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ditional allowances made them on account of the expenses before referred to, and hence it becomes questionable in regard to the propriety of making any distinction in this respect between the different branches of the public service in California. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Secretary of the Trcasury. Prof. A. D. BACHE,

Superintendeni Corst Survey, Exeter, N. H.


Near Portland, Maine, Sept. 5, 1849. Sır: In reply to yours of August 31st, relating to the allowances recommended by me to be made for subsistence to the chiefs of parties and assistants now employed on the western coast, I beg leave to submit the following:

1. In the instructions from the Treasury Department, dated October 23, 1848, the following paragrcph refers to the compensation of persons em. ployed :

(2d. The employment of such aids and such hands in the parties as may be necessary, and the allowance of the requisite outfits,” (are authorized.) “The persons to receive the pay and allowances fixed by the de. partment for the Gulf of Mexico, or as may be usual on the western coast to secure good hands, and as may be approved by the superintendent. The officers to receive the allowances which apply to the sections on the Gulf of Mexico.It is for this latter clause which I proposed a substitute in my letter of August 22d, using the same phraseology, but proposing a different amount of allowance.

2. Great advantage has resulted to the survey from the allowances made to civil assistants depending upon work to be done in particular localities 'instead of an increase of salary, independent of the place of working, and received whether in the field or office. It has rendered service acceptable, for which otherwise it would have been difficult to obtain willing agents. Men of the requisite capacity, science, and other qualities necessary for this work, arc not easily procured nor trained, and willing service is the only kind which is profitable to us.

3. The officers whom I had in view in my recommendation to the de. partment as having been subjected to extraordinary expenses were the civil assistan's James S. Williams, esq., and Mr. Joseph S. Ruih, sub-assistant Mr. Williams receives a salary of $1,600, and Mr. Ruth one of $800.

The personal expenses of each at San Francisco, with the severest econ· omny, amounted to $3 per day for board and $100 per month for lodging.

4. Iu general, ethcers of the army and navy are furnished with quarters, fuel, and rations in kind, where the cost exceeds the allowance in money made by the government. It may be that Captain Hammond, of the army, assistant to Mr. Williams, and Lioutenant Commanding McArthur, of the navy, commanding the hydrographic party of the coast sur. vey, have been subjected to extraordinary expenses, but no representations from either have yet reached me. Should they have been involved

in any such expenses, I would deem it my duty to submit their case to your consideration.

5. I would most earnestly advise an additional emolument in the way of subsistence, rather than an increase of regular salary to the assistants, at the present time. Without an increase of emolument, they can probably not remain in Oregon, and if it be an increase of salary which does not cease on leaving the western coast, the stimulus to work there, as far as such a consideration would act, is withdrawn. It was not easy to find an as. sistant exactly suited to send upon this work, and Mr. Williams's compensation is now less than that of any other assistant in charge of work of similar responsibility. We should lose much by his withdrawal.

6. The peculiar attainments required by assistants in the coast survey have always been held to place them on a different footing as to com. pensation from ordinary civil employees of the government. Mr. Wil. liams, for example, has received four thousand dollars for his services as chief engineer of one of the States; and the offers in California which have been made to induce him to leave our service, and which he has, most honorably. to himself, declined, have been large.

7. The commission which an officer of the army and navy holds is an advantage which separates his case from that of civilians employed in the work. He is insured regular promotion as he advances in life; is not exposed to the contingency of an annual appropriation by Congress; is employed during life, whether sick or well-whether the coast survey is finished or in progress; his family receive a pension if he dies from the results of service; he is furnished in kind, if necessary, quarters and fuel; is supplied with medical attendance at the cost of the government; and enjoys other advantages which do not attend the position of a civilian on the coast survey.

These considerations will, I trust, serve to separate the case of assistants in the coast survey from those of other civil and military or naval of. ficers, and to warrant the approval of the allowances requested in my former letter, and which I believe are important to the successtul prosecution of the work on the western coast at the present time. Very respectfully, yours,


Superintendent U. S. Coast Survey. Hon. W. M. Meredith,

Secretary of the Treasury.

TREASURY DEPARTMENT, September 27, 1849. Sir: Your report of the 5th instant, in explanation of your recommendation of the 22d ultimo, respecting an additional allowance to the chiefs and assistants of the coast survey parties einployed on the western coast of the United States, has received due consideration.

In view of the existing condition of things, and the extraordinary expenses to which these officers are subjected in the prosecution of their du. ties, especially in California, it is deemed expedient and proper to mako the allowance proposed. The chief and assistants of the coast survey parties operating on the western coast of the United States will therefore be allowed, in addition to their present compensations, two dollars and fifty


cents per day each for subsistence, to commence on their arrival in California, and continue while employed in the discharge of their public duties in California, and cease when engaged elsewhere. Very respectfully,


Secretary of the Treasury. Prof. A. D. BACHE,

Superintendent Coast Survey, Washington.

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TREASURY DEPARTMENT, November 16, 1849. Sır: Referring you to the instructions of the department of the 17th of August, 1848, in regard to the coast survey operations on the western coast of the United States, and particularly to so much of said instructions as relates to an examination and survey of the entrance to Columbia river, with the view to the location thereat of light houses, buoys, &c., author. ized by the 27th section of the act “to establish the territorial government of Oregon," approved 14th August, 1848, I have to request that the coast survey party assigned to this duty may be urged to an early completion and report of the result of the work, in order that the intention of Con. gress may be carried into effect by the establishment of light-houses, buoys, &c., at the points indicated, at as early a period as practicable.

