Abbildungen der Seite

nal work, rather than a compilation, | interesting. They are the result of science explicit acknowledgements should have combined with practice ; and bear bobeen made, to writers whose labours have nourable testimony to the ingenuity and furnished the principal facts. Our motto perseverance of Mr. Beaufoy ; to the judiis suum cuique tribue.

cious selection of Experiments, and to the The names of Scheele, Bergman, acuteness with which conclusions have Priestley, Kirwan, Crawford, Lavoisier, been drawn, and corollaries deduced. Cavendish, Beddoes, Dalton, Davy, Hales, The author by no means ruas riot with Beccaria, Le Cotte, Richard, De Lac, De his subject. He does not ascribe to the Saussure, Paterson, Williams, Wintringham. rifle-barrelled gun, properties which it Arbuthnot, Adam, Hunter, Mosely, &c. does not possess; nor does he wish to sub&c, occur in the course of these volumes; stitute it for all other offensive weapons, but their opinions are slightly alluded to, He certainly wishes to make expert rifle without quotation, or direct reference to men of all our volunteers; but then he their works. It is but justice to the author would not rely upon rifle-men only in a of a valuable work on chemistry, in pitched battle. He would mix them, in which many of the opinions have been due proportion, with regular troops armed quoted, and where the reader is by re- with our English, muskets, and, above, ferences, directed to appreciate their re-all, our English BAYONET ; a wealative merits ; to observe, that candor pon irresistible, when urged bome by the would have dictated some acknowledge. muscular arm of our gallant countrymen; ment for what had been already published-witness Maida, witness Vimeira, wita in that work; though placed in a new ness Coruna !--Mr. Beatfoy says, it' arrangement in this, with some additional is not intended to'urge the indiscriminate observations.

use of rifle-barrelled guns, * but to renThe language in general is good, and der troops armed with them, as a distinct the style is tolerably perspicuous; and and co-operative force, more general and as a repertorium of the present state of important; where the musquet ends or our information, respecting the science of begins, the rifle commencing or leaving the atmosphere, it may be consulted with off. For the fact is, that in any other view pleasure and profit by the generality of they become a nullity. The moment readers.

a riflenan suffers himself to be closed, his weapon becomes of less use than the

common musquet ; since the delay in Şcloppetaria ; or Considerations on the loading would now be injurious, and the Nature' and Use of Rifled Barrel Guns, ther place, he observés,

exactness unnecessary.” Again in aÃO." with Reference to their forming the Basis of a: Permanent System of National it is not necessary with the ordinary spirit of

To conceive their excellence, nevertheless, * Defence, agreeable to the Genius of the enthusiastic theorists, lo attribute to them Country. By a Corporal of Rifleineo. more than their own certain qualities ; to rene gvo, pp. 251. Price 9s. Egerton, Lon- der the extensive use of rifle corps, here to don : 1808.

commended, effectual, it must be upsailingly

kept in view that they are to be regarded as a We understand that this book is written species of troups entirely distinct from every by Henry Beaufoy, Esq. son of Mark ocher, though acting with, and perhaps Beaufoy, Esq. of Hackney Wick, F. R. S. mutually dependant on all of them. He and colonel of the 1st Royal Regiment of who shall expect from them the ordinary Tower Hamlets' Militia. The Earl of duties of the hatualion, or artillery, or ever. Moira has been properly selected as the of light infantry, will be disappointed patron of this work, both as an eminent

though in proper situations, they will efiece military character, and as being Constable hic bayonet is alone to be employed, they are

more than either. lo close combat, or where of the Tower of London, and Lord Lieute- useless, for ebe meanest musquel in Dumbers Hant of that portion of the county of will be sufficient. In storming pasues, they Middlesex which comprehends the Tower will be also inefficient; since, as observed by Hamlets,

the intelligent amhor already mentioned, in The

perusal of this volume has given the agitation uecessarily occasioned by the us great pleasure. Its contents are truly violence of such moments, they will be up

