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FIRST EFFECTUAL ENGLISH SETTLEMENT.

P'T. I.

16. Thus, after a period of one hundred and ten P'D. II. years, from the time that Cabot discovered North CH. 11. America, and twenty-four years after Raleigh planted

the first colony, there was not, in 1607, an Englishman settled in America.

CHAPTER II.

Chesa

discover

ed.

First settlement of Virginia. 1. In 1607, the London Company sent out Captain Christopher Newport, with three ships, and one hundred and five men, among whom was the navigator, Gosnold, and Captain John Smith, the Father of Virginia.

2. The fleet sailed by the West Indies, and being

driven north of Roanoke in a storm, an accidental dispeake covery was thus made of the entrance of the Chesa

peake bay, the boundaries of which were now named 1609. Capes

Charles and Henry, in honor of the king's sons. 3. The adventurers sailed at once into the bay, and up the Powhatan river, to which they gave the name

of the James. Upon its banks, fifty miles from its James mouth, they fixed their residence, and raised a few May 13. huts. The place was called Jamestown, an appellation

which it still retains, although nothing now remains but a few falling ruins.

4. The King of England, James I., had given the colonists a charter; that is a writing, made like a deed,

which he signed, and to which the great seal of EnCharter gland was affixed. These written instruments when

made for the settlers, in a wise and righteous manner, gave them privileges which were of great value. But, in this case, the charter left with the king all the power to govern the country.

What a

16, In 1607 what might be said of English colonization ?

CHAPTER II.-1. Whom did the London company send out ? 2. What discovery was accidentally made ? — 3. What course did the fleet take ? Where did the emigrants settle ? —4. What is a charter? Did these emigrants receive a favorable charter ?

is.

SMITH OBEYS HIS SUPERIORS.

39

P'D. II.

First

5. To the colonists no assurance was given, but the P'T I. vague promise, that they should continue to be Englishmen. Religion was established by law, according ch. II. to the forms and doctrines of the church of England. No prirThere

was, for the present, no division of property; ileges to and for five years, all labor was to be for the benefit of tlers. the joint stock.

6. The government was to be administered by a council, nominated by the king, but to reside in the colony. As soon as the emigrants landed, the council was organized. They chose Edward Wingfield, their president president. They were envious of Captain Smith. He field, Sa, was the

proper person to be their head, because he had Smith. more talents and more zeal for the settlement, than any other man. But troubles gathered fast, and then they were glad to have Smith for a leader.

7. The neighboring Indians soon annoyed the colony by their petty hostilities. Their provisions failed, and Disasters. the scanty allowance to which they were reduced, as well as the influence of a climate to which they were not accustomed, gave rise to disease; so that the num- Aug. 22. ber of the colonists rapidly diminished. Sometimes Death of four or five died in a day, and there were not enough 1607. of the well, to give decent burial to the dead. Fifty perished before winter, among whom was the excellent Gosnold.

8. The energy and cheerful activity of Smith, threw the only light, which glanced upon the dark picture. He so managed as to awe the natives, and at the same time to conciliate and obtain from them supplies of Excelfood; while, among the emigrants, he encouraged the lent man faint hearted, and put in fear the rebellious. Winter at of Smith. length came, and with it, relief from diseases of climate, and plentiful supplies of wild fowl and game.

9. The London company, with an ignorance of geography, which even then was surprising, had given directions that some of the streams flowing from the

5. How was it about religion ?-property ? — 6. What about the government? Who was chosen president ? - 7. What mis. fortunes befel the colony ? - 8. What can you say of the conduct of Captain Smith ? -9. What directions had Smith re. ceived ? From whom?

40

INDIANS CAPTURE SMITH.

Smith

mand.

P’T. I. north-west should be followed up, in order to find a P'D. II. passage to the South Sea.

Smith was superior to the CH. 11. company in intelligence, but he knew the duties of a

subordinate; and he therefore prepared to explore the can obey head waters of the river Chickahominy, which answeras well as ed as nearly as any one, to their description.

10. Powhatan, the chief of the savage confederacy on the waters of the James and its tributaries, had been visited by the colonists early after their arrival.

His imperial residence, called from its beautiful loca160%.

tion, Nonesuch, consisted of twelve wigwams near the Powhat- site of Richmond. Next to him in power was his an and brother, Opechacanough, who was chief of the Pabrother. munkies on the Chickahominy. Smith embarked in a

barge on that river, and when he had ascended as far as possible in this manner, he left it, with the order that his party should not land till his return; and, with four attendants, he pursued his objects twenty miles farther up the river.

