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our policy, yet I almost bless the convulsion in which he had his origin. If the heavens thundered, and the earth rocked, yet, when the storm was passed, how pure was the clime it cleared! how bright, in the brow of the firmament, was the planet which it revealed to the world!

2. In the production of Washington, it appears as if nature was improving upon herself--and all the virtues of the ancient world, were but so many studies preparatory to the patriot of the new. Individual instances, no doubt, there were', of splendid exemplifications of soine single virtue:---Cesar was merciful; Scipio was continent, Hannibal was patient, but it was reserved for Washington to blend all the virtues in one, and, like the lovely master piece of the Grecian artist, to accompany in one glow of associated beauty, the pride of every model, and the perfection of every master.

3. As a general, he marshalled the peasant into a veteran, and supplied by discipline the absence of experience;--as á statesman, he enlarged the cabinet into the most comprehensive system of general advantage; and such were the wisdom of his views and the philosophy of bis counsels, that to the soldier and the statesman, he added the character of the sage.

4. A conqueror, he was untainted with the crime of blood; a revolutionist, he was free from any stain of treason; for aggression commenced the contest, and his country called kim in the command. Liberty unsheathed his sword, necessity stained it, and victory returned it.

If he had paused here, history might have doubted what station to assign him; whether at the head of his country's citizens or her soldiery;-her heroes or her patriots. But the last glorious act, crowns his career, and banishes all hesitation.

Who, like Washington, after having emancipated a hemisphere, resigned its crown, and prefered the retirement of domestic life to the adoration of a people which he may almost be said to have created!-Happy America! The lightnings of heaven yielded to your philosophy!--The temptations of earth could not seduce your patriotism!

LESSON 39. A general Rule for extracting the roots of all powers. Rule. 1. Point the given power into periods agreeably to the index.

2. Find the first figure of the root by trial, and subtract its power from the left hand period;-—then bring down to the remainder the first figure of the noxt period for a dividend.



3. Involve the root to a power, less by one, than that expressed by the index, and then multiply it by the index denotthe power

for a divisor, the quotient will be the second figure of the root.

4. Involve the whole root thus obtained to the power expressed by the index and subtract it from the first two periods; bring to the remainder the first figure of the 3d period for a dividend;—find a new divisor as above, and proceed to get the third figure of the root, and so on through all the periods. Thus:-

(1) What is the v root of 9161'32832. Ans. 62. 6X6 X6 X6 X6=

7776 (62 root. 6X6X6X6X5= 6480 )13853 dividend. 62 X 62 X 62 X 62 X 62=916132832–916132832=0.

Obs. The roots of the 4th, 6th, Sth, 9th and 12th powers, may be obtained by the following method.

For the 4th power, extract the v of the v. For the 6th, the v of the v For the 8th the v of the v For the 9th, the Ñ of the and for the 12th, the of the 1.

(2) What is the biquadrate of 56249134561? Agrs 487. (3) What is the 6th root of 282757789696? Ans. 46. (4) What is the 9th root of 1352605460594688? Ans. 48.

Praciical exercises in the square and cube roots. (5) A's cellar is of the same length, breadth and depth, and 1728 cubic feet was thrown from it, what is the length of one side?

Ans. 12 ft. (6) The contents of a cubical stick of timber, is 103823 solid inches; how many inches is it each way? Ans. 47. (7) B laid out £691-4 for clothes; they cost as many

shillings a yard as there were yards in each piece, and there were as many pieces as they cost shillings a yard, what was the number of pieces.

Ans. 24. READING.--LESSON 40. 11. EXCLAMATION. T'he exclamatory figure indicates the strongest emotions of the mind; and is produced by sudden joy, surprise, admiration, grief, &c. As:

O that my head were waters and mine eyes a fountain of tears, that I might weep day and night for the slain of the daughter of my people!

O that I had in the wilderness a lodging place of wayfaring men!


Note. When this figure is judiciously employed, it produces a very sensible effect. It imparts, through the medium of sympathy, the precise passion or emotion which calls it into action. But when unseasonably or too frequently employed, and when associated with low or trivial sub jects, it loses much of its importance. See pages,109 and 334,of the 2d part,

12. TRONY. This is a figure usually employed to express & sentiment contrary to truth and belief, not however with a view to deceive, but for the purpose of enforcing the observation. Thus:

“Cry aloud," says Elijah,"for he is a God!- Either he is talking, or he is pursuing, or he is on a journey, peradventure ke sleepeth and must be awakened.”

Nore. Irony may be employed in almost every species of composition. Its chief province, is to turn things into ridicule, under the disguise of appearing to praise them. The most prolific subjects for the successful use of this figure, are the vices and folies of mankind; and this mode of attacking them is often much more successful than serious exhortations or just reasoning.

13. CLIMAX. A climax is the arrangement of a series of circumstances or actions so as to have them rise in point of importance, une above another, and refer to the same object, by which it is placed in the most imposing view. Thus:

It is a crime to put a Roman citizen in bonds; it is the height of guilt to scourge him;-little less than parricide to put him

to death:--What name then shall I give to the act of crucifying bim?

Can you raise the dead?
Pursue and overtake the ways of time?
Bring back again the hours, the days,
The months, the years that made me happy?