So soon as this work shall have been completed, it is the desire of the department, in view of the important commercial interests of the United States on the coast of the Pacific, that reconnoissance should first be made of the headlands, bays, rivers, &c., of the coast of California embraced within the limits of the United States, for the indication of suitable points for the location of light-houses, beacons, buoys, &c. · Your attention, therefore, is called to this subject, in order that the neces. sary instructions may be given by you to the coast survey parties in California. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Secretary of the Treasury. Prof. A. D. BACHE,

Superintendent Coast Survey, Washinglon.


Washington, D. C., December 21, 1819. Sir: I would respectfully request that, in lieu of the present regulations applying to payment for subsistence of chiefs of parties and assistants in the coast survey work on the western coast, the following regulations be adopted, viz:

Chiefs and assistants of land parties on the western coast of the United States shall receive, while in the field on that coast, an allowance for subsistence of $2 50 per day

I would respectfully request' that, in the case of assistant J. S. Wil

liams, and sub-assistant J. S. Ruth, and Captain Hammond, the allow. ance may take effect from January 1, 1849, when their preparations for the work were made. Very respectfully, yours,


Superintendent U. S. Coast Survey. Hon. W. M. MEREDITH,

Secretary of the Treasury.


Octoler 24, 1848. Sir: The United States revenue brig C. W. Lawrence, under your command, being fully equipped and ready, you will proceed to sea, and, with all prudent despatch, stopping first at San Diego, on the Pacific coast, on your way to Oregon, where you will enter upon your duties as an of, ficer of the revenue.

Your own experience, and the laws which are placed in your possess-, ion, will render any detailed explanation of those legitimate duties unnecessary.

You will, however, enter and examine all the different harbors which are now, or which may be, under the jurisdiction of the United States, and exercise the greatest vigilance in the prevention and detection of illicit trade, and in bringing offenders against the revenue service to justice.

At present you will consider the collector of the customs for the district of Oregon as the superintendent to whom your reports and accounts are to be rendered.

Should you, however, be officially notified of the extension of the rev. enue laws over California, and the appointment of a collector of customs. for that district—that being the point where the greatest amount of commerce will most probably be directed—you will transfer your accounts to that collector, and make the point of his location your principal rendezvous for supplies. .

When the funds now placed in your possession, and for which you hare furnished sureties, shall have been exhausted, and when you shall have deposited with said collector or collectors your accounts in the prescribed form, accompanied by the requisite vouchers showing that said money has been faii hfully disbursed, you will present all future accounts, duly authenticated, to said collectors for settlement as they become due..

You will report regularly to this department, and transmit the usual, transcripts from the journals, and study the most rigid economy in your expenditures. Should vacancies occur among the officers by casualties or resignations, you will make temporary provision from the officers next in gradę, reporting the same forth with to this department. Incidental to the duties before enumerated will be those of the protection of the commercial interests of the country, particularly in relieving the distresses of merchant vessels when such reliet may be necessary, and in making such examination of the various harbors you may visit as your means will permit, and as will not interfere with your legitimate duties. All infor: mation on these points is highly important, and will be transmitted to the

superintendent of the coast survey through this department. The department has directed the commencenient of the survey of the western coast by the superintendent of the coast survey, and one or more assistants of this work will speedily be despatched for this purpose. To these officers you will afford every facility in your power, by conveying them to such points as they may indicate, and by such assistance with your vessel, boats, and crew, as they may desire, and as may not seriously interfere with your revenue duties. They will, of course, be expected to bear their proportion of the expenses of the mess while on board of your vessel. Should letter bags from the other departments of the government be confided to your care, you will receive and deliver them as directed. In the event of your determination to locate your family permanently on the west coast, you will at the expiration of twelve months have permission to absent yourself from the vessel, for a period not to exceed three months, to attend to their removal.

You will be permitted to employ the services of a pilot until you shall become familiar with the different harbors, at the rate of compensation prescribed by the regulations, viz : fifty dollars per month and ration per diem.

In consideration of the peculiar character of your cruising grounds, the absence of marine hospitals, and the exposure of yourself, officers, and crew to casualties, you will be permitted to employ a medical practitioner, pro. vided his compensation shall not exceed that allowed to a pilot.

It only now remains to commit you to the care of Him who controls the elements, and to wish you a safe and prosperous voyage. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Secretary of the Treasury. Capt. Alex. V. Fraser,

United States Revenue Service,

commanding U.S. Revenue Brig C. W. Lawrence.


December 28, 1848. SIR : This department deeming it expedient to send a special mes. -senger to Oregon with official despatches relating to the revenue service, you are hereby directed to proceed without delay to the port of San Fran. cisco, California, where you will obtain such information as may be neces. sary to enable you to report yourself at the earliest practicable date to Captain Fraser, of the revenue cutter Cornelius W. Lawrence.

It is important that you should immediately communicate to Captain Fraser all the information which you may be able to obtain at San Fran. · cisco in relation to the desertion of seamen, and the best means of preventing desertion ; also, such information of a general nature connected with our commercial interest as you may obtain in your incidental inquiries. In view of the expected adoption by Congress, during its present session, of laws for the protection of our revenue on the coast of California, it is de. sirable that you should avail yourself of the opportunity which your visit to San Francisco may offer to acquire such useful knowledge on the subject as will facilitate the future operations of the revenue cutter stationed

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