11. The Indians who had watched his movements, fell upon his men, took them prisoners, and obliged them to discover the track of their captain. He, in pursuit of game, soon found himself hunted by swarms

of savage archers. In this extremity he bound to his capture breast, as a shield, an Indian youth, who was with

him; and then he shot three Indians, wounded others, and kept the whole party at bay. Attempting to retreat to his canoe while yet watching his foe, suddenly he sank to his middle, in an oozy creek. The savages dared not even then touch him, till, perishing with cold, he laid down his arms and surrendered.

12. They carried him to a fire, near which, some of

his men had been killed. By his Indian guide and His ad- interpreter, he then called for their chief. Opechaca

nough appeared, and Smith politely presented to him his pocket compass. The Indians were confounded at the motions of the fly-needle, which, on account of the

9. What did he know, and wh do ? — 10. Whom had the colonists visited ? Where? Who was chief of the Indians on the Chickahominy? What was the beginning of Smith's ad. ventures on that river ?-11. Relate the circumstances of his capture ?

Indians

Smith.

INDIAN CUSTOMS-POCAHONTAS.

41

His treat

mysterious glass, they could see, but could not touch. P'T. I. He told them wonderful stories of its virtues, and pro- PD. II. ceeded, as he himself relates, " by the globe-like figure ca. II. of that jewel, to instruct them, concerning the roundness of the earth, and how the sun did chase the night round about the world continually," by which his auditors were filled with profound amazement.

13. Their minds seemed to labor with the greatness of the thought, that a being so superior was in their power; and they vacillated in their opinion whether or not it was best to put him to death; and as often changed their conduct. They took him to Powhatan, mentras thence led him round from one wondering tribe to the savaanother, until, at the residence of Opechacanough, ges. these superstitious dwellers of the forest, employed their sorcerers or powows, for three days, to practice incantations, in order to learn, from the invisible world, whether their prisoner wished them well or ill.

14. The decision of his fate was finally referred to Powhatan. At his residence, that majestic savage received him in state, but he condemned him to die. Two stones were brought and laid before the chief, and two savages stood with uplifted war-clubs. Smith

cue by was dragged to the spot, and his head placed upon the Pocahonstones. Pocahontas, a young Indian girl, rushed forward, and with cries and tears begged of Powhatan, her father, to spare him. He refused. She then ran and knelt beside the victim, and laid her young head upon his. Then the stern savage relented, and Smith was saved.

15. Smith having now learned much of the Indians, their country, modes of warfare, dispositions and lan- 1608. guage, and having also by his great address and honor- Good able bearing, won their affection and confidence, his from captivity proved, under Divine Providence, a means of establishing the colony.

16. During his absence, however, there had been

His res

tas.

vil.

12. Of the manner in which he gave the natives a great idea of his knowledge ?- 13. Of their thoughts and behaviour to. wards him ?--14. Relate the circumstance of his sentence and deliverance? –15. What view may be taken of Smith's captivity?

42

NEWPORT ARRIVES-BAD SETTLERS.

the

Smith

P’T. I. disorder and misrule; and when he returned to JamesP'D. II. town he found only thirty-eight persons remaining. CH. I. The spirits of the people were broken; and all, filled

with despondency, were anxious to leave a country so State of inhospitable. He prevailed upon them, however, partly

by force and partly by persuasion, to remain till the colony.

next year, when Newport arriving from England, with some supplies and one hundred and twenty emigrants,

hope again revived. 1608. 17. During the year 1608, Captain Smith explored

the Chesapeake bay to its head, discovered its fine streams, and gained new information concerning the

native productions and inhabitants of the country. In explores an excursion which he made up the Rappahannock, the Ches he had a skirmish with the Mannahoacks, a tribe deapeake.

scended from the Delawares, and took prisoner a brother of one of their chiefs. From him he first heard of the Iroquois, who, the Indian told him, “dwelt on a great water to the north, had a great many boats, and so many men, that they waged war with all the rest of the world.”

18. Immediately on his return he was chosen president of the council. He found the recent emigrants

“goldsmiths and gentlemen.” But he promptly gave ion and them their choice, to labor for six hours a day, or have wisdom. nothing to eat.

He represented to the council in England that they should send laborers; that the search of gold should be abandoned, and that “nothing should be expected except by labor.”

His decis

CHAPTER III. Early settlement of Virginia-continued. 1. The London Company had gradually become enlarged by accessions of men of influence, some of

16. What had happened during Smith's absence ? What was the effect of his return ? - 17. What did Smith explore ? What learn from report ? - 18. What happened on his return? What course did he take? What was his advice sent to England ?

CHAPTER III.-1. What had been the progress of the London Company?

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