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ro great reason to boast of the superiority I will not believe it, till they have forced of their wit over those of their forefathers. us into the conviction of it, by blows. The witlings of our times would not have It was our design to bave taken a more passed current for wise men in former general view of the probable means of ages ; and who does not wish for the ta supply on which Britain mnight depend lents possessed by some of their leaders for distant productions, than we find conmpro bono publico !
venient at present ; but perceiving the But, not intending to maintain our in- course of opinion as expressed by authoridependence of foreign parts, as an univer- ty, we cannot prevail on ourseives wholly sal proposition, we nevertheless conceive, to forego the present opportunity of subthat we shall do no harm to the real in- mitting a few words on several articles of terests of our country, by stating cir- prime importance. cumstances that may diminish the anxiety If we examine accurately the extensive felt by some, on account of our depen- / list of our imports, with reference to the dence on countries under the power of inquiry, which of them Britain really our political enemies. We have said, cannot do without, we shall find the forthat when they winde up their accounts, midable scroll shrink into a mere scrap : our enemies will be losers. There is a the mountain dwindles into a mnolehill. sense in which (humanity apart) this coun- The chief indispensables from toreign try may become a great gainer by the con- nations, are-flax, hemp, iron, timber, sequences of the present commotions, tar, and tallow. We may add, hides, although their object. is professedly to cotton, dye-woods ;-also, tea, wine, and effect her ruin.
brandy. The bounty of heaven has bestowed on Flax is the parent of the great staple Britain, a fertile soil, and this is now article of the North of Ireland, -inen ; improved by an Agriculture, never car- and the seed necessary for the propagation ried on with more spirit ; we mean, of this plant, has hitherto been supplied which never gathered a greater quantity from abroad : originally from Holland; of produce from the same extent of soil. but lately from America. The reason of To the same bounty we are indebted for this we understand is, because the flax an inexhaustible supply of coal, which intended to be used in manufacture, is enables us to keep our machinery going, pulled before it has completely ripened its in spite of the wishes of our enemies to seed ; at which time it is supposed to be eftect its stoppage. These are natural ad- more tender, and capable of being vantages : our internal intercourse, whe- wrought into a finer cloth. Two remarks ther by roads, or by canals, is another arise from this : the first is, that if the happiness perfectly independent of the Irish let a greater part of their crop malikes and dislikes of any foreign power ture its seed this year, they need require whatever. Perhaps the greatest advantage no supply of seed for the year ensuing, of all, or that which crowns the whole, or afterwards. And secondly, that the is, the encircling ocean, by the interven wearing of linen a little coarser than usual, tion of which we are enabled to make is the worst that need happen. Even whatever improvements we please in our against this, palliatives may be resorted to.
public concerns ; without any foreign Plax seed may be obtained from Sicily, sambassador's presuming to hint on the from Greece, and from Canada. The
part of his master, that we are advancing quantity imported from the Baltic last ye. r in comfort, and accommodation, 100 ra- was about 150,000 hogsheads : but a pidly for his political interest. And if great part of this, though sufficiently good we inquire, whether those articles, for for crushing into oil, is not perfect ; and which we have hitherto resorted to foreign therefore cannot be trusted to for sowing. ports, may not be obtained froin some What Sicily and Greece furnish (Egypt one or other of the colonies we have might be included, were it friendly) may planted ?-we .may perhaps fini, that be procured at any time of the year ; Britannia, with her family, ia indepen- what Canada is intent on sending, nay dent of all the nations of the earth. This arrive in the middle of May, or the beis indeed, a truth, wbich foreign nations ginning of June : so that it is uncertain do not wish us to believe, sud our natural whether it will be in time for the sowing disposition is so good-natured, that we season. We learn, from the result of a
public meeting, held at Armagh, Dec 27, , Armed Neutrality, and the heart-burnings isos, that there was no absolute want of it caused. That was the first occasion on fiax seed, at that moment, though appre- which our enlightened iron-masters endeahensions were entertained. Nevertheless, voured to improve their commodity effecthe majority of the meeting was clearly tually : the trade in Russian iron has been against any public remonstrance on the diminishing ever since : it is likely that subject : and after discussion, agreed to duriug the present non-intercourse with wait the event.