[ocr errors]

equal to that cool and steady fire, on which i would be immaterial. . Allowing to the tlveir whole purpose ilepends! a circumstance rifle, with less indulgence, a certainty of perhaps, proved by their similar employment effect in but one shot of twenty, which none at Buenos Ayres and Monte Video. For sis at all conversant with rifle shooting will admilar reasons ile coufounding them with inere mit to be sufficient, firing 20 shots in aus light ivfamıry, or attributing to thein a cha- hour, gives even then a balance in its favour racter of still greater celerity, as when they of more than two to one in the number of have been made to run by the side of the ca- killed, wounded, or disabled, against the obvalry !* the real advantages of a rifle corps 1 jection of time lost in loading. Thus then, tako? will not be obtained. But nourished and ing fire to one against a ride in the first in? animated by an esprit du corps only to be in- stance, because we give to the musquet five spired by preserving them in their proper sia | times the number of shots, and adding, the luation, they will never fail to furnish all two to one in its favour from the nuinber of that shall be required of them. Let them killed and wounded, on striking the balance, then no longer receive the censure of the it will be found to leave to the rifle à decideit batalioos. Each mau hus employed will advantage of seven to one! In this compufeel, as the historian says of Fabius-Non tation, the average distance at which ile ignorabat se timidum, pro caulo; imbellem, rifle is to be fired, is from 250 to 400 yards. ' side pro perila belli, haleri : ut maluit ut se The most superficial observer will naturally hostis meluerit, quum stulti, cives laudarent. sce, at the same time, the comparative saving Let ihem no longer be supposed as giving 10 in ammuniuon; and be enabled to form an war new horrors, but rather as tending to idea of its importance, by calculating the shorten iis calamities, and to determine ihe value of a load used for a rifle and a musquet, conflicts of nations, by an efficiency in arms as eharged by government; by conceiving worthy of the highly civilized state of Europe, the value of a cartridge on its arrival in the and of the world. Above all, let us remem- East or West Indies, the different proportion ber that whatever shall promise to enable us to of ammunition waggons, and the inconve maintain the independance of our own coun- vience to an army of a numerous tràin ofs. try-10 preserve sacred those accumulated, carriages ; and be thus enabled to perccires rights which have been created by the wise how far the adrantages arising out of these dom, or purchased by the blood of our an. circumstances, will set off against the differą, cestors, ought to be well considered, and if ence of expence between the weapops. An proved worthy of adoption, to be adopted officer of undoubted veracity assured the wri. with rigour. Let us riever forget, that we ter, that a party of light infantry under his live not alone for onrselves, but illat we hold command in Egypt, fired away 60,000 rounds also the rights of posterity, which are not to in driving in that of an enemy, of which he be connitted by our act.

really believed, that not above four or five This is the language of a genuine pa

were killed or wounded on the part of the triot. : Here the principles which have enemy; ever distinguished the Literary Panorama barrel guns, or of riflemen, as they are gem

Of the utility of corps armed with rifledidentify with those of our spirited young nerally, though not very definitively called, author.

the proofs are innumerable. As a light erraWe shall give another quotation from tic force conccaling itself with facility, and the introduction, on the comparison be. forming an ambuscade at will, its effects are tween the musquet and the rifie-barrelled incalculable. gun.

By combining the solid column, or the YA musquet will fire three shoes to one tended line, as now practised by the best tac. from a rife, as generally used. In an action ticians, with considerable bodies of light of an hour, the musquét ihren will have fired troops, a mutual confidence is inspired; the perhaps 100 shots, (the numbers are indif- former aware that all the harrassing duties of ferent, as they will always be relative), and the petite guerre will be performed by the the riflè 20. Supposing 1 in 200 shots of later, and these in turn knowing that they the triusquet to tell

, (which many will not have troops ready formed en masse, behind allow by half) it must fire incessantly for

which they may retire when elosely pressed. more than two hours before it can be certain The origin of this idea is of no triding date, of taking effect, and this too reckoning the being to be found in the relations of the Socii, frequent opportunity of firing at a whole the Helites, Sagittarii, and Fundidores of the live, where deviation to the right or left Romans, to the main body of their army,

formed on a principle similar LO that which

will ultimately be memioned in this introa This was the dutý of the 95th rifle reduction, while ils modern practice will be gimeni, at the camp, formed in the sumniner recognized in the Hussars and Pandouts' of the ef, I think, 1806, on Shorncliffe heights, Prussians and Austrians, the Croats of the


