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àod restrictions of the article : the second pressions of the same idea in one propos of its application in the New Testament, Sition.
baxis19 as exemplified in notes forming almost a continued commentary, in the order of is uppermost in the speaker's mind, is appli
The article being the svimbol of that, whieti the books.
cable not only to the case of reference to We scarcely know how to comprise something already mentioned, but also to the
statement of the principles adopted person or thing, which is about to become by our author in his first part, in a the subject of an assertion : for such must at manner due to their importance, yet
the time be the object most familiar to our facile of comprehension to our readers,
own minds, (the speaker's mind) through within the limits our work can allot to.the perhaps most föreign fronu tliat of our heareri subject. We earnestly recommend the DriM. also observes : perusal of this volume to every scholar; All the insertions of the article are reducible and heartily do we wish, that Dr. M. by !0 two kinds, arising out of one property, vize a judicious interspersion of renderings into its anticipative reference : for the anticipation English, bad enabled us to comprehend that which is unknown : in the former casa
must be either of that which is known, or of under this ferin, in this instance, that the article with its predicate is subservient to numerous body of Christian readers who the purpose of retrospective reference, in the from very commendable motives obtain latter to that of hypothesis, some acquaintance with the original of the sacred writings. Let not this be des.
The article, says the Dr. is employed to pised as of small service to knowledge express 1. renewed meation. This requires and piety: nor let Dr. M. think lightly of no explanation. 7. Super-excellence : his crime in withholding from whoever Thucydides mentions the plague; the war may be appointed at some future time, to meaning the celebrated plague of Athens, revise our public version, the assistance the famous Peloponessian war and s6 they would have derived from the selection we say in English, the Reformation, of words and phrases adopted by a gentle meaning that from popery ; the Revoluman who had considered the New Testa- tion, meaning that under William III. inent with such close attention. Further, It is not safe to infer universally, from this on the behalf of the English language, use of the article, any thing more than that Dr. M. must give us leave to insist the person or thing spoken of is from some that if the English articles will not in
cause or other well known : the particular every case accurately and adequately ex
caure may be a subject of further considerapress the full power of the Greek, yet by
tion, says onr authur. means of a dexterous management of our
3. Almost with the same intention, the this, that, these, those, &c, we can come article marks monades, things of which much nearer to it, than he appears to there can be only one. 4. It has the have imagined. (p. 63.) For instance, sense of a possessive pronoun. 5. I The Jxx. read 1 Kings xviii, 39. attends (as it were) the great objects of Kúpos aùtós éru 'O €ór our trans. nature; the heaven, the sun, the earth, &c lators have well expressed this in their 6. It is frequently prefixed to adjectives of 6. The Lord he is The God!"-where the Neuter Gender, when they mark the power of the English article (no of some attribute or quality in its general fence, we hope) is fully equal to chat of and abstract idea. 7. Correlatives, 8. the Greek. 'Oiher places may support Partitives. the same inference.
