo, that the

miles round

certainly expresses either the stable, or, Jerusalem is rocky; and he adds that an Ara

one of these niches. Does it express loth bian gengrapher has described such excavations These subjects, i. e. when with the article, to be not unfreuently used in those parts one of them ; when without the article, for dwellings. The stable of the xalanium, the other? Dr. M. has not alluded io the if it were so hewn out, might very well be recurrence of phatne in verse 16; but called a onhaarov, or if it were formed chiefly that verse must follow the fate of verse 1261 by nature, it would sull better njerii the

ap- It is evident, that, these niches being pellation. But Casaubon's other reason that in the stable, whatever was transacted in

country for

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one of them was transacted in the stable :

rinas it is evident also, that these niches might be 'many, while the stable was but Ofe.

Anecdotes of the Manners and Customs of On the principle, therefore, of the article

London during the Eighteenth Century; being Monadie, when the one stable is including the Charities, Depravities, Dress mentioned it should have the article : es, and Amusements, of the Citizens of 'when a niche is mentioned, the article London, during that Period; with a Reshould be omitted. Let us examine whe- view of the State of Society in 1807. To ther these simple principles will afford us which is added, a Sketch of the domestic a correct view of the transaction, in con- and ecclesiastical Architecture, and of the formity to Dr. M.'s doctrine on the various Improvements in ihe Metropolis. article.

Illustrated by fifty Engravings. By James There being no vacant apartment in the Peller Malcolm, F. S. A. Author of building around the main court, the cara. Londinum Redivivum," &c. &c. pp. vanserai or inn, Mary anu Joseph resort,

490; Price £2. 2s. Longman and Co. ed to THE slable, annexed to the main

London : 1808. building, but separate from it : herein Mary brought furth her son, took all pro- so COMPARISONS are odorous ; says per care of him, and of herself, and laid the ingenious and learned Dogberry : yet him down to rest. But the angels gave a Dogberry himself might have found ihe sigo to the shepherds : “ Ye shall find the temptation to institute a comparison, ir- , infant very carefully attended to, and well resistible under certain circumstances. wrapped up, lying for repose in a niche, of When we behold in contemplating time which, you know the stalle contains se past a long, long, list of follies, from Veral." ." And the shepherds came and which time present is happily free; when found in a niche Mary, Joseph, and the we find the grosser propensities of our na. reposing infant : -these niches being ture, triumphant in time past, controul80 large that three men may lie down ined, and indeed banished, by the most one of them

exquisite refinements in time present; We are to remember, that this incident when we see that time past was deformdid not happen in Greece, but in Judea, ed by rusticities, 'not to say brutalities, where the term to describe this apart while time present is adorned by element was Hebrew-Syriac, and was to be cancies, of the most captivating detranslated into Greek. The application scription ; when what was rude has yield: of one term to the building, and to its ed to what is polite, and what was sus: parts also, is rather according to the He- picious, if not koavish, is travsformed into brew usage than the Greek. The Greek the most disinterested honesty ; when word for an inn, or place on the road for even our Stock Exchange enacts la the reception of guests, is not used by against false report ; and even oar Jews the evangelist,' in this history, but he has are become good Christians; can we retranslated the appellations according to frain from a comparison?-or is it rather a their import.

contrast? The temptation is too mighty : We cannot but observe how near to the for us to resist : and if we do expose ourtruth the learned had conjectured'; yet the selves to censure by compliance with it, testimony of an eye-witness while it cor- we depend for a pardon on ihe virtuous roborates, sapersedes their notions. As sympathy, humanity, and charity, of to the grollo, &c. The stalle might well time present, or whose behalf we incur enough have been an excavation, improy. the hazard of trangression. : ed by building into a very tolerable retreat. If we may believe Mr. Malcolm's vo

We hope our readers will not be dis- .lume, the British public in former days pleased with a few additional remarks in quitted their lawful occupations to assist a gocceeding nuaiber, on other subjects in- at bear-baitings, prize-fightings, and boxtroduced by Dr. M. in justification of his ing-matches : nay, these were esteemed . opinion. The mode of proof adopted by sports for gentlemen :--then, that digus, is probably altogether different from nified guardiau of public morals, the stage, what may be appealed to by reviewers in was absolutely overloaded witb harlequin's, other works : by the united effect of all Mother Shipton's, Fortunatus's, tricks and let the Dri's principles be tried.

transformations ;--then, a squalling Sig.