[ocr errors]

Russians, the Albanians of the Turks, and are pointed out.-We observe one small the Arpauts serving with the Russians and oversight in this detail, p. 12, where British in Italy. Ever skulking and roam- Fortescue's learned work * De Laudilus ing about the country, they compel the ene- Legum Angliæ," is represented as having my, 19 be constantly on the watch, and alert been written after the 33d of Hen. VIII, in apprehension of an attack. With such troops, the eneny cannot dispatch a decach. | (1541),. Fortescue was made chief justice ment or reinforcement, or effect any move

of the King's Bench in 1442: though he ment of consequence, scarcely transmit a re- certainly was appointed chancellor to Hen. turn, or even send a messenger, without in- VI, during that prince's exile in Scotland, formation being conreyed. by various means

it is not known that be ever exercised the to the arnay employing them. They are dis- functions of that high office in England. persed in every direction; their effects are What led our author into this apachronism felt at distaut points at the same moment, in all probability, was this circumstance, and they tend to affect the mind of an enemy that Fortescue's work was not published by constantly presenting to him unexpected till the reign of Hen. VIII. He died in obstacles, a circumstance which will never

1465. be omitted in the consideration of a general.

The theory of the rifte-barrelled guo is The pássages` already quoted may suffice very happily explained by analogical reato take off all objection to Scloppetnria, soning ; for the application of which, on the score of substituting the rifle for Quintilian is ciled in a note analogia the musquet.-It is much to be wished, hoc vis est, ut id quod dubium est, ad however, that our volunteers, at least, aliquid simile de quo non quæritur, rewere to a man masters of the rifle.

ferat; ut incerta certis probet." - The - In the event of an invasion with an angle of abberration in the case of lullets overwhelming French army, we suppose discharged from an ordinary masquet is that our generals would decline rather ever considerable ; but the deflection from than seek an opportunity of fighting a the. original line of -fight, is an incon: pitched battle. All authors of talent who venience to which arrows shot from a have written on this subject, have recom- bow were not found so liable." The reze mended the harrassing system of warfare, son has been proved to be, that the feathe pelite.guerre. To this the rifle is pe- thor on the arrow gives a spianing motion culiarly adapted ; and if in Spain, instead to the shaft as it flies through the air, and of engaging the columns of the enemy, causes it to revolve round its longitudinal as the brave patriots have done, they had axis. Turning quickly round; as much carried on war upon the other principle, as the arrow deviates to one side in its does it not seem probable tbat the armies flight, the abberration is corrected by the of Cuesta, Castanos, Blake, and Romana, almost instantaneous pressure of the air might yet have remained nearly entire ; on the other, and thus its vertiginous and that the invading hordes, daily and motion leads it directly from the bow to hourly attacked in a hostile country, by the mark. This theory is most ingeniously invisible and destrective opponents, dust pursued, and, in our judgment, demenhave been reduced to insignificance? We strated, by various experiments made on are bold to say that if the Spaniards even bodies passing through resisting medis; yel adopt this mode of fighting, suited in and it most satisfactorily, appears, that the a peculiar manner to the Fabian system, precision with which a leaden ball shot (for Buonaparte is to Spain what Han from a rifle-barrelled gun hits the object nibal was to Italy ;) they will finally tri- at which it is discharged, arises from the umph over their enemies. Burgoyne's indentations which it receives in passing army bad, never capitulated at Saratoga, if along the grooves spirally worked within the Americans bad been without rifle the barrel. This theory is discussed in men.

