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wishing it bad contained a greater collec. containing many particulars not elsewhere tion of facts, derived from competent to be met with Mr. L resided for a witnesses, foreign as well as native; in time in various parts of the Mediterraexchange for which we would willingly bean; and his reasonings refer chiefly to resign, an ample portion of hypothesis, / the advantages which Britain might derive suggestion, and inference, whatever ho. from securing sundry of the islands which nour they may reflect on the ingenuity exist in that sea. We ourselves have reof the author.
commended attention to Crete, or to
Cyprus, as proper for the maintaining of An Historical Survey of the Foreign Af- and we shall not think the worse of our
our importance and power in the Levant; fairs of Great-Britain, with a view to ministry if the report proves true, that explain the Causes of the Disasters of the Minorca, and some other places are to be late and present Wars.--By Gould Francis taken), with the consent of ihe inhabitants, Leckie, Esq.—London : Bell, 1808, 8vo., under our protection. Malta we already price 59. Pp. 172, Notes 80.
bold; and Sicily is occupied by our troops, There are many positions in politics as which may be deemed for the present well as in morals, that look fair enough at equivalent to our entire possession of that first sight, but will not bear the test offertile, and very valuable island. close examination. Among these we Mr. Leckie gives us a melancholy desmust be allowed to place the proposals of cription of the oppressed state of Sicily ; the gentleman whose tract we have been and we mustown, were we Quixotic enough reading; and who advises Great Britain to to propose the relief of the miserable, as seize on certain commanding stations, no the object of national politics, that island matter whether belonging to friend or foe, affords sufficient occasion for the exercise in order to counteract the machinations of all our humanity. Our author informs and acquisitions of Buonaparte, who has us that, grasped at all within his reach ;-but, The whole island is divided into three prowho, we hope, has at length over grasped vinces, viz. the Val Demona, Val di Noti, himself, and is likely to fall in conse
and Val di Mazzara ; this topographical diviquence, perhaps to a depth of which the sion seems to have no connection with the world has little suspicion. Our opinion of government, as the whole kingdom, politigovernment is, that it was instituted for cally considered, is comprehended under the
three bracci (arms), or orders. The military the welfare of the district over which it
or feodal, the clergy, and the demesne, or presides, and that it ought to be, and royal townships, which answer to our free when wisely administered will be, desirous burghs in the rest of Europe. The popalaof the prosperity of that district in the tion of the whole kingdom is estimated at first and principal place. To give undue 1,500,000. Palermo contains 200,000 souls'; importance to distant interests, is unwise : Messina, 80,000; Catania, 70,000 ; Callabut to interfere in the concerns of others, girone, 50,000 ; Noto, 35,000; these are and to assume the reformer in States that the principal towns in the island. may be thought to need reformation, but When the sources of right become the are alien to our nation, is something worse means of oppression, what more is wantthan unwise ; it is presumptuous. Such ing to make a people miserable ?-Sicily conduct, we deny not, may succeed in has too much reason to complain of this some instances, and for a time; but in cause of calamity; according to our author's the issue, it rarely answers the purposes
statement. of those who haye indulged their passions The Tribunal of Patrimony consists of six (rather than their prudence) in such un- members, viz. the President, the Conservadertakings. In fact, it is one reason against dore Generale, who is the King's Adrocate, the reforming machinations of Buonaparte and four judges. himself, that we hate the interference of
As this board superintends the king's terrialiens; and what we oppose in him we
torial revenues, so it commands the munici
palities of the royal and baronial towns; and ought not to practice ourselves. Having thus stated our dissent from the cated either in the one or the other, so it has
as the property of every individual is implileading maxims adopted by this writer, become a civil court, under the pretence of we acknowledge the more readily our in- an authority in what regards the royal inte. clination to do justice to his publication as rests. In the same manner it has an autho
rity over all ecclesiastical lands, and the co- in the territory of inco, abon' firy quarters pyholds granted thercon by the crown ; thus of wheat, which then bore a mole price, as no act whatever with regard to landed pro- it was a year of scarcity :-- he giurati or cor. perty can be done without its cognizance. in poration, without asking any questions, ihe same manner as ali duties on exports and broke open the same, and took the wheal to imports (which answer to toonage and their town. Tire farmer's complaint to the poundage), and whicti are enforced with all tribunal was answered by a full
