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is found to be five, the allusion is to the season is of great antiqnity; a similar one prefingers of one haud : when numbers vailed in many of the cities of Gaul during change at ten, nalure has carried them so the times of heathenism, and was continued far on both our hands; when the Indians after the establishment of Christianity. of America to express innumerable per- By one of the canons enacted at Ausons or things, take the hair of the head xerre, A. D. 578, it was forbidden on the into their hands and shake it, we must calends of January, vetula aut cervolo faallow the sign to be extremely expressive. cere, to act the calf or buck. Elsewhere, And could we assemble the various allu- the youth assumed the skin of a ram, and sions, phrases, and metaphors, to which ran against their fellows. This was ca!led the body and its members have given oc- Iulbock-the buck of Yule. A homily, casion (to say nothing of measures, ascribed to Augustine, mentions these foot, an ell, &c. which are notoriously transformations. The singing of Carols taken from it), the whole together would is also very ancient. It was practised by furnish matter of extremely curious the heathen Romans during the calends of speculation.

January. The canons forbad it ; neverDr. J. has good articles on the Fairies theless, carols are still sung. and Brounies; but for these we must refer About this time last year, we submitto the work. The first we certainly should ted to our readers a few remarks on deduce from the Peri of the Persians ; Cliristmas, and the festivities of the seabut, we believe the principals of the race

son. Many a learned dissertation has must now be sought for in Wales. The been composed on subjects less interesting Jatter we hardly kuow what to make of; than this merry time. A complete hiswe had thought them the opponents of tory of it could not fail of being both cuthe Fairies, but Dr. J. produces authori- rious and entertaining. We shall tranties that seem to imply some relationship scribe some, and abridge others, of Dr. between them.

J.'s remarks on this subject. It may not be amiss, however, to state The ancient Goths had three great relia certain circumstances mentioned by Dr. J. gious festivals in the year. Of these Yule as still extant in Scotland, which are prac

was the first; it occurred at the same time tised by the flesh-and-blood representatives as our Christmas. of this superior class of beings.

Many conjectures have been formed as

Some have The exhibitions of Gysarts are still known

to the origin of this name. in Scotland, being the same with the Christ- derived it from the Greek 18acs, which mas nummery of the English. In Scotland, denoted a hymo sung by the women in even till the beginning of this century, mask. | honour of Bacchus. Theodoret, in his ers were admitted into any fashionable family, work De Materiâ el Mundo, says : if the person who introduced them us not sing the lulus to Ceres." This known, and became answerable for the be- term might be derived from a haviour of his comparions. Dancing with origin; but certainly is not the origin the maskers ensued."-Bannatyne Poems. of Yule. The notion that Yule was deNote p. 235. The custom of disguising now remains of consideration. The Anglo-Saxons gave

rived from Julius Cæsar, is undeserving only among boys and girls, some of whom wear masks, others blacken their faces with the name of Geola to two of their montlis, soot. They go from door to door, singing December and January, calling the first carols that have some relation to the season, Aerre-Geoln, or the first Yule, and the seand asking money, or bread superior in quas cond Aeftera-Geola, or the latter Yule. lity to that used on ordinary occasions. Dr. J., without hesitation, considers

It is common, in some parts of the conn- Geola as the same word with Yule. We try at least, that if admitted into any house, may be allowed to doubt, however, one of them, who precedes the rest, carries a small besom, and sweeps a ring or space

whether it may not rather be allied to

for them to dance in. This ceremony is strictly ining or purpose, and so of the year,

goal, the termination or finishing of a observed ; and, it has been supposed, is connected with the vulgar tradition concerning and therefore, if it be the same with the light dances of the fairies, one of whom Yule, the idea is " the feast at the year's is always represented as sweeping the spot ap

end." propriated to their festivity.

This festival among the northern na. The custoin of appearing disguised at this tions was the great season of sacrifice.