the three first chapters; to which, and 10 In the introduction to Scloppetaria, the plates accompanying them, we refer we have a very curious historical account our readers. This book is illustraied by of missile weapons in England. The nine plates, exclusive of the frontispiece, glories of this island; while its " might and several engravings of perforated tarstood upon archers," are duly character-gets, shewing the comparative effects of ized; and the acts of parliament passed different pieces fired at yarious distances. from time to time, to encourage archery, These are executed in a style of pee


culiar and expressive deatness; and the when the cannon was first fired, and cold. entire work is well worth the notice of It seems, then, not an unfair conclusion, every man in the kingdom, capable of that the heat of the metal raising the temperbearing arms. There is hardly a single ature of the powder in the cartridge so much, point, however minute, relative to the as to put it, as it were, in a partial state of Tifle-gun, which is not discussed.

ignition, 'before the match is applied, the deOn

velopement of gas, is more instantaneous, the subject of gunpowder we shall give a and therefore, the effect produced the greater. passage, because it shews a safe and easy The thickness of metal' in great and small mode of drying it, which, more gener arms, being somewhat proportional, when ally known, may prevent dangerous acci- the powder is fired, a part of the heat is ab. dents.

sorbed in raising the temperature of the cold In preserving powder, the principal diffi- barrel. To such as are fond of rifle shooting, culty is to keep the salepetre in its composition we should recommend the purchase of two, from getting damp, hy imbibing the moisture three, or half a dozen pounds of powder, of the atmosphere, for it is not sufficient that always of the best quality), 10 be mixed the vessel in which it is kept, be in a covered well together with the hands, (to prevent the situation, as a room or cupboard for example, contact of any thing that might inflame it). but it should be kept so closely stopped down

till rendered as homogenous as possible. as to preclude the entrance of the air. If a

It should be laid on a large water-dish, filcertain quantity be first of all well dried, and led with boiling water, where after a few mithe weight then nicely ascertained, if it be heated, and consequently dried ; if then put

nutes stirring, it will be found considerably few plate, on bennig re-weighed it will be found into botiles well dried, and previously heate to have increased considerably in weight of moisture, and closely corked, it may be

ed, for the purpose of expelling every particle The reason assigned, is, the quantity of moisture it has attracted from the atmosphere, kept for any length of time, and in any situfor if it be again dried, the weight will be ation, without being deteriorated as to strength found reduced to its former standard.

or quality. The water plate is recommended Some have thought that a certain degree of on account of its safety, in preference to other moisture enabled the powder to disengage, on

methods used, as passing a heated fire-shovel

If powder be well dried, combustion, a greater quantity of gas, than over it, and so on. when dry; but this does not appear to be it will not soil the hands, and therefore there the fact. For surely the more suddenly and be removed from the plate to the bottle, with

is no difficulty in ascertaining when it may rapidly the ignition takes place, the more suddenly will the vapour be produced, and

out' fear of the operation being sufficiently as the ball is entirely propelled by the seeds completed. * denness of the generation of the vapour, it We did intend noticing several other should follow, that every particle of moisture interesting passages, but we have not contained in the grains must retard the ignition, room. We will venture to say that 'no and consequenly the effect of the powder. military library can be complete without

The effects of the atmosphere on powder is Mr. Beaufoy's book. well known to all practitioners and sportsmen, It would be injustice to omit our approand therefore it is very usual for rifle bation of the superior manner of increase iheir charges in damp weather, and

arrangeat all events never to leave their loading horn

ment adopted in this volume. Instead of on the damp ground. Hence, then, the

a chaos of information, which frequently side pocket' used by riflemen for receiving the defeats the good effects of intrinsic merit powder horn has a greater advantage than in professional works, each article is ar. mere convenience, in as much as it from its ranged under its own proper head, and situation enables the powder to detive consi- an index presents a ready reference to it, derable warmth from the body, and thus thus .uniting the facilities of a dictionary keeps it drier. This is confirmed by the great- to the interest of an able treatise. In ader effect produced by powder, previously made quite hot, and then lighted, than if ig- * Powder should not, however, be frenited at the usual temperature ; again, we all quently exposed to heat, in this way, as every know that after a few rounds from a cannon, time a certain portion of the sulphur is carried as the metal gets hotter, the cartridges used off in the shape of vapour, and as the goodCare filled with smaller quantities of powder, ness depends chiefly on the three different not only to avoid unnecessary recoit, but also ingredients,' used in its manufacture, bearing

, w quantities of it are found to produce the same be diminished, without deteriorating the effect when the gun is heated, as the larger, quality of the whole.