, approbation possible rigour, and the exports and impores of the conduct of the giurati, but with an or. ihemselves, interest the royal revenues ; so der that he should be paid by them, allowing that this board has assumed a dictatorial right a credit of some moniis; during this interval, to coin inand, not by fixed rules or general | the office of these'(who are chosen annually) laws, but by issuing an order or permission expired; their successors refused 10 pay, and on every individual occasion. None of the the larmer having prosecnued the corporation, produce of the country, that is coru, oil, and before the same tribunal, which had giren some others, as cattle, &ic. can be exported the above order, was cast; so that he was without its permission, though the exporter first plundered, and the public robbery thus offers to pay the duties; the permission to sanctioned, by a decision of the court; rade export hemp is given annually, as ai exclu- contrary to their own orders. This person is sive privilege, to one person in a maritime still alive, and is baronial governor of Gran. district; so that the inerchant who would michele for the Prince of Butera ! export it must not only pay the duties to the The privilege of supplying the city of Paking, but a duty to this individual ; thus the lermo with oil and carite is granted to moTribunal, after obliging the merchant to pay tractars; these exercise every kind of irrantax, farins another for their own emolument ny; as the tribunal supports them in every to the best bilder. With regard to corn, ineasure which they can devise to oblige the cattle, and oil, the greatest difficulty occurs i holder to sell to a disadvantage, and these in the exportation ; and a particular order is gentlemen are in return handsomely complirequisite froin Palermo, to obtain a perinis- inenteil by the contractors. Until these las sion for the same; to procure this the trader have bought the oil they want at the price must bribe through thick and thin. Some which suits them, no exportation is allowed!; times the right of exportation is allowed for a and even then ile tribunal makes so mans short time, and then suddenly stopped ; and difficulties in order to get bribes to perak thus causes the ruin of those who had pro- | the exportation, that the whole disappears in vided a quantity to ship off.
contraband : thus the smuggling trade sares The Tribạnal of Pairimony sends a strict the country from absolute ruim; and if it could order, either to the corporations of the towns. be presented, no one would think it worth or the corn deputies, where these exist (for luis while to press oat his olives; as the above, every town in Sicily has its particular govern- illicit trade prevents the prices from being ment, weights and measures, by which much toally degraded. Two years since, though profitable confusion arises), to provide as the failure of the autumnal rains prerealet much wheat as will serve for the whole year; the growth of the pastures, and though the this, under pretence of being directed for the cattle were dying every where for want of public good, produces the disorders and in food, every one seeking to get rid of tiiat: orjustice which it is here our business to unfold. tion which he could not support, tie stopid The corn trade is a monopoly in the hands tribunal never relaxed the prohibition't of the corporations : in order to support them export. in this abuse, these are invested with an ab. By another effect of the consuinmate ig. 10solute avihority to prevent the prociace of rance and wickedness of this board, the ds. their district from being carried to a ucigh-ries on the inportation of these cointaelities bouring town, and to forbid that of another | bear no proportion to that on exportatis ; from being admitted into their territory. Thus and foreigo produce re-exported, is not worse arises a complete stagnation of the inland treated; so ihat it seems deliberately intenced trade; if once the prices of corn should fall to encourage foreigu agriculture at the erafter ihe corporation has made its provision, pence of their own. the severest penaities are intlicted on any one It will be natural to ask who are the mes who should endeavour to bring his corn to who compose this board? They are lasmarket, and he must submit to sell it, giving yers, whose whole lives having been spent in up his profit to the corporation, or let it scenes of the most iniquitous litigation, partie spoil in his magazines : if he .grinds it into sess no kind of information on commerce, tour, it is sized ; and should he aitempt to when they are promoted to this rank; se cxport it, lie runs the risk of being casniered that all comarercial regulations, which wiis and raised.
us are fixed by act of parliament, are bere A curtain farmer of the town of Granmi- left to their absolute will and caprice, to ischele, in the Val di Noio, had, in a granary gorance aud venatiiy.