These are the divisions of Dr. M's first But, though we find it impossible to section of his third chapter, and may do justice to Dr. M.'s labours, yet we serve to shew the extensive view he has must not wholly omit his leading principle, taken of his subject. This chapter is which '18, That the article indicates the very long and important. Toward the sub-intellection of the participle of ex-close of it the author supports Me. istence wbere that participle is not ex. Sharp's rule of interpretation in the New pressed, or otherwise implied; but if the Testament, that when attributives coupled participle of existence be expressed or im together are assumed of the same subject, plied, in any word, then the article is the first only has the article prefixed dropped, lest there should be two es importing union of the two characters in
one person; whereas, ni tre atticfe were referenee to ideas in the speaker's mind prefixed to the second also, it would im afterwards to be explained : i; e. anticipaa port disunion, and mark-a isecond person. tory allusion. lefor example, Eph. V. 5. we are with
A. That is a wicked slut, THAT Susan Our cominod versions to translate y qñ Muslin ;-The wicked girl has βασιλεία TOY Xρισε KAI Θεε, " in the
B. What'? " kingdom of Christ and of God;" or Tic. ii.13, Amade mischief between me and ΤΟΥ μεγάλα Θεα ΚΑΙ σωλήρος ημών Ιησύ Robin Goodfellow. Xaşi, of the Great God and (of our
Here the idea of maliceis in such immer Seviour Jesus Christ, " we must in consistence diate succession in the mind of A. that it translate also from Plutarch, “ Roscius the forms in fact but one with bis-that i ako son and another person heir to the deceased ;" though B. being ignorant of thie circumshoogh a singular Verb follows : and so on instance of the enmity between Robin an endless series of absurdities, p. 94. Goodfellow and A. thinks it necessary to
We may explain this by a well known demand an explanation, of his that. He instance among ourselves. The bishop of perceives some allusion in it; but to what Derry on the death of his brother, lord circumstance implied, as none is expressed, Hervey, inherited his title : and now his he cannot determine. ! titles stood “ the Right Hon. The Lord If Dr. M. has ever stood on a shore Hervey, Lord Bishop of Derry :" under where were several huts, the inhabitants which phrase should we find an enumé. of each of which had a boat, he may tation in a list of Dignitaries, we should have observed some such language as this, consider it as denoting one person who when a lad had got into the boat belongunited two titles. But should we find in ing to his family : “ Jack is got into the such a list, " The Lord Hervey, The boat,aud is rowing "but if the lad had Lord Bishop of Derry," we should con- got into the boat belonging to another fa clude that the writer of the list intended mily, the expression would be, -" Jack to mark two distinct persons, to each of is got into such an one's boat ::-the whicu one title only belonged." of such article the, in the first instance, in importance, then, is the artiele, and of effect recals the circumstance of relation such effect is its absence, presence, positi- between the boat and Jack's family to the tion, duplication, &c. in our own lan- mind of the bearer, as it is an expression guage, as well as the Greek.
of the saine idea in the mind of the speakWe might a to other confirmations er. In the second instance, there being of Dr. M's principal positions which are no such circumstance, the the is inapplicurrent among us; for, if Dr. M. wđuld cable and should it be adopted (the observe the ratural language of our coun family having no boat) the hearer would trynen, lie would find po want of inferens immediately demand further informabial powers in the English article. Lion by inquiring “ into whose boat?" 1 A. That man,'tbey say is mad :\THE Dr. M. will perceive that these instanfellow is downright mad!'.
ces are in-apposition to , his TO Torcy, 7. B. Aye, I thought as much.
Math. XIII. 2. and others. Moreover, C. What man ?
as somewhat sturdy soos of honest John * A. Why the man, whom we took to the Bull, we stand up for our native language; Watch house, for making a riot last night. determined that it shall dispute with
Here, it is clear, that A.'s That alludes the Greek language, or any other, article to past ideas, to the circumstance of by article, rather than yield without a the riot, &c. in the minds of A. and B; sfruggle 10 an ignoble convention. and A, knows, sufficiently well, that his Dr, M. treats at large on the causes foc expression wilt recal to B's mind, the in-omission of the article: but these we cidents, their cause, their commencement must pass. . , The inain object of his work if he saw it) and their termination. But being to illustrate the New Testament, the the whole is a complete mystery to c. ninth chapter is occupied in vindicating wcho haying.no previous acquaintance the writers of that division of Holy Writ. with the circumstance, is as much in the We subjgin the following obseryations in dark about that man, and The fellow, as if which their competency as writers of the Ao soch man or fellow, had ever existed. Greek language is stated with less reserve Our English articles are also capable of than some have thought necessary.