[ocr errors]

dition to the scientific information which fined ; and but for the vicinity to the ocean abounds in these pages, it coutains a and the nanie of a watering place," great variety of very interesting reflec- the Pavillion would be no distinguished tions apd observations, relative to mili. babitation for royalty. Wishing, howtary concerns in general—the organi: ever, to make all that could be made of zation of the army-of a battalion-ile this spot, His Royal Highness called in the selection of liglit infantrymen-of rifle- abilities of Mr. Repton, an artist, in his men. Some very valuable hints relative line of the highest repute. He has reto the improvement of the dress, ac- commended sundry alterations in the coutreinents, and luggage of troops- plantation of the trees, has removed many and similar topics. To those whose rank of them to more appropriate places, and gives weight to their opinious in military bas certainly suggested some beneficial alnatters, this work should form an object terations in the garden and its scenery, ' of study.-All,, who are any way inte. But, the chief novelty in this work is, rested in the subject, should read it atten- the attempt to introduce a complete in. lively and we hope that we shall not be stance of the architecture of Hindostao, deemed impertinent in recommending to into a British babitation. To effect this, the able aùthor, to compile an abridge: requires an entire revoluiion of ideas, inent of the most prominent and useful taste, application, and babits. How far articles of the work (omitting, for ex- the architecture of the different nations, ample, all theoretic speculations) and, which have studied and cultivated that thus by producing a useful shilling pamph-science, is proper to the climate, to the let, enable evey rifleman in the kingdom, wants of the natives, to their religious whether regular op volunteer, to profit by manners, and to their civil and political the experience and the knowledge which ideas, we do not pretend to decide ; though the patriotic studies of the author have we do think the argument in support of elicited.

the affirmative has great plausibility on Inoar 4th 'volume, pp. 962 and 1197, its side. The darkness of the Egyptian our readers will find some valuable sugges- and Grecian temple was ill suited to the tions on this subject. From a coincidence free and open genius of Christianity : but of circumstances, we are led to suspect the introduction of windows, destroys the that the writer of those letters was not Greckism of such an edifice ; and wben. wholly unknown to the author before us. ever the attempt is made to introduce this -We adhere to our recommendation of style of building into domestic habitation, estrense" caution in the adoption and use the windows necessary for interior accomof the iron target.

modation, are sure to perplex the archi. ma

tect who studies exterior appearance. In

fact, the mansions of that people had Designs for the Pavilion at Brighton; bv but few openings toward the streets or

H. Repton', Esq. with the Assistance of his public highways, and rather derived their Sons, J. A. Repton, F. S. A. and G. S. light from interior courts, than from the Repino, Architects. Imperial folio, Price grounds around the bouse. It may be £5.55. with coloured plates, and slides ples of Hindoo arebitecipre are appropria

thought that in like manner, the princi- . Stadler, London : 1808.

ate to the country in which they originated; Thrs is a magnificent work. The sub- and that the convenience and accommoject of it may be considered as an instance dation of the patires had been studied by of the difficulties that art has to struggle those who adopted them. . The heats of with, when nature does not offer capa-. that climate rendered shade and recess de. lilities for her operations, The extent of sirable : we have no such heats; and the ground at Brighton on which improve- only for a short time in the year is shade ments werew: be made is so small, that, an object of solicitude even among our atter every invention is put in practice to most tender, belles. The draugbi of. air enlarge their apparent diraensious, they for which every Hindoo builder Jays every must relinquishtail pretensions to grandeur. scheme - he can devise, is a cause of fatal The murder admits of but little variety : consplaints in our changeable climate; the 'views from the residence, except a, and we are under the necessity of provismall opening towards the sea, are con ding much more effectually against star,

« ZurückWeiter »