that country,our improvements may be perHump is likely to be supplied in abun- fected, and then--when Russia may be disdance in a short time from Ireland, as well posed again to supply us, the commodity as from Canada, where thousands of acres may be in demand, anywhere but in Britain. are now allotted to its cultivation. We Timber is unquestionably an Article have elsewhere (compare Panorama, Vol. of great importance : and one which our III. p. 905.] given an account of the na- own island does not produce in sufficient ture and properties of the sunn, or East- quantity to meet the demand. In fact, Indian hemp: and it is thought that our the demand arises from so many different dependance on Russia for this article has quarters, each increasing, that we scarcely nearly, if not completely, reached its ter- can discern any termination of it. A vast mination. The very high price, which mass of foreign timber is employed in hemp bears at this moment, operates as a building; and while the outskirts of the powerful inducement to our national agri- metropolis are spreading in all directions, culturists. There is no question on the the houses being built mostly with foreign capubility of our country to supply any timber, the demand is not likely to diquantities of the very best kind of hemp. minish. We understand, that in the New
The following is part of a public report. Town Edinburgh, and its adjacencies, in
“ The culture of hemp is rapidly ex- cluding miles of streets, not a tinber emtending in Canada, and there is much rea ployed is of home growth. For this artison to hope, that in a few years we shall, cle, then, we must turn our attention through this medium, be rendered inde abroad. Canada bas supplied Dearly pendent of the foreign markets.-Several 50,000 loads of timber in the last year: hundred tons were grown during the last we may presume it is equal in quality to year in the neighbourhood of Montreal, what we were accustomed to receive from Camden, Howard on the Thames, and America. Immense quantities may be other parts of Upper Canada ; and we obtained from Brazil. Perhaps to seek it hear with great pleasure, that upwards of still further distant, might not be warranttwenty looms and rope walks were esta. able, the expence of freight considered. blished during that period. The ordinary Happily, immense plaotations have produce of clean and dressed hemp of the been made in Britain within a few years, first quality is from 6 to 7 cwt. per acre.” Iately passed; so that we may look for
The operation of converting British ward to a more plentiful supply of this Iron into steel, has been so greatly im- article, of our own production. proved, under the encouragement derived The following statement shews that from patents, some of which are of late we have not been inattentive in our distant date, that we have little, very little call possessions to the introduction of woods of for foreign iron. A few of the best arti- ihe finer kinds. cles indeed, in the making of which ha- “The cultivation of MAHOGANY in India bit has confirmed the worknien in the use has been attended with great success. of foreign bar iron, still continue to de- Two plants (the first known in lodia) were mand that kind by which they obtained sent out by the Court of Directors to the their reputation. We cannot blame this Botanic Garden at Calcutta ; from these attention ; but, we learn from the testi- two, upwards of a thousand plants bave mony of practical men, that the ordinary been reared, and they succeed so well, as ironmongery never exhibited such good to promise in a few years to be a valuable iron as of late ; and that for general pur- acquisition to the country. The two oriposés a decided preference is given to ginal trees were last year nearly four teet British. Another step in the career of in circumference, and several of the others improvement may produce British bar two or three feet." iron superior to the Russian. One word Tar is made from the roots of trees, as more on this subject : We remember the the timber bears too high a price, and is capable of application to superior purposes. i will greatiy exceed the Gold Coast in the Hitherto, it has not been regarded among value of its productions. us, because it could be obtained cheaper We conclude, by observing that, on the from foreign countries. But there is no whole, we have been so progressively exreason in nature why tar should not be cluded from the Continent, and so graduprocured from the roots of trees in Britain. ally deprived of the benefits derived from
There are in North Britain many thou- foreign productions, that, we have had sands of acres, that have yielded firs, the time to turn our attention to substitutes stumps and roots of which might furnish from other parts of the world; or to actar. Tar has long been rising in price ; custom ourselves to dispense entirely with and it will continue to rise, because it had the use of them. Had All our imports already become scarce, even in Norway, been withheld from us in an instant, and so great has been the consumption of the our commerce suspended at a stroke, as * woous. Moreover the trees around the that of America has been, by an embargo, Inhabited parts being cut down, the boors we do not presume to think that the conhave further to travel to their labours; of sequences might not have been serious. coyrse, the carriage of the tar, when made, But we hope, that after having weathered augments the price. It is remarkable, the storm so far, and being staunch and that tar has even been imported into tight, as yet, we shall continue to perform Bergen itself, from Archangel; as may our voyage, and shall in due time bring be seen by the list of imports into the the good ship, the Commerce of Britain, former city: a speculation that would safely, if not triumphantly into the dehave astonished former ages !—We ought sired haven. to add, that the same countries to which
ABSTRACT OF COTTON.
Imported into LONDON,
1807. productions of the woods, pitch, tar, and
East-Indies.... Bags 14,362
11,262 turpentine, when the market for them in West-Indies........ 14,977
20,330 Britain shall have become steady. These America
3,317 considerations are independent of any re
Brazils and Portugal 15,703
2,978 source to be found in the coal tar, which
Africa........ 270 possesses some valuable properties.
Our consumption of Tallow has long Total..Bags 53,631 Total., Bags 39,769 exceeded our supply : the most immediate substitute at the present moment is
53,631 oil ; and vast quantities of oil have been
39,679 burnt during the present winter, in parts Increase.. 1808. . Bags 13,952 of our island, where formerly they knew N. B. In the above statement, the cotton specinot how to light a lamp. This may not fied in the annexed table, as imported from be any great injury in the end. At present
St. Michael's, Guernsey. and Madeira, is 'the high price of tallow is felt in do
ipcluded in the quantity imported from the
Brazils, &c, being originally the produce of mestic arrangements, and more severely
that country ; that from Malta is included in in manufactories, and other establish- the import from Turkey for the same reason. ments, wbere great quantities are con
Imported into LIVERPOOL, sumed. It is understood that our own
East-Indies.... tallow requires foreign to be mixed with
West-Indies it, to lower its hardness, to a proper con
41,738 America ... 25,426
143,756 sistence. Brazil, and South America will Brazils and Portugal.. 6,662
11,852 certainly supply tallow, in process of time. | Turkey.. ..