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nor, or Signorà, laid the purses of the duet of their ancestors of the nineteenth public under a contribution little less enor century !.

5: mous than the Income Tax, while indi. - But to narrate past events is a much viduals added present upon present, till easier task than to anticipate those yet fun the mere-list announted to as many sheets ture: what our fathers have bcen we as a counsellor's briefi-ther, the South know; what our sons may be we can only Sea Bubble infatuated the publics after- foresee by anticipation. Nostradamus wards, the Bottle Conjaror--the whist himself, had he lived to this day, would Jings of Signior Rossignol-he sprawlings not have found all his predictions verified, of the Fantoccini-tbe learned Pig-the and we cannot expect that a better date Dancing Dog's--the patriotism of Jack should attend our utterances :--but, we Wilkes--and the blessings of French Fra- add, in the convenient phraseology of ternity

our newspapers," time will shew ;* Cum multis aliis que nunc perscrivere longum est. and, this deserves confirmation."

Mr. Malcolm has had access to the va, What a happy contrast-does the present luable collection of miscellanies wbiob eentury, afford! When do we hear of gen- | lad been accumulated by Mr. John Ni, slemen at a , boxing match? Of Mother cholls, and we suppose, that we are to Shipton, on the now rationally-conducted consider this volume as the only portion of school of virune-Of presents made to them now preserved, the general mass foreign singers, beyond their bare salary, having perished in the fire which consumDoes not the most delicate integrity, in ed that gentleman's premises. [Vide Pa. our happy times, keep party aloof from norama, Vol. III. p. 1311.) Not having the Places occupied by our Public Officers? ourselves examined Mr. N's collection, we Does not the manly steadiness of our know not whether we are justified in con gentlemen, abhor the smallest portion of sidering the contents of this volume as Sativolity. Does not the modest appear- deficient in judicious selection. Certain ance of our ladies betoken the very ice of is, that we think it ought to have conchastityOr if, by the influence of evil tained information of various kinds, that stars and irresistible fascination,

we do not find in it." "As men of letters, (For when weak women go astray

we should have taken a pleasure in tracing The stars are more in fault than they)

the extensive spread of general literature

during the course of the century, the prin s slip does happen;- is not all the world cipal impulse of which, undoubtedly, was alarmed at it as strange and unparalleled ! from London. till something else charitably interposes, We should have hinted at the effect pro band attracts and engrosses conversation, duced by the lucubrations of Addison and

A few inadvertencies so early in the cen- Steele; by the party writings of Mist, fary, must not be suffered to operate in Fog, the Craftsman, Gazetteer, &c. by disparagement of our general position ; the institution of the Gentleman's Maga nobody expects babits confirmed by here- zine, which reached all parts of our island, ditary descent, to be suddenly shaken off ; and gave to the public mind a turn for inand some have a leaven of the last centuryqairy and reading; statement of the about them. Let those accelerations of progress of Reviews, and other periodicals, improvement, which the prophetic, from might have been added to advantage, what they behold already accomplished, The progress of the Arts too, might Bilarm without doubt, must mark the pro- have engaged the pen of a writer, bimgress of following years, and may be com self an artist. He would have found that

