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Rule. 1. Make the subject or object of the proposition the controlling or prominent feature throughout the sentence.
2. Avoid a change of this feature, and a transition fronı person to person, and from subject to subject.
EXAMPLE. After we came to anchor, they put me on shore where I was welcomed all my friends who received me with the greatest kindness.
(In this sentence, both the scene and the subject are so frequently changed as to produce a weak and imperfect impression upon the mind. This may be obviated by the following arrangement of the parts. Having come to an anchor, I was put on shore, where I was welcomed by my friends and received with the greatest kindness.)
The Sultan being dangerously wounded, they carried him to his tent, and, upon hearing of the defeat of his troops, they put him into a litter which conveyed him to a place of safety, at the distance of about fifteen leagues.
OBs. Avoid crowding into one sentence, objects and subjects" of a remote relation, which may readily become the subject of several sentences.
Their march was through an uncultivated country, whose savage inhabitants fared hardly, having no other riches than a breed of lean sheep, whose fiesh was rank and unsavory by means of their continual feeding on sea fish.
Arch Bishop Tillotson died this year, who was exceedingly beloved by King William and Queen Mary, who nominated Dr. Tennison to succeed him.
NOTE. It is much safer for all writers, and particularly for beginners, to aim at short sentences than long ones.--A due mixture of both however, is the most pleasing to the ear, and of easier delivery to the reader.
de-fraud-er dē-frâwd'ūr ob-trud-er õb-trôd'úr
pro-tru-sion pro-tro'zhún in-tru-sive in-trỘksiy re-mov-al rē-môy'ăl ma-noeu-vre mă-nóvr
Vowels Grave. ant-arc-tic ănt-àrk'tik dis-heart-en dis-hart'n bom-bard-mentbŭm-bàrd'měnt fore-fath-er fore-fàth'úr ca-tarh-al kă-tàr'răl im-par-tial îm-par'shăl ca-thar-tic kă-thar tik in-car-nate in-kàr'nāte co-part-ner ko-part'nŭr le-thar-gic le-t'har'jik de-part-ure dē-part'yure re-gard-less rē-gàrd'lēs ab-hor-ence ăb-hòr'rense dis-tor-tion dis-tòr'shún con-cor-dance kön-kòr'dănse ex-tor-tion ěx-tòr'shŭn con-tor-tion
kõn-tòr'shũn im-por-tance im-por'tănse dis-oor-dance dis-kòr'dănse mis-for-tune mis-fort'yūne dis-or-der diz-dr'dūr re-morse-less rē-mòrs'lēs
Vowels Sharp. ap-par-ent, ăp-parent for-bear-ance fòr-bárānse trans-par-ent trăns-pa'rėnt
Accent on the third syllable. am-bus-cade ăm-bus-kāde col-on-ade kol-o-nāde' ap-per-tain ăp-per-tan' dis-o-bey
dis-o-bā' as-cer-tain ăs-sēr-tân' in-ter-change in-těr-chänge' bar-ri-cade băr-rê-kāde' lem-on-ade lēm-un-āde can-non-ade kă n-nŭn-ade'
mas-quer-adc măs-kēr-āde' cav-al-cade kă v-ăl-kāde' pal-i-sade
păl-e-säde an-te-cede ăn-tē-sēde'
guar-an-tee gặr-răn-têẽ? as-sig-nee ăs-sē-nēē' in-com-plete' in-kom-plēte auc-tion-eer âwk-shŭn-ēēr' in-dis-creet în-dis-krēēt! bom-ba-sin būm-bă-zēn in-sin-cere in-sin-sēre' brig-a-dier brig-a-dēr' in-ter-cede in-těr-sēde buc-a-niers būk-ă-nērs' in-ter-weave în-těr-wēve' can-non-ier Lăn-nun-ệt
mag-a-zine măg-ā-zēne' cap-u-chin kăp-ū-shēn
mor-ga-jēēd cav-al-ier kăv-ăl-ēr' moun-tain-eer moûn-tān-nēēr"
Colonel William Washington. 1 William Washington, another of the Revolutionary heroes, was the oldest son of Baily Washington, Esq. of Stafford, Virginia, a junior branch of the original Washington family. William, though young, had the strength of Hercules, and the bravery of Ajax. In the science of war, he was a veteran; apt at stratagem, and prompt in execution. His sword was his pride, and his country, his idol.
2. Early in life, and early in the sanguinary conflict, he en:
tered the list of freedom's friends in the capacity of a captain of Infantry, under the command of Gen. Mercer. after had an opportunity of exhibiting his prowess, by the side of his august kinsman, the commander in chief, at the battles of Trenton and Princeton.