SPELLING.- LESSON 1. ex-or-bi-tant égz-or'be-tănt gramn-ma-ri-an grăm-ma'rē-au ex-or-di-um "égz-òr'dē-um gra-niv-vo-rous gră-niv'võ-rūs ex-pa-ti-ate

eks-pā'she-āte gra-tu-i-tous gră-tū-e-tūs ex-pe-ri-ence eks-pēʻrë-ěnse gre-ga-re-ous grē-ga're-ŭs ex-per-i-ment ěks-pěr'ē-ment ha-bil-i-mentha-bil'e-ment ex-pos-i-tor éks-poz’é-túr ha-bit-u-al

hă-bit'yū-ăl ex-post-u-lateěks-post'yū-late bar-mo-ne-ous hăr-mó'ně-ús ex-te-ri-or ěks-tē'rē-ur

he-ret-i-cal hä-rět'e-kål ex-tra-ne-ous ēks-trā'nē-ús hex-ag-o-nal hëgz-ag'Ô-nă? ex-tray-a-gance ěks-trăv'ā-gănse hil-ar-i-ty hilăr'e-le


ox-trem-i-ty čks-trēm'ë-të hiş-tor-i-cal his-tor'ik-e ex-u-be-rance égz-ūóbē-rănse hos-til-i-ty hos-til-z-té fa-cil-i-ty fã-sil'ē-tě hu-man-i-ty hū-man'ē-të fa-mil-iar-ize få-milyõr-ize hu-mil-i-ty hü-mil'é-të fa-nat-i-cism fä-năt’ē-sizm hy-drom-e-ter hi-drom'mē-tur fas-tid-e-ous făs-tid'ê-us hy-poc-ri-sy hi-põk'krē.se fe-lic-i-ty fë-lis'ē-tē hy-pot-e-nuse hi-pót'é-nuse fe-roc-i-ty fé-rõs'ē-tē hyp-oth-e-sis hip-poth'é-sis for-til-i-ty fer-til'ē-tő i-den-ti-cal i-děn'tē-kål fi-del-i-ty fi-děl'ē-tē i-dol-a-try 1-dol'lă-tre flac-cid-i-ty flăk-sid'ë-tē il-leg-i-ble il-lėj'è-bi for-tu-i-tous fòr-tū'é-tūs il-lit-er-ate il-lit'těr-ātc fra-ter-ni-ty

frā-ter'nē-te il-lu-mi-nate il-lü'mē-näte friv-ol-i-ty fré-võľ’ē-tē il-lu-so-ry

il-lu'sur-ē gen-til-i-ty jen-tile-te il-lus-tri-ous il-lūs'trē-us ge-og-ra-phy je-og'grå-fe. im-mac-u-late im-măk'kū-lăte ge-ol-o-gy

jē-ol'o-je im-me-di-ate im-mē'dē-ăt ge-om-e-try jē-om’ē-trē im-men-si-ty im-mēn'se-tē



Objections to the Declaration of Independence. 1. Let us pause!—This step, once taken, cannot be refraced. This resolution, once passed, will cut off all hope of reconciliation. If success attend the arms of England, we shall then be no longer colonies with charters and privileges; these will all be forfeited by this act, and we shall be in the conditiou of other conquered people--at the mercy of the conquerers?

2. For ourselves, we may be ready to run thc hazard; but are we ready to carry the country to that length?--- Is success so probable as to justify it? Where is the military force, where the naval power by which we are to resist the whole strength of the arm of England? for she will exert her strength to the utmost. Can we rely on the constancy and perseverence of the people? or will they not act as the people of other countries have acted, and, weary with the war, submit to a worse oppression?

3. While we stand on our old ground, and insist on redress of grievancies, we know we are right, and are not an swerable for consequences.-Nothing, then, can be imputable to us. But, if we now change our object, carry our pre. entions farther, and set up for absolute independence, we shall

lose the sympathy of mankind. We shall no longer be de. fending what we possess, but struggling for something which we never had, and which we have solemnly and uniformly disclaimed all intention of pursuing from the very outset of the troubles.

Abandoning, thus, our old ground of resistance only to arbitrary acts of oppression, the world will believe the whole to have been mere pretence, and will look on us, not as injured, but as ambitious subjects. I shudder before this responsibility. It will be on us, if, relinquishing the grounds on which we have so long stood, and stood so safely, we now proclaim independence and carry on the war for that object, while these cities burn, these pleasant fields whiten and bleach with the bones of their owners, and these streams run blood.

5. It will be upon us, if, failing to maintain this unseasonable and ill judged declaration, a stern government, enforced by military power, will be established over our posterity, when we ourselves, given up and exhausted, a misled harrassed people, shall have expiated our rashness, and atoned for our presumption on the scaffold.


Mensuration. Mensuration has reference to that branch of commor arithmetic which treats of the admeasurement of surfaces, solids, angles, and the relative magnitudes of bodies. Blagnitudes are measured by other magnitudes of the same kind.

A point has no parts, arithmetically speaking, but is a mere dot without magnitude, and therefore not measureable.

A line has length, but not breadth nor thickness, it is therefore measured by inches, feet, &c.

Surfaces have length and breadth, but not thickness. They are measured by square inches, feet, &c.

Solids have length, breadth, and thickness or depth, or Height, and are measured by cubic inches, feet, 8.c.

Note. Thickness is generally applied to magnitudes which are with in the grasp of the observer, or immediately on a level with him:--as, the thickness of a board, the thickness of the hand, or the foot. Depth refer to objects that lie below observation, and are measured downward, as, the depth of a ditch, river, ocean. Height has regard to objects above observation, or such as are measured upward. As, the height of a house a tree, a monument, &c.

Surfaces and solids are of various forms or figures, of vari$115 dimensions, and of various magnitudes.

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