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Human sacrifices, some think, marked, who first opens the door on Yule day, expects its importance. Besides these, they of- prosper more than any other oiember of fered horses, dogs, and cocks in place of the saniily during the future vear, because, as hawks, to the number of ninety-nine. the vulgar express it, “ he leis in Yule." The Persians sacrificed horses ; so did

The door being opened, it is customary with the Goths, in the feast of Yule. The with a clean cloth, and according to their own

some to place a table or chair in it, covering it Greenlanders at this day keep a sun-jenst, language, lo “ set on it bread and cheese to at the winter solstice, Dec. 22. The Yule." Lurly in the nornirg, as soon as any Goths also sacrificed a boar; to this our one of the family gets out of bod, a new ancient custom of bringing in a boar's- broon besom is set at the buck of the outer head at Christmas festivities has a rele. door. The design is 16 to let in Yule." rence, and even our still retained prepa- These gross supersiitions, and the very mode ration of brawn. In the Orkney Islands, of expression, hase undoubedly hurt a heath" in the parish of Sandwick, every family Gied. But treated as a deity who receives an

en origin; for Yule is thus not only personi. that bas a herd of swine, kills a sow on

oblation. Dec, 17, which thence is called sowodny."

It is also very common to have a table co. The noble chine at Christmas is well vered, in the house, from morning to ercuknown among ourselves, at family meet ing, with bread and drink on it, that every ings. The same is customary in Holland; one who calls may take a portion, and it is and in the north of Europe, the peasants, deemed very ominous, if one come into a at Christmas-time, make bread in the house, and leave it without participation. form of a boar pig. This they place on However many may call on this day, all niust a table, with bacon and other dishes; partake of the cheer provided. and, as a good omen, they expose it as

Any servant who is supposed to have a due long as the feast continues. They call regard to the interests of the family, and at this kind of bread Julagali," In this of superstition, is careful to go early to the

the same time not emancipated from the yoke word we discover, if we mistake not, the well,'on Christmas norning, to draw water, Geola of our Saxon ancestors, in compo

to draw corn out of the stack, and also to sition with Yule, which does not diminish bring in fjale fruin the kitchen-garden. This the force of our objection already men- is meant to insure prosperity to ine family, fioned. The Roman Saturnalia were ce- A similar superstion is, for the same realebrated in the latter part of the month of son, still observed by many on the morning December. It was also customary with of the new One of a family watches the Romans, at this season, to cover ta- the stroke op twelve, goes to the well, as bles, and set lamps on them. At this quickly as possible, and carefully skims it.

This is callid <r season, the Druids perfomed some of the

getting the scum or team

(creain) of the well." most solemn acts of their worship; such as cutting the misletoe with their golden land, is ovserved on the morning of New

This superstinus rite in the South of Scotbill, &c. Peculiar ceremonies at this time Year's Day. were observed among the Egyptians also.

Twall struck.-Twa neebour hizzies raise ; so that it appears to have been a general

An', liliin, gaed a sat gale ; custom among the heathen to distinguish

The flower o'the well to our house gaes, ihe close of the year, or the beginning of • An' I'll the bonniesi lad gei." the new year, by religious observances : as Jerom says. But this intention could be

Upon the morning of the first day of the

new year, the country lasses are sure to rise true only of those nations which begun

as early as possible, if they have been in bed, their year at the winter solstice ; those which is seldom the case, ihat they may get which begun their year in spring, could the frower, as it is called, or the first pail full bave no'such allusion in December.

of water from the well. The girl who is 50 Jerom on Isaiah Ixv. U. savs, “ There is lucky as to obtain that prize, is supposeti 10 an ancient idolatrous custoni in all cities, and have more than a double chance of gaining especially in Egypt and Alexandria, that on the most accomplished young man in the the last day of the year and of lhe last month, parish. As they go to the well they chaunt they place a table covered with meats of over the words, which are marked with indifferent kinds, and a cup mixed with honev, verted commas." Rev. 1. Nicol's poenis i. 30. espressive of abundance, either of the past, This rite was not unknown to the Romans. or of the future year."

