« ZurückWeiter »
periods; and with specimens which one of us, pass placed in this hole is instantly, disturbed, has inspected, of stones that have fallen in In: and in a short tiine veers about íg be eastdia, France, and Seotland. The chemnical vard, till at last the north point senties jself: analysis also proves that their composition is in a due southerly direction, and rerains the same; and it is well known to mineralo- there. At a very little distance from this gists and chemists that no such stones have hole, perhaps on the very edge of it, the been found among the productions of this needle recovers its usual position. globe.
This singular circumstance was known The falling of stones from the clouds is an when Martin wrote his account of the islands erent which has frequently bappened in Eu- and is taken notice of by him. He indeed rope, in Asia, and in South America. The which is also curious. What increases the
says the compass 'then setuled at due east, accounts of such phenomena were, for a long singulariw of this alteration in the needle time, rejected by philosophers
, as the offspring is a discovery lately made by Hector M.Neil, of ignorance and superstition. Sereral facts Esq. lacksman of ihe island. He mentioned of this kind, however, within a few years, the circumstances to us, and Lord Bredalbane, have been proved by evidence so unexception Sir Adain Fergusson, Mr. Isaac Hawkins able, as to overcome the most obstinate incre- Browne, and the rest of the company, went dulity. It is now admitted not only that such
to examine the fact. The harbour on the phenomena have existed in modern times, norih side is formed by a bold rock of basalt, but that the accounts of similar events in for, which may be about a half a mile below, , mer ages are in a high degree probable. Within tifieen years past the falling of si- of which this rock is a continuation. We
and to the southward of the Compass Hill, milar bodies, under similar circumstances, rowed uuder this rock, and when the boat has happened in Portugal, Bohemia, France, reached its centre, immediately under the Great Britain, India, and South America. To account for the existence of these stones, of our compass veered about, and seuiled at
rock, and almost touching it, the north point various theories have been formed by philoso- due south, and remained there : this experie phers. Some have supposed them to be on
ment was frequently repeated with the same ly common stones struck with lightning and success; but this effect was confined also to paruy melted. But this theory has now no
small part of the rock, which seemed adrocate. A less fanciful lıypothesis is, that they are masses of matter thrown from volca- Hill. At a little distance, on either side
to us directly south from the hole on Compass Boes. But to this there are serious objections, the needle recovered its usual position. His No such bodies are found near the craters of lordship then directed the boat 10 row with Folcanoes, or are known to be projected from great quickness past the rock, when, upon them. And in many instances these bodies have fallen several hundred and eveu several affected the needle, it was again affected
our crossing the place which had before thousand iniles from any known volcano. during the Some philosophers have supposed that these recovered soon after passing this point. We
passage, though very quick, and slopes are thrown from terrestrial coineis,
could hardly venture 10 assign any cause for Not to mention any other objection to this these appearances, but by supposing some hypothesis, it will by no means account for thing magnetical in the rock, extending the such a phenoinenon as appeared at Sienna in whole distance from the Compass Hill to the 1794, when stones descended, not from a headland at the mouth of the barbour. If moving meteor, but from a luminous cloud. this should prove to be the case, we had.no Other philosophers, ascribing to these stones scruple in pronouncing this to be the largest. an origin still more extraordinary, suppose loadstone as yet discovered in the world. 1. Ar iber to be projected from the moon.
part of the rock was broken off at the very The subject must be acknowledged to be spot where this affection of the needle was: involved in much obscurity, and the pheno- observed, and was applied to the compass menon, till we are possessed of more facts when reinoved from the rock, but it seemed and better observations, iniust be considerei", to produce no effect upon the needle whatas inexplicable.
soever ; also, the compass was carried about
the length of the boat from the rock, and its ACCOUNT OF THE MAGNETIC MOUNTAIN
was also placed in the same line on the opers OF CAXNAY: BY GEORGE'DEMPSTER, OF posite side of the harbour, at about a quara
ier of a mile's distance, neither of these ex• DENNICHEN, ESQ.
perimento produced any effect on the needle Cannay is an island of sen or twelve miles |" In this island there are many colunnar in circumference, with an excellent harbour. appearances, not unlike to Staffa ; aud In it is, a hill of some highe, called the several, buth straight and bent, and every Compass Hill, in which there is a liutlehole way as regular, which seems also to have... dog about a foot or two, in depila. A, com like Siatla, escaped observation till very lately
of honour. They bave funthes mentioned in SPECIMENS OF DUTCH INDUSTRY. an honourable and distinguished manner, Ex!ract of a Report Jipon the Minister for llelmont, for having sent patterns of silk-veto
Prinsen. Romaer Vander Lon, and Co. of the Interior to the king of Hollend, dated vet-ribbon, made in their manufactory, Utrecht, June 28, 1808, after a public Er-, hibition of sundry Specimeas of National to have been considerably extended; and like
which, although recently established, appears Industry, produced in Ilolland.