527 Hides, which are furnished froin the same places as tallow, have long been brought
Total.. Bags 66,215 Total. . Bugs 197,346 in great quantities to the London markets;
197,346 and there can be no doubt, but after the
66,215 traders abroad get into the babit of it, they may easily send us supplies of this N.B. The import from Ireland is here included
Decrease.. 1808.. Bags 131,131 article adequate to our consumption. Cotton and Rice have lately been
in that from the West-Indies, for the above
mentioned reason. imported from Sierra Leone; and this for these Tables we are obliged to a Corrida part of Africa, if properly encouraged,
130 7891 94
3538; 958, 3744 410 2:0
2066 3072 473 422
1643' 197 109
2001 154 26 100 324
1808 14,362 4955 67214,997 5167 2352 1448 2315 309 400 492
626 928 1798 2034 120 324 262
IMPORT of Cotton WooL into LONDON and LIVERPOOL.
1808 19,813 5613 6662 15,298 3069 5239 70 1091 1031 662 2182 480 1807 16,171127,585'11,852/21,092/4170 4825' 294 1654'13311 608 3322/1102
the exertions of reflection and thought. Anthropologia: or Dissertations on the
On the contrary, we admire them, when Form and Colour of Man; with incidental well directed ; and, when the purpose i.Remarks. By T. Jarrold, M.D. Member able, we never, knowingly, deprive them
tended to be answered by them is honourof the Literary and Philosophical Society, of that commendation ; though we acManchester. 410. pp. 261. Price £1 10
knowledge a something not absolutely London : Cadell and Davies, 1808.
unallied to the feelings of indignation or -τ8 γαρ και γενος εσμεν, , of contempl, when we are reduced 10 the " For we his offspring are ; was the necessiiy of asking the cui bono?-ubat sublime language of Aratus, the Cicilian is the advantage of such tracts on such poet; and of Cleanthe3, in his "hymn to subjects -and the answer is—a mere Jupiter, “ deriving man from the divinity, blank. If the brules were our superiors himself. The expression has been con- in virtue, the result of understanding and secrated by St. Paul, who adopted it when knowledge called into activity, we night pleading before the tribunal of the Areo. be tempted to desire promotion to a more pagites, and boldly avowed, that the deity correct resemblance of them ; if they were “ had made of one blood all nations of more happy than humanity might be, that men, wherever dispersed on all the face envy, of which they were the subjects, of the earth." It is true, that the same could scarcely be denied the character of Sovereign Power has distributed the va- tolerable if not of laudable. rious branches of the immense family of
But, the usual cause of discontent is, man, according to his pleasure :---the a narrow and confined acquaintance with times and tides fore-allotted to each, in its things. Man has not the speed of some order; he boundaries of the different animals, as of the horse, though Achilles habitations, which each was destined to was swifter of foot than a wild roe ;occupy.' Does it follow, because these he has not the strength of the bull, what-branches have widely diverged from each ever credulity attributes to the exploits of other, that any of them is forgotten by Milo of Crotona; he has no ciaws for that Parent from whom all derived their defence, retractile, as those of the lion ; being ? or that he has left himself without a he has no venom like the serpent, which witness, -a'witness capable of appealing insures the instant death of his antagonist. with the most direct influence to their But he has speed enough for every desirahearts and understandings, through their ble and honest purpose : he has strength very senses, and appetites ? Most ceriainly enough, if it be well engaged : and if he not: for
be destitute of the means of spreading
slaughter and mortality around him, that Εν αντως γαρ ζωμεν, και κιναμεθα, και εσμεν.
very destitution is in perfect coincidence In HIM we live, are moved, and exist.
with his original character as the beneWherever exists a man, capable of volent superior of the creation. exercising rational powers (without which Man, moreover, possesses as great a he is no man) there is an evidence-not of proportion of each separate quality, as is a capricious forsaking of bis creatures, consistent with the welfare of the wbole by the Deity; but, of the steady and on-, in combination. To augment ile proporinterrupted support, which Divine goodness tion of either, would be detrimental to bestows on the sons of Adam). Never- the general mass. theless, it seems, that some of the inge. Nevertheless, his essential distinction nious members of this great family. in is a something superadded to whatever the most favoured parts of it, cannot rest excellence, the animals around bim can satisfied till they have degraded their own display. If any wish to draw a line that nature to the level of the brute; or bave shall effectually distingrish man froni raised the nature of the brute to an equa- brnte, let them examine his mentai facullity with their own. So natural are the ties wiihout prejudice; and select iveir principles of discontent, cavil, disorder, instances without partiality; a condict, destruction of the scale of existence, to which, we are sorry to say, is rare. We the heart of man! We would not be deny not that brutes have memory, for understood as discouraging the speculations instance, and that a certain degree of of the well-informed, nor as cramping sentiment is combined with the attachmen: