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island into a frightful desert. On the same day, (the 4th of May) we returned to Fayal, and on the 5th and succeeding days,

CHARACTER OF NAPOLEON BUONAPARTE, from twelve to fifteen sa:all volcanos broke

BY JUDGE HARDINGE. out in the fields we had traversed on the 3d, from the cbasms before described, and ihrew Tu learned judge in expressing to the out, a quantity of lava, which travelled on grand jury of Brecon, at the late assizes, his slowly towards Vellas, The fire of those hope, that they would address his Majesty on small craters subsided, and the lava ceased run. his magnanimous conduct towards Spaid, thus ning about the 11th of May; on which day

the large volcano, that had lain dorniant for truly spoke of the tyranț of the Continent : nine days, burst forth again like a roaring " A tyrant, whom nothing but the sword lion, with horrid belchings, distinctly heard

can meci-who violates every engagementat twelve leagues distance, throwing up pro betrays erery confidence has poliuted every digious farge stones, and an immense quantithing he has touched and is in a human

ty of dava, iluminating at night the whole shape, the pėstilence not only of the legiti. force, until the 5th of June, exhibiting the He has been compared, by depraved or timid awfulyet magnificent spectacle of a perfect river of fire, (distincıly seen from Kayal, sycopliants, to Alexander and Cx ar. The com

pliment is basely false ; those criminal heroes, running into the sea. On that day, (the 5th)

in their frenzy os ambition, had lucid inler. we experienced that its force began to fail, vals of clemency, of graceful conduct, and of

and, in a few days after, it ceased entirely. social viriye :--nothing of the kind has ever -The distance of the crater from the sea

about four miles, and its elevation about 3,500 yet escaped from him. --Viş resemblance to feet.

our usurper, Cromwell, is a little more close;

but he was an observer of treaties, and kept The lava inundated and swept away, the his enemies at bay by his arnisnot by the • z town of Ursulina, its plantations, country, terror of his friendship, (the worst of all this dwuses and cottages adjacent, as well as tyrant's enmities). - Amongst his accuinothe farm houses, throughout its course. lit

, lated perfidics, let me offer io your notice (in 2.1999 46ual, gave timely notice of its approach, a bird's-eye view) his conduct in Spain : Sand inost of the inhabitants fled; some few,

however, remained in the vicinity of it too • Shew me his picture ! let me see his eyes ! é dong, endeavouring to save their furniture * That wlien I note another man like hiit,

and effects, and were scalded by flashes, of " I may avoid him.". fleam, which, without injuring their clothes, took off not only their skin but their flesh. He was the ally of Spain--he was debtor to

Abgut, sixty persons were thus miserably, that power for important services--he obsiy scalded, some of whom died on the spot, or tained its confidence the disunited the King

in a few days after. Numbers of catile shared from the Heir-Apparent, his own son-he the same fate. The Judge and principal in- made that son his hero-he fomented this

halritants left the island very early. The family discord into a civil war--he then took de consternation and anxiety, were for some days upon hiinself the office of a mediator, with

so great among the people, that even their an army at his heels-erected an intermediate doinestic concerns, were abandoned, and, government in a subordinate Janissary's hand, amidst plenty they were in danger of starving and poored his French troops into the capiSapplies of ready. baked brearl were sent froin tal of the empire. He took the King, the hence to their relief, and large boats were

Heir-Apparent, the Queen of Spain, with dispatched to bring away the inhabitants, who him; he bound thein hand and foot he vi had lost their dwellings. In short, the island, made the King and his Heir successively-ab.

heretofore rich jd caule, corn, and wine, is dicate their crown, when they were as free as o's nearly ruined, and a scene of greater desola- the felon who is confined in your gaol he

dion and distress has seldoin been witnessed in made-(oh, ulamy of horror!) this queen bas. * any country.

tardize her own legitimate son, and brand We recommend a pericular inquiry quoted these very infamies against them in

herself as a degraded prostitute !!!He then into the above event to our countrymen; and Spain, as proving them unworthy to return, shall be happy to communicate any authentic and base to their country. Opposed in the e observations made upon it. Inquiries of this detestable perfidies, he murdered thousands of kind are not only interesting to natyral phi- Spaniards in cold blood, and at last insulted losophers, bar io navigators also. Mmutes brother's electior., by him, to the racant

that high-spirited nation with his infanous made describing them, should note the hour tirone! It is this man we are to fight; our of the day, state of the weather, and other deliverance and that of Europe arc combined pecial circumstances.

we are to fight biin locally in Spain."