wise of J. C. Wiedebosch, of Auisterdam, [Resnined from p. 1170, Vol. IV.]
for having sent in an assortment of silk stock. CARPETING AND FLOOR-CLOTH.
ings of a very good quality: it is, however, The quality of the foor-cloth, manufac- particularly recommended that the said mayutured in this country, has, for some years, been facturers would use their utmost endeavours considerably improved; and the Dorch carpet to equal the fineness of similar articles promanufactories, ` alıhough botally different duced abroad. from those in other countries, and not yet arrived at that state which might bear to be
HEMP, FAX, CORDAGE, AND THREAD, compared with them, deserve, however, in The cord and rope manufactories are of a getres, to be distinctly noticed. The com- different nature, they not being obliged to missioners, at the same time as they have ex- draw their original materials entirely from pressed their approbation of the different foreign countries. The importance and exqualities and patterns sent to them, distin- cellence of those manufactories, already estaguish with particular satisfaction the manu- blished in this country, for so many years, is factory of P. Haan, at Hilversain, which, / sufficiently acknowledged, and it is vith peaccording to the pieces manufactured there, cular satisfaction that ihe commissioners have and sent to the exhibition, has not only main observed from the excellent workmanship and tained its reputation, but has also undergone moderate prices of the different sorts of corconsiderable improvements ; and the com- dage sent in by C. J. Moleman Van Brienca, missioners have on that account, and as a of Gouda, that the cord manufactories of this farther encouragement, awarded to the said counity have by no means lost their ancient inanulacturer the silver prize of honour. celebrity, and that nothing but peace and HATS.
commerce is required to raise them to their P. M. Smelders, of the house of E. 1. former state of prosperity. Among the corVander Hout and Son, of Geertereiedenberg, dage sent in by the above-mentioned manuhaving sent in some very good specimens of factory, the log-lines deserve particular notice, hats, at moderate prices, the commissioners as having been brought to such a stale of per: have awarded to him the silver prize of honour. fection, that they equal in every respect those The commissioners have likewise thought of other countries. "To this maker the comproper to tention in an honourable and dismissioners have awarded the silver prize of inguished maonet, J. Erork Aarts and Co. honour. The utility of the fax manufacof Amersfoort, who have also forwarded tories is also generally known: the original various samples of háts to the exhibition, and materials used therein are likewise the prowhose wanufactory, though only establisired duce of our own soil. The samples of Dutch in February, 1807, bids very tair for success. fax sent to the exhibition by W. Vollen
WROUGHT SILKS AND VELVET. hoven anil Son, of Rotterdam, having, on The original materials used in the silk and account of their exrellent dressing, altracted velvet manufactories, being entirely the pro- particular notice, the commissioners have duce of other countries, the wrought silks and awarded to them the silver prize of honour. Velvet sent to the exhibition have therefore The thread-manufactories also properly bejustly excited the admiration of the spectators. I long to this country; Dutch thread being The extension of this branch of national in every where ackuowledged to excel that made dustry is of the 'uimest importance to the in other countries. F. W. Louteripans, of manufactories established in this country; as Bois-le-Duc, has sent a considerable number it is no longer doubtful but the above-mention of samples of variously assorted thread. The ed articles may be manufactured in this king- excelence of the different articles inade in doin of as good a quality as those of any other this manufactory, as well the vast extent of part of the world. J. La Coste, Widow P. the manufactory itself, which gives ernployVan Walrée, and Co. and D. Van Lennep ment to more than two thousand persons, Coster, of Amsterdarn, haring sent in some having attracted the notice of the commise beautiful pieces of wroughit silk ard velvet. sioners, they have conferred upon the said made in their manufactories, which, as well master the silver prize of honour. The in quality and riehuess of colours as in mo. commissioners have, however, at the some deration of price, may vie with foreign pro- | time, expressed their regret that no other duciions, the commissioners have awarded thread manufacturers have thought proper to sp eacà af uliose - manufaeturers a silver prize' send their productions to this exhibition.
LEREK CLOTE, TABLE LINES, AND-DIMITY.