Virgil autribuies it to Æneas. The act of In our own country, there are still several l skimming water with the hand was one of cestiges uf wis idolatry, lu Augus, he, the rites necessary to successful augury.


Et sic a futus ad undan

and a deity presided over thein ; - Dea Processit,sun moque hausit de gurgite lymp!as Strenia. Blut!a Deos orans, oneracitque æthera rotis.

The dissipation of the time will be reaVirg. .£1. ix. 23.

dily inferred from what has been stated. The Goths at Yule time used by turns to During the Saturnalin, public business feast with each other. Those who were re. lated had the closest intercourse. These en

among the Romans was, suspended : and

schools had a vacation. Masters and sertertainmenis they called Offergilden. The kom guild denotes community. It was also

vants were completely on a level. Among customary during yule, particularly in Swe- the Goths disguisings were customary ; den, for ditlereni families in mei together also games of chance, and other anrusein one village, and to bring meat and drink menis. with them, for the celebraciou of the feast, The idea of Yule is operative even in The same custom was observerl, when there Autunn; as our author reports under was a general concourse to the place where the article MAIDEN, which, he observes, is one of their temples stond. This is most probably the origin of the cus

The name given to the last handful of corn tom among us, of friends and relations feast that is cut down by the reapers on any partia

cular farm. ig in each others houses, at this time. The volzar, in the northern countries of Scotland, this handful of corn is dressed up with rib

The reason of this name seems to be, that kase also a custom which greatly resembles the Offergilden. On the morning of the view bons, or strips of silk, in resemblance of a Fear, it is common for neighbours un go into doll. It is generally allixed to the wall, with each other houses, and to club their money

in a farm-house. in order to send out fim drink to welcome in They drave an' shore fu' teugh an' sair ; the rear. This is done in private liouses.

They had a bizzy mornin': The festive observations of this season,

'The Maiden's taen ere Phæbus fair even where there is no idea of sanctity in re- The Loinonds was adornin'. lation to the supposed date of our Saviour's

Douglas's Poems, p. 142. birih, is far more general in the North of

By some, a sort of superstitious idea is atScotlauc, than in other parts of the country. tached to the winning of the maiden. If got There is scarcely a family so poor, as not 10 by a young person it is considered as a happy have a kind of feast on the Yule. Those have omen, that he or she shall be married before butcher meat in their houses on this day, who another harvest. For this reason, perhaps, have it at no other time; it being ihe day as well as because, it is viewed as a sort of appropriated for the mecting of all the relaii.

triumphal badge, there is a strife among the ons of a family. Among the lower classes, it is universally straiagems are employed for this purpose. A

reapers, as to the gaining of it. Värions observed according to the old style. “ Our handiul of corn is of:en left by one, uncut, fathers," say they, “ observed it on this and covered with a little earth; to conceal ic day;" and," they may alter the style, but from the other reapers, till such time as the they cannot alter the seasons."

rest of the field is cut down. The person who is 'The gifts now generally conferred on the most cool generally obtains t!e prize : waiting new year, seem to have originally belonged tili the other competitors have exhibited their to Yule. Among the northern nations, it pretensions, and then calling them back to was customary for subjects to present gists to ihe handful that had been concealed. their sovereign. These were denominated

In the north of Scotland, the maiden is lola giafr, i. e. Yule-gifts. [The sanie ob- carefully preserved till Yule inorning, when it tainel in England to the line of Queen Eli- is divided among the cattle, “ to make them zabeth, who accepted such gifts from her " thrive all the year round." courtiers.] They were benevolences of that To this custom, Buros alludes in his description, which if not given cheerfully, Auld Farmer's New Year Morning Salutathe prince considered himself as having a tion to his Auld Mare Maggie, on giving her right to extort.