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lated his personal appearance a somewhat to REYOLUTION AND RESOLUTION AT closely io certain of the soi-disant religious or

ders of Popery, we inean particularly that Or, The fickle Goddess fixed as Fute.

of the brotherhood of Elias, alias the barefacts In Panorama, Vol. IV. p. 1038, may be ed Carmelites !' as report affirms, that he has een some account of the most venerable the for sonetime pası been observed to approach High Priest of this village sacred to Hymen.

the threshold of the sacred fane with scarcely Late advices from the nee acquaint us that the shoe or sole. That he adopted the true same revolutionary spirit, which overturns

Highland custom of great empires, has transposed the scene of hyme the article of breeches we knew ; but that he neal union from Greina Green to the adjoin. should now, after the surprizing and proing hamlet of Springfield, lately built by digious run of luck he has had for so many Sir J. Maxwell.' It seems that the present years, from true protestant costomers, who lan Jlady of the chief ion, called Greina Hall, sought his aid against sundry human weak(the ancient temple sacred to the rites and in. nesses and frailties, incline to such conformity stitutions of the hand-uniting deity; and

to any of the superstitions of the where the same leamed practitioner has ac- of Babylon, we must acknowledge, fills us goitted himself to the delight of all comers,

with alternately prevalent grief and astonishfor more than half a century,) has taken some

ment, each of them far, rery farm-"too'big objection, (but of what nature, it's past tore for uiteraace." Let this failing of so great a wit of man to devise,) against the long-esta- character be recorded among the marvels of blished ceremonies which have rendered

our times, and stand as a warning, to all zeaGretna fainous. She has therefore issued a

lous Protestants, however invincible they may prohibitory, order, which has of late been suppose their principles to be, lest they most rigidly enforced : “ That no young

also swetve from the steadiness of their protravelling couples, driving up the avenue in infession, and lest Tendimus in Latium be moderate nasie, should be received under her written on them. roof.”—The consequence has been, that the We are not, however, altogether without whole conjugal run of business from the hope, that the molives of this exemplary chaEnglish road has been to Springfield, where racter may in this instance have been inis. two (miserable, say some) public houses, the understood, as we know there are those who King's Head, and the Maxwell Arms, hold have misunderstood the orthography he thinks out their opposition signals of reception : to proper to adopt, and have criticised it unier. these the post boys of the Bush Inn, and the cifully, without having the sense to perceive Coffee-house at Carlisle, drive, in support of that it is a New System of Writing ihe" adresse interests. Centrically opposite to both English Language, which Mr. Paisley has dwells Joseph Paisley, the well-known Priest long been intent on introducing, for the of Hymnen, employing his time and talents improvement of this degenerate generation. in the mysteries of his sacred profession A Aristotle himself, as well as Mr. Paisley, has man named David Loug presumptuously set been subject to the misfortune of being male' up against him, professionally, a short time treated by ignorant commentators," although since, in hope of sharing in the emoluments They indeed assumed all the airs of deeply. of this ritual; but this David Long though practised Grecians :' but we would have these he vapours as if he were somebody, and af- wonderous Hellenists to know if they beeapafeccs to prefix at full length the imposing title ble of so much knowledge that their Creek Raerend to his name, yet has not been able will not avail them in parsing Mr: Peisiey's to supersede the authorities and to nullify the sentences : and as to what 'they affect to call adrántages, which a long continuance of pos- erudition-whe bids it defiance. That-his session confers on the hitherto inmortal Jo- system, when perfecud, will have its beauseph. Fortune, notwithstanding all her ca. ties, is abundantly manifest from a short prices, and blind though she be, as some as- specimen, that we shall subjoin, in the form sert who have seen her, yet is not so neglect- of a certificate, which form, as our readers fal of former favonrites as to withdraw her bave been heretofore instructed, is not a boanties from one who has been indescri- studied composition, but wholly immediate bably serviceable to greater numbers of her 1-off hand, or, as the learned saiy-prorénale. votaries than any other minister in the British “ This to satifay all persons who may be Isles Fortnge therefore reserves all ladies of concerned, that one from the parish of fortune for Father Paisley; and if Davidsmand, from the parish of in. Enga Long does now and then clumsily rivet the in, land, and both comes before iné declayred dissoloble chain, it is only on such applicants theinselves to be single persons, and nere25 Fortune does not acknowledge. We refer to by now married by the forme of the Kirk cur former article for a description of the of Scotland and agreible to the Church of habits, abilities, and qualifications, of the ve- England; and therefore givine under my perable, useful, and worthy Father Paisley : hande vhis 23d day of June, 1808. but are sorry to learn that he has lately assimi F 2






know that we might enumerate many substances which, alone, are harmless, bul, being brought into actual contact with others,

and so remaining for any length of time, are [Abstracted from a Paper on Maddering capable of bursting out into Aames. Those