PPAPER. Dutch table and other linan, has been
The Dutch paper manufactories have been "nobod für á length of time and articles of brought to such a state of perfection, that this description, inade in this countries are
different sorts of paper made in this country eagerly sought after by the greatest part
of may justly yie with that manufactuted'abrpad. Europe. Their reputation is so well esia
But, notwithstanding the great number of blished, and the number of manufactories paper manufactories in this kingdom, very where those articles are made, is still so con- !ew of shem, have sent specimens of their siderable, that the commissioners have been industry. The samples sept by the following extemely surprised at ihe small
number who manufacturers are in the meanime suflicient have sent specimens of their Jabours to this proofs that the paper made in this country exhibition. The commissioners base there.
still deserves to be reckoned among the begt frire been obliged to content themselves with that is fabricated anywhere and as these mentioning in an honourable and distinguish- samples, are very good of their sort, the
commissioners have mentioned each of these ed manner, the following nanufacturers, in expectation that at a future exhibition others manufacturers in an honourable and distin. dlay be ,
guished manner, viz. Sankool of Zxandrk, . thereby co-operate in accomplishing the for samples of atlas and toval drawing pak grand and salutary object of this institunion : per, and some post and writing paper Fiz. B. Bruits and Son, of Hengelo, particu! Fecielleteau De Bruin and Co. of Boxel and larly an acepust of tbeir linen cloth; Widow, J. Noning and Son of Zaandyk, who have
sent to the exhibition various kinds of vellum F. Bagairs and Son, of Helmont, on account of their cable linen and B. Bavinck paper, of a very good quality: also Stolp and and Son, of Almelo, who have sent to the Luigt, of West Luar; for some stained pat exhibition patterns of dimity.
per for flowers, being a first experiinent ** Canil 7 CALICO.
The leather manufactories of this country, The calico manufactories, which former- have already, for a great many years, been in Ir tised 19 be an important branch of nationil industry, are, for the present, generally siderable part of the national productions. The
a very flourishing state, and "form no inconin a less prosperous state, which is particu- improvements effected by recerit- discoveries Farly to be attributed to the want of raw col- in chemistry have likewise been adopted among Do, as well as to the stagnation of trade and ihem, with every prospect of success. uavigation.
Thomanufacturing of what is called morocco The spinning of coton, by means of ma
or printed and stained calPs leather, was howa chinery, is an object of the utmost impor: 'ever not so well known in this country. The tance, and which in this country, is still samples of this art sent to the exhibition by open to material and considerable improve the widow S. F. Helb of Amsterdam have Diept; it was therefore peculiarly gratifying therefore caused very great surprize and satis to ytserve, froin the different samples sont to faccion : these samples are so beautifhi, and uite exhibition, that sundry musufacturers the dressing (after having been examined by pepe base begun to apply beinelves in this
sons wellacquainted therewith), has been found branchi, with every prospect of success.. so excelleni, that there is not the least doubt
The samples of carton, spun by means of bnt the produce of this inanufactory, the first machinery, and sent to the exhibition by the and only one wathin our knowledge of this brothers Schophaos, of Enschede, having kind, in the kingdom, may easily, vie with teen found of a peculiarly excellent quality, that made in other countries, and is by not thaler brothers have been deemed worthy of means inferior to the moroça leather prode silver prize of honour.-- The commissione duced in Turkey or England, while the prices eps have further mentioned in an honourable in proportion to the superior quality of this lea. and Ustinguished manner, G. A. Versteege ther have been found very moderate. The and Co. of Zutphen, for 'liaving sent in a golden prize of honour has been therefore, considerablz'assajtment of printed calico, of very justly awarded to this manufacturer.
very good quality. They have likewise The coinniissioners have moreover considered carnsidered the samples sent in by the follow- it as their duty to idention the following may in inanufacturers as worthy of being ingeria | mufacturers in an honourable and distinguished
in their report: a piece of printeù calico manner : viz. G. S. Revink of Lochem for W A. Muller aud, Son, of Nieuwer Ainstet, having sent in some very well tanned hides, de millex and checked woollen stuff, and the 1. M. Maryne and Co. of Graave, on: Malion couton counterpage, by 1. Janse aecount of some very well dressed boot legs 3 lain, of Hiloersuu, and the piece of Mol- and MI. Vonsiuga of Groningen, who hus sent ign cotton in imitation of thai manufactured various articles made of towed leather. The iz England: Ly R.Ş, Das, of the same place. manufacteries of 1. Schule of Zeyor, magnet ber of the society of United Brethren ; and The vermilion prepared in this country is I. W. Rosbach of the Hague have also been noted all over Europe. deemed worthy of being noticed.