Foreign imports are taxed ad valorem, and coincides with what he saw of the Greeks, a tariff has lately been made to that effect; and their disposition in the Peloponnesis ; but the raw produce of the soil, which is the when he visited that country in 1790, he has only source of riches to Sicily, finds so many the more contidence in laying it before the obstacles to exportation, fron the difliculties reader. which are ever thrown in the way of the merchant, that it seems as if the Tribunal of has never been subdued either by the Vene
This man is a native of Sphakia which Patrimony took all the pains possible to keep tians, or Turks; the whole district being sa the balance of trade always in favour of fo- defended by passes, and the people so detero reign nations,
mined not to submit, that hitherio the Turk. As this tribunal has a controul over all the have in vain attempted to subdue them.corporations in the kingdom, it has multi- Spbakia has about twenty villages dependent plied its regulations and orders so inuch, with
on the little town which gives its name to the respect to the privileges of each town, that whole district: they have about four thousand though these are clear and explicit, and
men exercised in arms; cach village is gothough the law prescribes the extent of their verned by its chiefs, who are united by the powers, the tribunal has by degrees caused common danger which surrounds them, but every thing to be referred to itsell.
This has who are also sensible of the inconveniences been done in order to multiply fees and writ- and defects to which their constitution is subings; and it has so well succeeded, as to ject. There are men among then not ignorant cause all the confusion which at present of ine ancient freedom of Greece, and their reigns--the suppression of papers and docu- future independence of the Turks is the nienis, wbich are wilfully sei aside, so that subject of ardent desire, and the theine of delay, discouragement, and ruin, are and have been the inevitable consequences..
prophecies among them.
In the rest of the island where the Greeks Another law is in force in Sicily, with respect to corn, the absurdity and barbarity of are in the power of their masters, they are which is unknown in any other part of the inveterate against them; and the following world, which however it has not been possi: anecdote will justify the assertion. In 1798, ble to get rid of.-In every township, with
when the French went to Egypt, it was supthe exception of a very few, the corporation takes an account at harvest, and obliges every have fallen into their power; the Turks, who
posed that the island of Crete would shortly fariner, renter, or landholder, to give in a declaration of the quantity of corn his lands
had hitherto trampled on the Greeks, but have produced ; the price of grain is fixed by who now feared that the tables would be an assize on the 15th of August; at this price | Turk chose a Greek for his pairon, under the holder is obliged to deliver in, to the corporation, the third part of the produce of his tical reverse. The Greeks acquiesced in this
whose protection he was to supporr the pollestate on demand, notwithstanding the prices may have riseu considerably. Sometimes the arrangement, and it was hoped that the Cre
tans would thus become one people, by decorporation, after having given permission to the landholder to sell his corn of, saying they stroying the civil distinction between the two called on him for his quota, and he has been blished their power; but as soon as they were had a sufficient quantity, two months after has religionsthis would have been an happy
event for the people, had the French estàobliged to buy the quantity required, late in driven out of Egypt by the British, who the season, at a loss of 30 per cent!
were the friends and allies of the Porte, the Certainly we shall not attempt to vindi. danger was passed, and each barbarous client cate such absurd cruelty; and we wish it murdered his patron, to efface the memory of to be remedied by the sovereign authority: his intended submission. Thus the breach is but it does not follow that we recommend irreparable between the two nations. the British system of corn laws, as the To the mind of this people the first consibest siibstitute in the world, for the adop: deration is the expulsion or liveir oppressors ; tion of the Sicilians.
and, indeed, on 10 other consideranon Carl We incline to consider the account they hope to enjoy the freedom which they su given by Mr. La of the present state of
ardently desire. the Greeks, as the most interesting part Constantinople and the Dardaneiles; they
The French have sent officers to defend of his work : we presume that it is cor
are now the lectured friends of the Porte. rect, also : and therefore submit an ex
But at the same link they have attracted a tract to our readers,
Greck of the name of anties to Paris, who The following account of the state of is their party writer; liis works inculcate the (Crete) was communicated to the writer of independence of his nation, and songs have these ir.cts by a Cretan; und as it-perfecily ! been composed by him, tending to animale them to a general insurrection against the foreigo countries and the dispositions of Turks.