Cotton Thread, and Dyeing the Adrian- who are not in the habits of such inquiries, ople Red, by J. M, llaussman. Annales we would merely remind of what they hear de Chimie. Vol. XLVIII. p. 233.]

or sce, alınost every summer, in the instances

of hay stacked in great quantities while too The recent calamity at Covent Garden green. This, in small parcels, would be Theatre, has led to various conjectures as to safe; but in masses sufficiently large to deny its cause. Whether it was occasioned by care- access of external air, is dangerous, and not lessness in carrying about candles, or in leav- seldom destructive. The frequent instances of ing them burning, by forgetfulness, which are cotton mills being burnt, without any extoo commonly the origin of such misfortunes, plicable cause, have led us to guess, that, they or whether by accidental communication with may, in some instances at least, have been some Aying spark, has engaged much in- fired from spontaneous ignition : and we take quiry. We have hinted at the possibility of this opportunity of inserting a history of another cause, supposing it to have begun in ch effects, and of experiments made to the Mechanisi's work-room, and as very few illustrate them. This may shew the necessity persons are aware of the great number of ar- for more caution than has hitherto been used, ticles that, in certain states, or in combina- in a great number of processes, connected tion, or connection with others, are capable with our manufactures. We shall be happy of spontaneous ignition, and as this subject to think, that our article may in any instance is of great practical importance, we take prove preventive of such a dreadful calainity the present opportunity of introducing it, and as a conflagration ; which is never wore derecommending it to special attention. structive than when it originates in cauzes not

It is well known that certain experiments suspected, and in places deemed perfectly seon this subject have long been exhibited cure. among philosophical amusements : The “ In order to see whether red (dyed, cotton, kpeading of iron filings with water, will which was not sufficiently fixed, might be ren. produce considerable leat, in a short time, dered so by impregnating it with a mixture of and under favourable circumstances, the ex. an alkaline solution of alumine and boiled linplosion, which is a sort of volcano in minja- seed oil, containing an excess of the oil, dry. iure, will follow in a few hours. There are ing it, and then boiling it a rery long while liquids, which, by commixture, burst in- in bran water, I mixed the alkaline solution stantly into Aame, and we have seen lurpen- of alumine in the proportion of an eighth, a tine varnish yield dangerous fuines on the ac- twelfth, and a sixteenth of boiled linseed oil. cession of nitric acid: the more dangerous be- With this mixture I impregnated a few hanks cause highly volatile.

of dyed cotton, which, after being left to Soine years ago, rerv mischievous tricks dry a whole summer's day in the open air, were played in the public streets, by boys, were laid on a rusb-bottomed chair, that who dropped liquids on the collon garments of stood in the window of my closet. Finding women, by which they were speedily set in a myself indisposed that day. I went to bed at blaze. We recollect to have read of a frigate seven o'clock. My children went into my burnt at Petersburgh, by the unusually heat- closet for some papers, an hour after I had ed rays of the sun falling on the mast: the left it, and perceived no heat or smell in the composition which the mast was payed with cotion, to indicate a commencement of burn. took' fire : 'and this spread to the vessel. The ing. All the workmen had gone to bed, and cause being deemed worthy of inquiry, various were fast asleep, when one of the watchnien experiments were instituted by order of the of the bleaching ground, seeing a great light Czarina then reigning to prove the fact. in my closet, gave the alarm of fire, and

In Panorama, Vol. III. p. 385, accounts roused us all between iwelve and one o'clock. from Petersburgh state, that mats which had My sons, knowing that I was not able to get been oiled, took fire: from the great intensity out of bed, and unwilling to lose time in of the sun's beams : and in p. 165 of the searching for the key, broke open the door of present volume may be seen an instance the closet, which was in a detached, uninwhich appears to be of a siunilar kind, in the habited building. They went in, notwithentire destruction of the theatre at Konigs standing the thick smoke and insupportable burgh.