Neither were they natives of a country, | different senses of TVEūšax" as, breath where Greek was rarely spoken; nor is it probable that any of thein made the acquisition
or wind-the intellectual part of man late in life The victories of Alexander and spirits—The Holy Spirit - the influences the consequent establishment of the Seleucidæ of the Holy Spirit--the effects of spiritual produced a revolution in the language of influence in virtues and graces. Our Syria and Palestine. The Aramæn dialects author's distinctions substitute the influ. still, indeed, continued to be in use : but the ences of the Holy Spirit, for his person, language of literature and of commerce, and in several places where divines have in a great degree, even of the ordinary inter- usually found the latter : but we willingly course of life, was the Greek: without a abandon whatever interpretation is not knowledge of this it was impossible to have warranted by grammatical accuracy. any extensive communication.
“ Greck," says Michaelis, “ was the current language
Chap. ii. 23.-" The Nazarene." We in all the cities to the west of the Euphrates:" have in our language adopted so many and Josephus expressly declares, that he had Latinized names expressing countries, – written in his remacolar idiom a work on the Africanus, Italicus, &c. that we should Jewish war, of which the Greek work, still but little scruple writing Nazarenus; it preserved, is a translation, " in order that is less exceptionable than the introduction Parobins, Babylonians, Arabians; and the of any article; and to say truth we are Jere's no ducli leyond the Euphrates, might not satisfied with any that can be prefixed. be informed of what had happened." It is For, a Nazarene, does not distinguish the then, manifest, that westward of the Euphrate3, a kvowledge of Greek was not an accom
party intended from the mass of Nazaplishinent contined exclusively to the learned renes, any one of whom might be thus and polite, but that it was generally under described with propriety; it is not, therestood, and commonly used by people of all fore, strong enough : and, the Nazarene, Tanks, and inust have been acquired in their is too strong, as it appropriates the appelchildhood. In this state of things, therefore, lation exclusively; neither is it a title what were we to expect à priori froin the given to Jesus, in a way of excellence, writers of the N. 1.2 I speak not of St. but of degradation : " THAT Nazarene," Like and St. Paul, of whom Greek was the might perhaps approach the nearest 'tó nalire language, but of the other evangelists
critical correctness. and apostles. . It was not, indeed, to be expected, if we reflect on their circumstances
iv. 1.-" The Desert.” Michaelis proand habits of life, and on the remoieness of poses, as the scene of the temptation, the Palestine, that they should write with the desert of Sinai. Strange enough! What elegance of learned Athenians ; but I know optics could from thence discover all the not of any reasonable presumption against kingdoms of the region around, and their their writing with perspicuity and with gram glory?-And by what means did our Lord matical correctness. But what has been here adduced will not Surely, not by the vulgar conception of a
reach the temple at Jerusalem from thence? apply with equal force to translations; be, who translates, rarely writes with the journey through the air under Satanic des sarre are and correctness, as when he is left potism. The temptation has three scenes; curls to himself. Hence it has happened or rather three scenes are selected for our that in quotations from the LXX. in some
instructior, the first, in a desert, the parts of the Apocalypse, (see Apoc. X. 17.) second on a high mountain (why not and in passages rendered from the Llebrew, Pisgab? from which Moses' viewed the some license may be cbserved.
