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e-pisoto-lã rẽ e-vent-u-al-ly
hē-rěd'ē tā-re im-ag-in-a-ry
e-mad jin-ar-ē im-meas-u-ra-ble
în ěks'ö-rā-bl in-ex-pli-ca-ble
in-ěks'ple-ka-bl CONVERSATIONS, A.C.--LESSON 18.
Justices of the Peace and Loan Oficers. This evening, my son, said Mr. Brown, as the family drew up round cheerful fire, we speak of the justices of the peace, those necessary but frequently abused officers of the government. They are now chosen by the people and hold their office for four years. They earn, at a dear rate, all the money they get for the discharge of their difficult duties.
I presume, sir, said Horace, they have very extensive powers; will you enumerate some of them?
It seems, said the father, that three or more of them have power to hold a court within the county in which they live, and try and punish offenders for petty crimes committed within their jurisdiction; hence, their powers are of two distinct classes;— those which ey hold in connexion with each her, and those exercised by them as single justices of the peace.
In their associate capacity, continued the father, three or more of them, one being a judge of the court of common pleas,
have power to hold a court of general sessions of the peace, and to try and determine all causes for offences not punishable by death or imprisonment for life.
What of their powers and duties as single magistrates? asked Horace.
In the discharge of their duties in their single capacity, answered the father, their attention appears to be directed to two principal subjects, to wit:—the issues joined in civil causes, and those coersed in criminal cases.
What are their powers in civil causes? inquired Philo.
In matters of debt, damage or trespass, their jurisdiction extends to sums not exceeding fifty dollars, nor do their powers extend beyond the limits of their respective counties.
What are their powers in their criminal jurisdiction? asked Philo.
In this departnient of his official duties, the justice bas power to bring before him not only such as break the peace, but even those who threaten to break it, and those who, by their loose and disorderly conduct, attach the character of persons of bad fame. The first he commits to prison or holds to bail, that they may be dealt with by the court of quarter sessions. The other two he binds over with good surety to keep the peace, and if they refuse a recognizance, he has power to commit them and return them to the county court.
Are those the only cases, inquired Horace, to which the powers of the justice extends?
By no means, answered Mr. Brown, he has to deal in his single capacity, with felons of every description, with parties guilty of assault and battery, with fugitives from justice, and with apprentices and their masters. But in every case he must confine himself strictly to the powers given him by the statute; for he can take nothing by implication.
Loan Officer.-We now come to the Loan Officer, said Hor ace; and we shall be glad to learn what powers he possesses, and what duties he performs, in the business of government.
The loan officer, said Mr. Brown, is a mere public commissioner or broker; he loans the public meney, and receives his percentage as fixed by statute. He is appointed by the governor, with the advice and consent of the senate, and he gives a bond with surety to the supervisors of the county, which is lodged in the county clerk's office, for the faithful performance of his
What are his principle duties, asked Philo; for I suppose must do something by which he gets money?
They may be enumeru.ced in few words, answered the father; he loans the public funds on bond and mortgage; collects the interest when due, and also the principal, and pays the same into the treasury of the state. Once a year, he accounts to the board of supervisors of the county, touching his official transactions; for which purpose he registers all his doings in a book prepared for the purpose.
But I thought, said Horace, that the state was deep in debt, and had no money to lend.
The state undoubtedly owes money and pays a heavy interest; but she has occasional funds on hand, which she loans for short periods, and thereby brings a part of the interest back.-This is true economy, and every prudent man adopts the same, policy.
Capacity of Casks, &c. Casks are of various kinds and different forms; the capacity of the ordinary kind may be found by the following
Rule. 1. Square the bulge diameter in inches, and multiply that square by 39.
2. Square the head diameter in inches, and multiply it by 24.
3. Multiply the bulge diameter by the head diameter, and that product by 26.
4. Multiply the sum of the several products by the length of the cask in inches, and that product by .00034.
5. Divide the last product by 11 for ale, and by 9 for wine, the quotient will be the answer in gallons. Thus:
A. has a cask whose bulge diameter is 33 inches, its head diameter 27in. and length 36in. what is its capacity in ale gal.?
33 X 33=1089 X 39=42471
83133. Then, 83133X36=2992788 X.00034=1017.54792. Finally, 1017.54792-11=92.5 galls. and a fraction over. Note. There are several other methods by which casks are measured, but none more concise or accurate than this, provided çare be taken in getting the dimensions.
Obs. The capacity or Tonnage of ships, may be found by the following
Rule. 1. Multiply the length of the keel in feet by the length of the beam a midships in feet, and that product by the depth of the hold in feet.
2. Divide the last product by 95 tur merchant vessels, and by 100 for ships of war; the quotient will be the tonnage.Thus:-
B's merchant ship has a keel 95 feet long; the beam a midships is 32 feet, and the hold 16 feet deep; what is her tonnage?
95 X32=3040 X 16=48640-95=512 tons. Ans. If the head diameter of a cask be 25in.; the bulge diameter 31in.; and the length of the cask 36in.; how many wine gals. will it hold?
Ans. 103. Suppose B's fishing boat to have 56 feet keel, 16 1-2 feet beam, and 6 1-2 feet hold; what is her tonnage? Ans. 63.22.
REMARKS, &c.-LESSON 20.
2d. Ilustrations of the lambic Measure. Nore. Iambic verse, like that of Trochaic, is divided into several kinds, of which seven are enumerated.
1. The shortest form, is that which consists of one Iambus and an additional short syllable. Thus:
Rěpenting. 2. The next shortest measure of the lambus, has two lambuses, and will admit of an additional short syllable. Thus:-
Whăt plāce is hēre?
Whăt scēnes åppeār! Note. 1. Both of the above forms are to be found in occasional stanzas, but they are too short and trifling to be extended to any considerable length, or to impart a high degree of dignity or interest.
3. This form consists of three iambuses, and also admits of an additional short syllable. It frequently occurs in small pie. ces of poetry. Thus:
in plācěs fār or nēar,
prê-lim’ē nā-rē pre-par-a-to-ry
ăn-a-tóm ê-k51 an-i-mos-i-ty
ăr-e-õp'a-jite CONVERSATIONS, &c.—LESSON 22. We come next in turn, said Horace to the office of supervisor, I recollect it was mentioned once or twice in the last conversation, and something was said about a board of them. How is he chosen, and what is the nature of his office?
One supervisor for each town in each county in the state, said Mr. Brown, is chosen annually by the people, and if his office becomes vacant, the people of the town have power to choose another; but if they neglect to do it for fifteen days after the vacancy happens, then three judges of the county may ap