smell of the oily combustion ; and found the On this subject too particular details are not chair with the cotton burning so furiously, without danger of being misapplied by the that the flames rose to the ceiling, and had malicious, and more frequently still. by the alrearly cracked the glass, and set fire to the wanton and inconsiderate. Practical chemists windows-frame. They at once presubred,

that this commencement of a fire could pro- , and iron filings koeaded with water. 2. That crat only from the spontaneous inflammation of boiled linseed oil by highly concentrated of the cotton impregnated with boiled oil, nitric acid. 3. That of phosphorus by alsince no one ever went into the closet with a mospheric air, as well as in pure oxigen gas, lighted pipe, or any thing else burning.

placed for this purpose on a china saucer over "As I found, that several persons belonging boiling water, in order to separate its particles to the manufactory did not credit this explana- by fusion without having recourse to rubbing tion, I again impregnated a few dozen hanks it. 4. That of phosphurated hydrogen gas of some old coion, that had not been well by the contact of the atmosphere, an imitadyed, in the same manner as I had done the tion of the Jack-with-a-lantern.

5. The coiton that was burned. These I set to dry combustion of pyrophorus, thrown into the in a similar manner in the open air; and as open air, and into pure oxigen gas. 6. The it threatened to raio, ordered ihem to be hung reduction of roasted bran, put hot into a upon a line under a penthouse, directing one coarse bag, to an ignited coally mass by the of the watch nien to look at it every quarter of action of the atmospheric air. an bour during the night, and throw it into “I was not ignorant, that essential or volaa bucket of water, as soon as he perceived it lile oils become resinous, and that drying oils begin to heal. But this man could not be boiled with metallic oxides grow thick and lieve the possibility of the cotton's taking fire even hard by their coinbination with oxigen ; of itself, as he afterward confessed 10 me, and this was the reason why my hanks of and walked through the manufactory without cotton, impregnated with a mixture of boiled once looking at the penthouse. At length linseed oil, were exposed a whole day to the however he returned to lie down, and found air, hung separately on poles : but I supposed by the great light he saw, that what I had they were then saturated with oxigen, and foretold, in case he was negligent, had taken consequently incapable of occasioning the płace. Finding the cotton as well as the least accident. I felt myself so secure in this line was burned, he took the bucket of water respect, that I have several times dried 4. to extiuguish the posts, which were already great deal of oiled cotton in hot rooins; and on fre.

it was owing to chance alone, that it was “ Thoagh these two accidents did not at all

never put together, till the moment when it surprise me, I could the less forgive myself was washed in order to be dyed. for the first, as, in order to prevent similar I must not omit to observe likewise, that, accidents, I had made some experiments on among the cotton I had burned, there was. spontaneous combustions at a public-house some both times, that had been impregnated ffieen years before. On that occasion I had with the mixture of weak lixivium of carbospoken of the probability of fires being occa- nate of soda and boiled linseed oil in the prosioned by heated substances, or substances that portion of an eighth, a twelfth, and a sixhave a tendency to heat, and which are thought ieenth part. It remains to be proved, whelessly put in places capable of being set on ther this cotton will take fire sooner than that fire. The substances I'mentioned to those of which is impregnated with a mixture of the the company, who were not sufficiently ac- alkaline solution of alumine and boiled line qainted with the phenomena of spontaneous seed oil in the same proportions." combustion, were roasted coffee and choco. lage nuts; fermented plants; ointments made with metallic oxides par hot into wooden bar

JEWISH NAUTICAL FORTITUDE, rels; bales of raw cotton, as well as woollen yern or cloth packed up warm, and even linen

[Communicated by one of the Parties.] sken ironed, and put away in drawers while About the year 1796, two or three Jews kat; and lasily substances of every kind im- came over froin Poland, for the purposes of pregnated with boiling oil, as silk or cofton. trade, of which second-hand clothing formed I showed them besides, that in all circuin a considerable part. After having made kances where the oxigen of the atmosphere is their parchases, they shipped them on board tapidiy altracted and absorbed by any cause, a Prussian vessel, bound from London to the caloric or heat, which serves as a base to Dantzick, and accompanied them for their the oxigen, and gives it the properties of a better security. At the distance of thirty or , is given out in such abundance, that, if forty leagues from the English coast, in a Le absorbing substance be capable of taking dark night, the vessel was ran on board of by fre, or surrounded by inflanımable matters, a large ship, the shock of which was so fontaneous combustion will take place. violent, that the terriñed captain and crew