land) the third on the temple. In his Second Part, consisting of Notes Verse 6. ÈTÈ TÒ lepüyor. Certainly on the New Testament, Dr. M. follows not “ on a pinnacle” of the temple, as the order of the sacred books; and not to in our public translation. Equally cerbe wholly listless when the promotion of cainly, in our opinion, not knowledge and religion is in question, we roof," as Dr. M. says, for tbat was covered shall sta e such further explanations, or with sharp pointed iron spikes, four cubits contirmations, is have occurred 10 us in height, to prevent birds frog alighting while this part of the Dr.'s labours was on it (Michaelis wrote a curious paper on under our persal. To readers of the the conducting power of these spikes, as New Testament we offer no apology: and security against lightning.) Nor could this ibe Dr. We are certain desires none. station be an det's for this term denotes
On Mudb. i. 18, Dr. M. enlarges on the the pediment, which is part of the roof,
but not synonimous with the roof itself, , if so, well known to his disciples, as the wbatever Wetstein might infer. Of scene of his retirement for devotion, sueh pediments a roof had two, one at therefore The mountain." --Compare each end: neither of these, then, could also Math. xxviii. 16, where our Lord met be the pterugion, as are by the his disciples, according to his appoint: article restricted to one only. Commen- ment, on the mountain, eis to opos, in tators have looked too high for this. Galilee. May we not infer that it might Had they recollected, that advice given be generally known to his friends? It to a man to throw himself from the top was probably north of Capernaum ; but of St. Paul's would be no temptation; not so far porth as Cæsarea Phillippi. since human nature undistinguished by On this passage, we are surprised how grace, or even by talents, shudders at Dr. M. could fancy that the LXX. inten. the thought,- it must be downright ded to express “ the Mountain District," suicide !-Had they reflected too, that our by ES TO špos, Gen. xix. 17.. Had Lord's answer, does not imply a tempta: theworthy Dr. reflected, that before the tion to suicide, but alludes to bodily hurt, surface of the Dead Sea was formed by the at the utmost, they would have been near- water that has flowed into it, the level of er the truth. Dr. M. says : "no instance its bottom grounds, must have been many can be found in any author, in which feet lower than at present, he would have alspúry.oy is applied to a building" perceived, that to a person standing on yet Scheuzer observes, that (Dan ix. 27.) that lower level, all around him was the LXX have translated canaph by pte- mountainous. This alone might justify Tugion ; and Dr. M. allows that the Sy- the expression : but we add, that nothing riac has translated pterugion by canaph. It can be more natural in a person speaking, must therefore have been a part of this than a designation by pointing towards building known to these writers. The that particular object to which he al. term repos applies to all the buildings ludes, -THAT city, that hill, THAT around the courts of the temple : and if mountain--and to this the history agrees : we suppose one sole projection in the gal- -" i cannot escape to that mountain," lery opposite the altar(whoever, walks &c. over Black Friars bridge, may find seve- Verse 15. “ The bushel, the canral such, supported by the Ionic pillars of dlestick. This gives to the English reathe bridge) - this might be the pierugion. der the notion of a portable candlestick ; It must have been, Ist, accessible to the no such thing is intended. A lamp de. laity; 2d, in sight, and probably in hear- pendent from the centre of the ceiling, ing, of the people at worship, &c. Some- would be much nearer the mark; but if thing similar really did exist, for Hege- we admit, (which is less conformable to sippus relating the death of St.James Minor Oriental costume) that the light was placed (vide Calmet), says, " that the Pharisees against the centre of one side of the made him go up into one of the galleries apartment, still it would be singular : of the temple, that he might be heard by the lamp-stand." the whole multitude below,- the Phari. VII. 24. έπι την πέτραν. The necessity sees going up to where he was, threw of the article here requires no other illushim down from thence, yet did he not die tration than that derived from the nature instantly from bis fall, but kneeling down, of the soil in Judea. It is mostly a rock, prayed,” &c. This height, then, was not covered with mould: but, by the sides of calculated for direct suicide, though it the torrents, it iş a rock covered with the hazarded breaking of bones, &c. of which sand brought down by those torrents. this story is evidence.
The foolish builder, without digging, lays V.i.' avÈBN EIS TO őpos. Certainly not his first course of bricks on the surface of " a mountain;" equally certainly, not the saud; this sand being permeable to
The Mountain District,” of Judea ; as water, when the stream attacks it, soon proposed by Dr. M. It was, in all pro- yields, and carries away the edifice wiih it. bability, the same as is intended Luke vi. The wise builder digs away the sand till
12. where we have the same phrase eis he comes to the rock; on this he builds, To opos, and where our Lord continued all and defies the torrent. As this formation night in prayer; the same perhaps, too, of their country must have been perfectly as that whereon he was frunsrigirred; and familiar to our Lord's hearers, Ti& rock
was description quite sufficient for them when God says I AM (got l was) the God This is independent of Sebeusner, and of, &c. it denotes his still subsisting rela, his reference. We may say too, in vindi. tion to them j; ergo they do stil, exist cation of Mt. King, that the first course and not without consciousness, fin some of bricks, bemidov, is always chosen by unseen state. wise builders with attention, as being of XV. 24. Oire "lopasso Dr. M. has great importance.