The sal ammoniac. the sal mirabile Glauberi, IRON.
mercurialia, the refined camphor, boras, and C. A. Jordaens and Co. of Deventer, hare salipetre sent to the exhibition have appeared to sent to the exhibition various specimens of the the commissioners to be of a very good quality; produce of their iron foundry, whereof the they have also recommended the use of Rogreatest number was extremely well finished; commissioners have awarded the silver prise
man allum to painters. To those makers the As those founders use the ore which is found of honour. The followin.g have been menbelow the fruitful surface of the ground, in tioned in an honourable manner: 1. M. many places in that neighbourhood, (which Comaita, of Amsterdam, on account of the is very pernicious to agriculture), the com excellent carmine
which he has sent to the exmissioners have been particularly induced to hibition ; P. De Hans, of Meppel, who has mention thern in an honourable and most distinguished manner.
sent in some beautiful Prussian blue; and D.
Van Vosienhoat and Co. of Thiel, who preCOPPER,
pare some very excellent materials for paintings B, W. Krepel of Voorst in Guelderland, and sell them at a moderate price. has sent in several specimens of wrought cop- HARD SOAP, CANDLES, WAX. per of superior workmanship, such as bottoms and side pieces, and also some sheeting
D. I. Bousquet and Co. of Delft, are the
first who hase successfully imitated in this coonpieces. The excellent workmanship of the bottom of a kettle of 4 feet 5 inches with the try the hard soap manufactured at Bristol,
that manufactured at Marseilles: the comsides, deserves particular notice. To this ma
missioners have expressed their approbation of nufacturer, the commissioners hare awarded the silver prize of honour ; they have like
the two samples of hard soap sent in by those wise mentioned in an honourable manner I. manufacturers, and have, on account of their
excellent quality, awarded to them the silver P. Vermaas of Utrecht, pin manufacturer.
prize of honour. WROUGHT SILVER
The commissioners have moreovet mentionThe commissioners have thought it their ed in an honourable mauner Brouwer and Son, duty to mention in their report the manufac of Zeyst, who contique to keep their manutory of P. Verberne of Helmoot, who, hy factory of mould caudles, soap-balls, &c. in means of an instrument of his own invention, considerable repute, and also B. C. Kalken of has manufactured the silver plates for the Zeyst, who has sent samples of rery good thimbles sent by him 10 the exhibition. glue. BUTTONS.
GLASS, AND PORCELAIN. A. Van Pesch of Utrecht, has sent to the
The national glass manufactories, particuexhibition rarious assortments of black and larly those that make various kinds of bottles, browu basket buttons, also white bone but are by no meanis unimportant; and the contons. The importance of this manufactory, siderable exportation of blown green glass which employs a great number of hands, and exported, in time of peace, is å sufficient the great demand for the said articles, on ac
proof that foreigners know how to appreciate count of their excellent quality, and moderate ihe manufacture of Dutch glass. prices, are the principal motives that have in
Havart and Co. of Delft, have, in addition duced the cominissioners to award tơ this ma
!o some very good boules, sent to the exhibinufacturer the silver prize of honour.
tion various kind of retorts and other glass inJOINERS' WORK.
struments for chemical experiments. The
specimens, some of them of considerable The joiners' work sent in by 1.H Schmidt, magnitude, sent in by these manufaclurers, member of the society of the United Brethren have given much satisfaction ; and in expecof Zeyst, has been noticed in the report of ation that they will answer when put to the the commissioners.
trial, and for farther encouragement, the CHEMICAL PREPARATIONS.
commissioners have conferred on them the Among the products of Dutch industry,che- silver prize of honour. mical preparations have always held a distin- Dommer and Co. are the proprictors of the gnished place, and the specimens sent to the ex- only porcelain manufactory thai exists in this hibition are sufficient to maintain the celebrity country. The specimens sent to the exhibiof those important manufactories which justlý tion, cannot be compared to what is manufacclain the preference to those of a great many tured abroad, especially in France; and in ormany other countries. The various excellent der to enable shis manufactory to vie with chemical preparations, prepared and sone in those established in foreign countries, it is ahby G. Domnier and Co. of Amsterdam de- 1 solutely necessary that the proprietors should serve parlicular notice.