the accustoncu ripp of corn to hansel in the The Romans sent presents of sweet

new year meats, dried figs, honey, &c. they were A guid New Year I wish thee! Maggie, called Saturnalitia. Tertullian severely

llae, there's a ripp to thy auld baggie, &c. reprehends the Christians for complying In some places the Maiden is given at with such customs. Under Augustus all this time, to the horse that usually leads orders of the people were expected to the rest in the ploughi team. present new year's gifts, to the Emperor. Dr. J. pursues lois subject, by in.formCaligula demanded his new year's giit by ing us that, an edict. These gifts were called Sorence: Candles of a particular sind are made for this season ; for the candle, that is lighted on cakes: a cake for every person in the huuse. Yule, must be so large as to burn from the If any one of these break in the tvasing, time of its being lighted till the day be done. the person for whom it is baked, will not, it If it did not, the circumstance would be an is supposed see and her bute, omen of ill fortune to the family durian the In the North of Scotland, the men will subsequent year. Hence large candles are not labour on yule day', alledging that by the vulgar called Yule cund'es. Even where lamps are commonly used, the poorest The women have a peculiar aversion to

“ their fathers never wrought on Yule." will not light them at this time. hudbeck informs us, that in the ancient language of spinning on that day, nor will they leave Sweden, sule lins, denotes the crimties of any fax or yarn on their wheels overnight, Yule, or of the Sun, which on the night lest the Devil should reel it for then bepreceding the festival of tube, illuminated fore morning. In York-hire, and other the houses of private persons throughout the northern parts, they have an old custom whole kingdom.

afier sermon or service on Christmas day, · The Romans in their Saturnalia, sed the people will, even in the churches, cry lights in the worship of their deity., The Ulei Ule! as a token of rejoicing; and poor were wont to present the rich wilh wax tapers. Yule candles are, in the North of the common sort run about the street singScotland, given as a present at this season by ing. Ule, Ule, Ule, Vie. merchants to their stated customers.

Yule was also introduced with peculiar By many who rigidly observe the supersti- solemnity. The evening before it was, by tions of the season, the Yule candle is allowed the northern nations, called Macdre-nect : to burn out of itself. By others, when the the Mother Night, that u hieh produced all day is at a close, the portentous candle is ex- the rest : and this epocha was rendered re-, tinguished, and carefully locked up in a chest. markable, as they dated from the ce the There it is kept, in order to be burnt out at beginning of the year, which they comthe owners Lute-uuhe.

puted from one winter solstice to another, I may observe by the way, that the preservation of candles has been viewed by the

as they did the month from one new-moon superstitious as a matter of great importance. to another. Wormius says, this was This notion seems to have been preity

also a custom of the Icelanders. They generally diffused. An Icelandic writer in- even reckoned a person's age by the num. forms is,' that a spa.kona a spae-wife, ber of Yules he had seen; and a child or sybil, who thought herself neglected, born a single day before Yule, is reckoned in comparison of her sisterhood, some 'unballowed riies observed for for- of ibe same obtains in Scotland, also;

one year old after it is passed. Something telling the fire of a child, cried out: “ Truly, I add 10 these predictions, that the,

and the same principle has been adopted child shall live no longer than those candles

to explain the two year old infants of

Bethlehem. which are lighted beside him, are burni out." Then the chief of the sybils imniediately ex

To heze observances, many others, extinguished one of the candles, and gave it to tant in England, might be added, to shew. the mother of the child to be carefully pre- the importance attached to this season.. served, and not to be lighted while the child The custom of decorating our churches, was in life.

with evergreens, of sticking in the win. This will remind the classical reader of dows, over the chimnies, &c. branches the brand, on the burning of which de- and sprigs of holly, &c. together with pended the life of Meleager: as the lights that unhallowed rite which excites puriwill remind him of those used in the feasts tanic ire, (envy, rather, say sly pracof Adonis,

tioners) the kissing of the lasses under the Dr. J. bas omitted to mention the Yule misletoe bianch. log, which is an immense block, in many

We presume that these extracts justifyparts of England reserved for making up our observation that Christmas is a deep a blazing fire. The absence of a log of theme for a learned wight to investigate :) wood is supplied in oil or places by a coal and we take our leave of the subjeci, and of extraordinary dimensions.