not understood Oinos. - It expresses the in. VIH. 6. év trñ vinic. “In my house, or mediate blood-the descendants from all at home." No: if Dr. M. bad perfectly ancestor, restrictively. And in this sense entered into the distinction between dikos at may be taken here, and chap. x. 6. and oikia, he would have found that the without the article, “ I am not sent but latter (where it does not signify, a build- to the lost sheep of Israel's blood.;" his ing) imports the household, servants,
direct descendants, his family." Go &c. as distinct from the children oikos. rather to the lost sheep of Israel's family: The sense, therefore, . may be, ".my
his blood ; bis immediate posterity. 20)
XVI. 4-19. Gates of Hell. Compare ously tormented." The household, because TAYLOR'S edition of CALMET's Dictionary such was of course the establishment of a
of the Bible, Fragment, No. ccxi. p. 42-44, person of the speaker's, rank. Compare Hades, and Mereury closing them, after verse 9; also Acts, x. 7. &c. In the East, the dwelling of the family, Glycon and Herzeba si de
having: admitted two departed spirit women, children, &c. is distinct from that of the household servants, &c. and to which understands the term rendered
XIX. 28. Le support of the Syriac, have invited any man into the family apartment would have been a breach of regeneration, of a new age, compare the decorum. Our greatest impediment in father of be everlasting age."
nd explaining Scripture is the influence of father of the everlasting age."
XXI. 42. the head-stone of the corner. English ideas.
This is no proper place for explaining this 3 33. Into The city. Many cities are
totally misunderstood passage : as it will known by this familiar term in their own not be brief : nor indeed can it be ren neighbourhood. Around Athens, at this dered intelligible without a figure. To day, the country people speak of going to refer Dr. M. to Vitruvius is all that is in THB city, meaning Athens: as a person our power. We do not think it "might from Covent Gardeo speaks of going into be added when the building was otherwise THB city, meaning London.
complete.” We do think the absence of XIV. 2. We may be indulged in one the article allows for the possibility of word in favorir of Herod. We do not there being : “ more than one is, onio consider it as Liquestionably certain that fabric ;''- but there could be only one at " the Sadducees, including Herod, “ be one corner. That stone against which, lieved neither in a' resurrectiơn Fof the while lying on the ground, before it was body} nor in the agency of fcelestial] put into its propet place, a passenger spirits." The word angel appears to us, might fall, would certainly crush any one in several places, to 'nean departed human to atoms, on whom it should fall from the spirits: the existence of these Herod proper place and height to which it was might deny : but how any who received destined. the Pentateuch, as the Sadducees did, XXIV. 15. Év Tów ayin," in the holy could deny the existence and actions of place." We beg leave ito superaedo the celestial spirits, exceeds our compreben- whole of Dr. M's long note on this passion. This too, shews the reason why sage, by demanding strict adherence to his our Lord, desirous of supporting by Mo doctrine on the arriclex This passage has saic testimony, against the Sadducees, the it not the other passages referred to by doctrine of the immortality of the human) Dr. M. (Acts vi. 13. xxi. 28.) have the spirit, selects the existence, in a se article; they therefore shall signify, and parate state, of the departed spirits of welcome, this holy place, the temple. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob-inferring But topas, is elsewhere (Luke 7.) used “! God is not the God of the totally dead to express a separate chamber a there was all relation to such being dissolved ; but no topos proper privacy, no separado