their people: and to the emolument of the Had Buonaparte not been employed in the
stamp office, -athereby, but thereby Russian war, his intention was to have brought his army to Aulona, on the coast of only, to the good of the nation. We Epirus, from whence his inarch in a strait cannot expect, that agents who have been Jine would have been through Salonika to employed in confidential situations by Constantinople, and the Greek people were government, should divulge the remarko ready to rise in his favour.
and communications they have made; Notwithstanding their present abject state, but when those not thus employed fathe Greek merchants of Constantinople, Savour us with their sentiments, we are lonica, Smyrna, Psyra, Hydra, Cos, Crete, usually under obligations to them for Chios, as well as those of the Hellespont and some new things : and in this ne mber sea of Marmora, have many of them amassed must rank Mr. Leckie. considerable riches by the corn-trade to Spain that are getting forward, for execution
The plans and Sicily, in both which countries there has been a scarcity for these twelve years past. in the east, augment the interest which These persons are many of them wen of low
we nalurally take in the political situation extraction ; but the influence of riches finds of those countries, with which we have not only protection, but even power. Their been familiar as subjects of our classical commerce with Europe has extended their studies in early life, and to which we views, and the ideas of freedom and indepen. cannot but wish well from a variety of dence are become familiar to them. The motives, many rich, and the learned few, are discon
The principles of distant establishments tented with their lot; but the bulk of the people have too much to fear from the Turks differ essentially from those of which the
or colonization, as acted on by Britain, to raise their heads, as they have no common rallying point ; in this state they are a
history has come down to us from antifit object for the enterprises of any power that quity, or of which we have any accounts will make the attempt.
from foreign parts. We are, therefore, The common observation in the mouth of not able to derive any advantage from their the more learned Greeks, is, that no nation experience. But it is obvious, that too among the moderns has ever resembled their many such, must drain the parent state of ancestors by their institutions more than the that strength in population, and capital, British.
which might be much more advaniageThe Tracts containing these and similar ously employed at home. The division observations, purport to have been ad- of attention, too, in the goverament ; the dressed at different times, during the last clashing of interests, and the rivalship, three or four years, to persons in bigh which is unavoidable between the conoffice, and command, in the British mi-tending parties for protection, and farour, litary and civil establishments, serving in are so many inevitable results, when this those parts.
What effect they might system is too extensirely adopted. Let have, we cannot presume to say: but Spain, Portugal, Holland, bear witness we find that a spirit of opposition and in to the truth of this principle: nor need trigue was far from dormant, among those we go out of the history of our own establishments, and that it counteracted couniry, to find proofs fully competent to the intentions of our author, who possia support it. While, therefore, we do not bly was somewhat too sanguine in his object 10 settlements, factories, compting. expectations of convincing his superiors, houses, and other agents or facilities for by these efforts,that his judgment and fore- the purposes of trade, we do object to sight had recommended a more sagacious establishments for the purposes of docourse of policy than that which they minion. The most permanent welfare thought proper to adopt.
of a nation must be derived from the Observations made on the spot, have advantages of peace: those which dazzle always their value; and we place more the eye in war are false glories, mere confidence in such, than in all the finely theatrical pomp; not lasting blessings, spun theories of our politicians who have nor even durable maguificence : and we never been beyond the sound of Bow believe, that we are far from being sinbell, yet favour us with loads of surmises, gular in our conjecture, that the predoaffirmations, assurances, and to the minating military power in Europe, boles great amusement of those acquainted with his superiority by a very uncertain tenure.
gulph, whereinto England is like to be
swallowed by a French marriage if the Lorde Memoirs of the Life and I'ritings of Şir forbid not the bands by letting her majestie
Philip Sidney. By Thomas Zouch, D. D. se the sin and punishement thereof." 8vo. F. L. S. Prebendary of Durham. 419. 1579. The former, Stubbs, a member of pp. 389. Price Il. Is. York; T. Wilson Lincoln's Inn, was condemned to lose his and Son. T. Payne, London, 1808.