improve thic form and lower the price of the
articles, especially those of a large size. How-i height ; niwas
' sgod jadged that a volcano erer, in consideration of the praise-worthy in- Phad burst out about the centre of that island, dustry of these artists, and as an encourage and this was rendered certain when night ment for their future exertions, the commis.. came on, the fire exbribiting an awful appearsioners have thought proper to confer on them ance. Being desirous of viewing this won. the silver prize of honour.
derful exertion of nature, I embarked on the EARTHEN WARE, TOBACCO PIPES, BRICKS. 3d of May, accompanied by the British
The manufactories of earthen-ware, as well Consul, and ten other gentlemen, for St. as the brick kilns in this country, form a con- George's; we ran over in five hours; and siderable branch of our national industry, arrived at Vellas, the principal town, at eleven " and may be classed among those manufactories
We found the poor inhabitants perthat have been brought to a very great degree fectly panic-struck, and wholly given up to of excellence, and are likewise in a very nou religious ceremonies and devotion. We learnrishing condition.
ed that the fire of the 1st of May had broken L: Gibbon, of Gooda, has sent in various ont in a ditch in the midst of feruile pasassoriments of whai is called Frankfort earth-lores, three leagues S. E. of Vellas, and had en ware, the excellence whereof is univer: immediately formed a crater, in sșze about sally acknowledged. The commissioners have twenty-four acres. In two days it had thrown thought proper to” confer on those'manufacut cinders or small pomice stones, that a tures, especially,' on account of their con- strong N. 'E. wind had propelled southerly; Stant exertions and indusiry, the silver prize and whico, independent of the ina g accumui of honour sralso to mention in an honourable lated round the crater, had covered the earth manner 1. A. Augustyn of Berg op Zoons, froin one foot to four feet in depth; half a earthenware manufacturer, who has sent "ro league in width, and three lezgues in length; the exhibition: a considerable quantity of then 'passing the channel five leagues, had black eartheaware, the price whereof' was
done some injury to the east point of Pico. very moderaten also the widow E. Brands, The fire of this large crater had pearly subof Lathum, in Guelderland, on account of sided, but in the evening preceding our arrithe stories made in this manufactory which yal, another spall crater had opened, one are of the greatest utility in malt houses. league north of the large one, and only two
The extent of the robacco-pipe manufacto- leagues from Vellas. After taking some re- ries, which in the city of Gouda employ more freshment, we visited the second crater ; the mchas six thousand people, and, in time of sulphureous smoke of which, driven southerpracę, -form an article of considerable expor- ly, rendered it impracticable to atlempt aptation, make the tobacco-pipes an object of proaching the large one. When we came great importance: on account of the excellent within a mile of the crater, we found the Roode od preparing the clay, the fine polish, earth rent in every direction, and as we apand beautiful form, the commissioners have proached nearer, soine of the chasms were thought it their duty to mention in their re- six feet wide ; by leaping over some of these por: the samples of tobacco-pipes sent in and chasms, and making windings to avoid the manufactured by: H. H. and A. Herbes of larger ones, we at length arrived within two Gouda.
hundred yards of the spot; and san it, in the middle of a pasture, distinctly; at inte vals,
when the thick smoke which swept the earth NEW VOLCANO IN THE AZORES. lighted up a little. The mouth of it was Letter from John B. Dalncy, Esq. Consul only about fifty yards in circumference ; the of the United States of America, to a
fire seemed struggling for vent: the force, Friend at St Michael's, dated Fayal, June
with which a pale blae tlame issued forth, re
sembled a powerful sieam engine, multiplied 25, 1808.
a hundred fold ; the voise was deafening; the Dear Sir;-A phenomenon has occurred earth-where we stond had a tremulous mo. here not unusual in former ages, but of wbich tion, the whole island · seemed convulseil, there has been no example of late years : il horrid bellowings were occasionally heard was well calculated to inspire terror, and has from the bowels of the earth, and earthquakes been altended with the destruction of lives were frequent. After remaining here about and property On Sunday, the 1st of May, ten minutes we returned to town; the iphabiat one p. n. walking in the balcony of niy tants had misily quitted their houses, and rebonse at St. Anthonio, I heard noises like mained in the open air, or under ents. We the report of heavy cannon at a distance, and passed the night at Vellas, and the next concluded there was some sea engagement in morning went by water to Ursulina, a small the vicinity of the island. But soon after, sea-port town, tivo leagues south of Vellas, casting ing eyes towards the island of St and viewed that part of the country covered George's, ten leagues distant, I perceived a with the cinders before-mentioned, and which dense column of smoke rising to an immense has turned the most valuable vineyards in the Vol. V. (Lit. Pan. Oct, 1908.]