." To confirin what I had said of the theory sought their safety by leaping on board the di taese sorts of combustions to those present, larger vessel, expecting their own to go down, who were not familiar with chemical opera- leaving the Jews the only persons on board, wons. I performed the following experiments. The latter recovering in some degree froin 1. The iofilamınation of a mixture of sulphur the consternation into which they were thrown



on discoveing themselves abandoned by the intention of a noble Lord (which I named crew, totaliy ignorant of navigation, and ex- in a former leuer), or of preventing any furposed to the mercy of the winds and wares, the loss of time to the public, and those mistill had the satisfaction of finding that the serable sufferers whose cause we wish to ship was tight. A consultation was there. espouse. Daily instances evince that no time upon held, in which the most experienced of should be losi, or can be with impunity, then suggested, that he had observed the after so much has been. To continue it is point of the compass, and their course, on criminal, and inay well deprive us of that leaving the coast of Yarmouth, that if they share of mercy, we shall all of us so much could by any means put the ship about, and want for ourselves. • Someinng may be endeavour to retrace their course, that they done," as Dr. Paley says (in his posthumnous should inevitably fall in again with the serinons), “ by a ts of tenderness and kind. English coast. In this they succeeded ; ness, of help and compassion. Not a partiand, by the help of pilots, were brought in cle of this will be lost. It is all set down in safety into the port of Yarmouth. l'here the book of life, and happy are THEY, who they were, to their great surprise, met by the have much there!"_Yours obezienity, original captain and crew, who gladly came

A CoystinT READER. ou board, and resumed the direction of the New Kent Road, Scpt. 1808. vessel. These circumstances produced a considerable charge on the cargo, in which many persons were interested ; and of which the Jews inust have borne a considerable share

DIES OF THE PRESENT DAI COMPARED. They, however, thought it bard, to suffer

To the Editor of the Literary Punoruma. jo this way, after having been the means of Certainly, Mr. Editor, I shall 101 underpreserving both ship and cargo, to the advan- take to defend in the LITERARY PANORAMA, tage of all concerned. But the captain was any approach. 1o. levity of manners, or to deaf to all accommodation, and refused them looseness of personal appearance, yet being any reinvn ration for their trouble, and risk. able to recollect the time when the fashions The well known characters of Messrs. were less anałogous to the intentions of nafure Benjamin * and Abraham Goldsmid, in in the formation of the human figure, than duced the Jews to lay this peculiar case they are ai prestat, I cannot but compare the before them : and it appearing to these gentle. then prevalent modes with those which I now men, that there were sufficient grounds to sce, to the advantage of the latter. The claim a salvage of the ship and cargo, they ladies have lately, if I may give my opinion, resolved to defend and support the cause of approached much nearer to ihe character of their stranger brethren. A long and expen- the Graces, in their flowing draperies, than sive process in the Admiralty Court was how. those who wore the stiff hoop, or the bustling ever prevented ; and by the inediation of some straw petticoat. I beg leave, Sir, to vindicale inercanule frieuds with Messrs Goldsmid, it this opinion from iinpropriety, by recalling was agreed, that the sum of £300 skould be to the minds of your readers, thai originally allowed to these poor ineii, which they'ri. the Graces of antiquity were clothed in light ceived with thankfulness, and their generous dresses, and that the custom of representing friends .experienced that pleasure, which theni unclothier is an inpovation, and a deparJoust ever be felt by those whose benevolent | ture from the true character of those goddes • exertipps are attended with equal saccess. ses, as well as from good taste, and propriety,

We learn from Pausanias, that anciently ANIMALS' FRIEND.

the Graces were represented drest. But he

adds, that he was not able to discover the To the Editor of the Literary Panorama.

reason or the tiine of their being pictured SIR; I should be very imuch obliged, by naked. This he says in his Beotica. your having the goodness to say in your next A monument of antique painting confirms inmber, ibat if those philanthropic gen- the custom, of dressing the Graces. The sub; tteiner, wlio have noticed the Animals" ject is a dance of those iliree goddesses.

Friend Society, and wish for its establish. One of them holds a 'rose; the second a ment, would ihink proper to hold a meeting die ; the third weaves a slender iwig of 'tyr

OXY she subject, I should most readily and tle : whoever attends will easily conceive the eren'thankfully meet them. You know my reason. The rose and myrtle are

address and can reccive theirs.' This would craied to Venus, they are emblems of the at least evince a readiness to begin so desirable delicate bloom of beauty. The Graces, it an attain ment: 'and the mid effect would is well known, are preculiarly : assigned to be secured of at least dither meeting the Venus. The die is a symbol of the sports of

boys and maids ; : 10 denotesbat levity, which • For the memoirs of this gentlemaq, see siis ill upon more advanced agė," but is becom. Panorami, Vol. III,

ing to youth.


p. 1073.

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