right hand as a libeller. Such were his con
slancy and loyalty, that when his hand was TRUTH has been called the daughter struck off, he waved his hat with the other, of Time. It requires the lapse of many saying to the people, " God save the queen." years before the worth of public charac- Page, who prinied the libel, had no sooner ters can be duly estimated. While men undergone the same cruel punishment, than of eminent rank are yet living, or within he exclaimed, “ There lies the hand of a a little space after they have left the busy at these ghastly spectacles. He tells us that
true Englishman.” Mr. Camden was present scene of the world, the envy of some, the surrounding multitude were altogether the malignity of others, the partiality of silent, either ont of pity towards the mell
, others, and the ignorance of others, give being of most honest and unblamable report, portraitures of them distorted in outline, or else out of hatred of the marriage, which and extravagant in colouring. Their foes -most men presaged wonld be the overthrow decry them; their friends extol them of religion. Is there not cause to lament, above measure; and it is not tilt malice that the annals of our country should be conand prepossession have died away, that tarinated by the exhibition of such deeds of patient examination and unbiassed cam- savage severity? Yet justice to the memory dout can perform their functions rightly, that this asperity of punishment is to be
of the queen renders it necessary to remark, and exhibit them to mankind in due pro; attributed to a perverled policy, originating portion,“ in their habit, as they lived." in an improper deference to the French prince, -Sir Philip Sidney was exactly that sort rather than to her own disposition, which of man whom we might expeet to find was naturally mild and compassionate. * sometimes the theme of panegyrie, and sometimes, the victim of libel. He was * It is scarcely credible, but the fuci will the son of an honest man of exalted adınit no doubt, that the queen's nativity was reputation, Sir Henry Sidney, first lord calculated according to the rules of astrology,
then in vogue, to determine whether the president of Wales, and afterwards lord deputy of Ireland; and he was the nephew It is unnecessary to add,' that the result of
marriage would prove prosperous or otherwise. of the earl of Leicester, an ambitious, this investigation was extremely favourable intriguing, jealous statesman, believed to
to the measure, and that every thing propihave murdered his own wife. Sir Philip tipus to her was portended. See Strype's lived at a time when party ran high, when Annals," Vol. ii. p. 175, and the “s Appen. Popery and Protestantism were contending di.x," No. iv. for the superiority; while Mary Stuart The young men of the university of Cainwas a prisoner in Forheringay castle; while bridge, who in their opinions on Jublic the duke of Anjou was paying bis ad measures are not often mistaken, were perdresses to Elizabeth, who, tyrannical as bachelor of arts, Sir Morden, of Peterhouse,
fectly averse from the queen's marriage. A her father, had all the weaknesses of her ventored to declaim against the French prince sex. Sidney's intellects were equal to with all ebe severity of invective. With tbe discussion of all the great questions whatever zeal the vice-chancellor and other of that age ; and his probity and courage heads of houses seemed inclined to punish were such as led him to avow his senti- him, the plea was admitted, that it was only mencs. · The avowal, however temperate a scholastic exercise, in imitation of Tully's and guarded, was fraught with danger. oratious against Verres and Catiline. Strype's His letter to the queen on the subject of a Annals, Vol
. iii. 'p. 48.
George Buchanap in a letter written from Frenchman and a Papist,” though a mas. Rogers, the intimate friend of Sidney, exterpiece of reasoning in the opinion of presses his astonishment at the proposal of many competent judges, exposed bim to ibis marnage. He believed that ine French infinite hazard, Says Dr. Zouch, privce would murder the queen of England
A most rigid sentence was propounced and and marry the queen of Scotland. Quora executed on the anthor and printer of a tract sum ad Britanniam eo ? Ad nuptias rais; et çntitled,
“ The discoyerie of the gaping id ego credo. Ad quas? Cum reginâ vestra. Vol. V. (Lit. Pan. March 1809 ]