of Dr. Jamieson's work, by acknowledge, Other customs are also, observed at Yule ing the satisfaction with which we baved ticie. In the morning one rises before the rest perused a great number of articles in it; of the family and prepares food for them, aod by expressing our confidence that these which mist be eaten in bed. This frequen uly public will not fail to estimate bis laboura, consists of cakes baken with eggs, called Care very highly.


the purpose of saving time, and thereby

assisting the introduction of a greater The Doctrine of the Greek Article ; applied variety of matter into discourse. But

to the Criticisins and the Illustration of the articles do not abbreviate nouns, they New Testament. By T.F.Middleton, A.M. seem rather to abbreviate circumstances, Rector of Tansor in Northamptonshire, or to hint at them, by. concise and apt and of Bytham in Lincolnshire. pp. 724. allusion. Even the cockneyisms of this Price 14s. bds. Cadell and Davies, London, here" and" that there are abbreviations of 1808.

this, which is distinguished by the cir

cumstance of lying here; and thur, Mr. Horne Tooke's idea of “ winged which is distinguished by the circumstance. words was a happy conception : the of lying there." To speak of a circuniexpression, indeed, is borrowed from stance without a subject, would be a serie Homer, but the application of it is his own. ous defect in language; to describe every When Time was young, and subjects of circunstance at length, would be a seridiscourse were few, each might be descria, ous inconvenience. If rapidity and sucbed at length, and the speaker might cinctness were indulged till they gene! bestow all his tediousness upon it, rated confusion, language must suffer, without any perceptible disadvantage. and knowledge with it. Brevity and dis. But when the articles with which men crimination are the wings of language. were conversant, were multiplied, their Brevity alone would become unintelligible: descriptions respectively, must suffer ab- discrimination alone would be tiresome. breviation, and the number of subjects to These appear to be general principles. be described, demanded that fewer words Those languages that have no article, are should represent each, in order to include defective in perspicuity; often too in the whole. For time was no: lengthened, force, and application. But it must not because things were multiplied; words be supposed that the article is without its therefore, the representations of things, rules in those whic! possess it, and what must be shortened, or some things must were the rules of the Greek language in be denied their due mention in the dis- reference to the article, which maintains course intended. Hence the shorter terms an important place in it, is the purport in language. Like the pins of a tabernacle, of Dr. Middleton's inquiry, in the volume they combine the whole structure, though before us. seldom discerned, and to these the master A few years ago Mr. Granville Sharp workman pays peculiar attention, how- published observations on the use of the ever the unskilful and unwise may neg- article, as employed by the writers of lect them.

the New Testament ; this we examined In the present age of the world, we with mingled satisfaction and hesita. cannot enter into long descriptions in or- tion. Mr. Wordsworth followed, in. der to convey information that we have support of the same principles, and we sean—a certain quadruped, leaping and attentively perused Mr. Wordsworth, who frisking about with long mane and tail, had amassed a collection of instances à borse ;- but the term " horse" expresses from the Christian Fathers, with exenour meaning at once to whoever knows plary patience, diligence, and learning. the animal: nor need we embellish our | A Mr. Blunt, on the opposite side of the description of a bull, by imitative lowing, question, we acknowledge we did not and butting with our heads, as Omiah read seriously; as that writer did not afdid, when recently arrived from Otaheite, fect the character of a serious philologist. where bulls were unknown. The word Something, however, was yet wanting, "bull" in our language excites the idea for though it was evident, that the usage of the animal with sufficient distinctness. was so and so, yet the reason why it : Pronouns, in 'ke manner, are repre- was so, did not sufficiently appear. Dr. sentatives of na '; and, ever retaining M. has supplied this deficiency: and we the purposes of ged words, they are consider his labours as of great importshorter and capab. of more rapid pronun ance, not merely in New Testament ciation than nouns in general. Articles, criticism, but in the study of philology too, may be considered as abbreviated re- at large. His work is divided into two presentatives, abstrac. or epitomes, for ! Parts: the first treats of the nature, power, Vol. V. (Lit. Pan. Dec. 1808.]


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