plete ere the century closes, prove the jus-Sculpture, thopgh an art of slow growth in lification of our sentiments; and then this country, yet made sensible progress. det our predierions be fairly estimated. Engraving may be said to haye been call, For wlao but the wilfully blind, can refuse ed into existence ; Paioting received a new te applaud the energy with which all ranks life, especially the historical department aspire to the sublimities of virtue? Who of that art. Portrait painting was encoute tai but pity the moralists of succeeding raged to a rage : Sir Godfrey Kneller, who generations when, attempting by way of died in 1728, left tive hundred portraits *arning abeir pupils by examples, they unfinished, for which he bad received pay-. abil cattedy koblet errors frorna bo.con- nient- in part; Vanloo saw crowds of coasbestbreng his deor, as if it had been Metropolis the first of European cities, we the playhouse; and the man who kept the can expect only general and superficial ac, arderly list of applicants, expected a counts, on whatever other subjects engage handsome fee for placing a vanze earlier his pen. on the list than its proper place, whereby We are, nevertheless, disposed to ac. impatience sometimes avoided a delay of cept Mr. M.'s endeavours favourably: six weeks.

what be has done will be of use to suco It is not now in the power of a single ceeding historians, though he has not done drapery painter, to throw the artists into all that we could bave desired from him.. confusion, by confining his labours to His first chapter describes the Persons of one or two principals: and now, no branch the Aborigines of London. He thinks of att ean boast, as Seymour boasted, their descendants degenerated, but reco when he mortified the proud duke of Sovered their pristine beauty. He gives a merset beyond endurance, while painting bistory of the treatment of parish children, #portrait of one of his grace's hurses, of the Foundling Hospital—the Welsh I am a Seymour, too.".

charity school, and other charities. - We

could have wished that the numerous bosOo Architecture, Mr. M. does bestow pitals, which do so much honour to the a few thoughts, but his article is meagre, metropolis, bad been, at least, epuinerat. and unsatisfactory; we do not think he has ed; and if some account bad been added been familiar with the houses of the great, of those half-public institutions which as or that he has done justice to the superior sist greatly in alleviating the miseries of accommodation now introduced into the human life, within the extent of their in awedings of the middle classes. Even Auence, ander various names of beneven the tax on windows has been followed by lent associations and societies, it would not some advantages which are not aòticed by only have thrown additional weight into Mr. M.

the scale intended as a counterpoise to the Mr. M, with sufficient accuracy de- depravity of our city, but it might have scribes the extremely disgraceful and dan- afforded valuable suggestions to some fun gerous state of the streets before the new

ture philanthropist, wbo may wish to en pavement was introduced, and he men large the sphere of their activity, Mr. Lions the first notice of the commissioners M.'s second chapter relates anecdotes of for re-paving the streets of London in depravity ; to this succeeds a chapter on March, 1763 : but we do not meet with foly, then one on eccentricity: lotteries the name of Spranger in bis volume, or and benefit: societies, follow'; then 10that of Hansvay, although it ought not to mults, amusements, dress, architecture, be forgotten that the first hint of this long. ecclesiastical architecture,

sculpture and wanted improvement was derived from a painting, and the work concludes with a work published by the former of those general sketch of the state of society in gentlemen in 1754; and that at the close London, of the same year Mr. Hanway published We should be glad if truth permitted bis First Letter to Mr. Spranger on his to deny the accuracy of Mr. excellent Proposals for paving, cleansing, lineation of the latter subjeot : but we lighting, &c. the Streets of Westminster."

must aflirm, that he has seen it in the The first act of parliavent was passed in least favourable light. To suppose that -1762, and was hastened by an accident all journeymen are drunken, idle and disthíat happened to the Speaker's carriage in obedient, that all tradesmen are careless,

passing through a narrow street. After affected and fashionable, that all noble experiment had been tried, by Comaris- men are extravagant, idle and debauched, siqners, several parishes obtained acts for

may suit a satirist, but not an impartial the same purpose, and managed the busi-. writer. We are, happily, acquainted wich Dess to greater advantage.

some of all ranks, who are truly honour: This may stand as an instance of our able in their station ; and perfect contrasts author's wait of particularity, in the in- to Mr. M.'s description. "We desire to formation he communicates, From the correct the unfavourable sketch, which writer who could omit honourable men- our author presents, by av owing our pertion of the early promoters of an improve- suasion that it stands in need of being 'ments that bas contributed to render theil revised by means of a better view of bein

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