3. Advanced to the rank of colonel, and at the head of a regiment of cavalry attached to the army of Gen Lincoln, he marched with that commander to the defence of the south. ---Here his course of martial movement, was marked with a series of
brilliant strokes of genius and fortune. 4 When Gen. Green succeeded to the command of the southern forces, Col. Washington ranged under his banner, and fought by his side. Here the young hero's services were various and dangerous;-and his success was glorious to the hallowed name by which he was distinguished.
5 Ordered by his general, with a small detachment of horse, against the enemy, lodged in a strong hold, fortified at all points, he found his cavalry wholly unable to reach them. Rich in resources, ha immediately shaped a pine log in imitation of a heavy field piece,--stained it with mud to give it the appearance of iron,-mounted it on wheels, and, in military style, brought it to bear upon the fortress of the foe.
6 Having prepared for action, he sent a white flag, to warn the enemy of their danger, and, to spare the effusion of blood, ordered them to surrender. Unprepared to resist the power of artillery, they obeyed the summons, and a garrison of more than one hundred hardy troops, marched out and laid down their arms at discretion.
Col. Washington continued a soldier until his country was freed from foreign fetters, and the invading troops driven from her sunny shores. He then retired with the amiable and accomplished Miss Elliot, of Charleston, to her ancestral estate at Sandy Hill, which he seldom left, except to take a seat in the councils of state.
8 During the administration of the venerable John Adams, Gen. George Washington, the father of his country and the friend of man, was again appointed commander in chief of the armies of the United States. Remembering the talents and worth of his beloved kinsman, he gave him the rank of General, and made him one of his staff. Col. Washington died in 1810, leaving behind him a name, which, on the tablet of history, will descend to future ages, to warm the bosom, and Gire the ardour of unborn thousands.
COMBINATION OF NUMBERS.--LESSON 27. Combination is a rule by which the different ways in which a less number of things may be combined out of a greater number.
Rule. 1. Take a series of numbers, proceeding from, and increasing by, unity, up to the number designed to be combined.
2. Take another series, of a like number of places, decreasing by unity, from the number out of which the combinations are to be made.
3. Multiply the former series continually for a divisor, and the latter for a dividend, the quotient will be the answer. Thus:
many combinations of 5 letters may be had in 10. letters?
Ans. 252. 1X2 X3 X4 X5=120, divisor. 10X9X8X7X6=30240 dividend. Then 30240--120=252
(2) How many combinations can be made of 6 letters out of 10 letters?
Ans. 210. (3) What is the value of as many different dozens of pins as may be taken out of 24, at id
Ans. £11267.6.4. (4) How many combinations of 10 figures, may be made out of 20?
The strength of a sentence. The strength of a sentence implies the disposition and arrangement of the parts of which it is composed, in a way best calculated to give each its proper weight and force.
Rule 1. Words and phrases which do not add something to the import and importance of a sentence, detract from its strength, and, therefore, should be lopped off.
Example. They returned back again to the same city from whence they came forth. (Better thus:--They returned to the same city whence they came. By this arrangement of the parts, five burdensome words, mere expletives, are lopped away, and those left, assume their native force and perspicuity.) There can be no doubt but that he means as he
says. OBs. The strength of a senteuce, often depends upon the proper use of the connective and relative particles:--The hinges upon which the sense turns. Many states were in alliance with, and under the protection
of, the Tooman empire. (Here the splitting of particles, has' an effect upon the mind, similar to that produced upon the body on opening a gate with a broken hinge. Many states were in alliance with the Roman empire, and under her protection.)
On receiving the information, he rose up, and went out, and saddled his horse, and mounted him, and rode to town.
That a man should wantonly mangle and wound his own outward form and constitution, and his own natural limbs or body, appears very strange.
So it is that I am forced to get home:--and partly by force, and partly by stealth.
He lifted up his voice and wept. He opened his mouth and spake.
Note. In framing a sentence, avoid lopping off those branches which cluster with fruit, and the needful props which sustain them. It were better to have here and there an ornamental branch, than to trim to the naked trunk.
Accented on the third syllable. chan-de-lier shăn-de-lēr' mu-let-teer mū-let-tē ēr' chev-a-lier shěv-ā-lēr' ob-li-gee ob-le-jēc' coch-in-eal kuch-in-ē! 0-ver-reach -vūr-rētsh' con-tra-vene kon-tra-vēne' pal-an-quin
Bài-li-kin”. cor-de-lier kõr-de-lēr'
nam-phlet-eer pam-tiet-têễr cui-ras-sier kwė-răs-sēr' pat-en-tec păt-těn-téē dis-be-lief dís-bē-left
quar-an-tine lowbr-rin-tine dom-i-neer dom-e-nēēr' ref-u-gee rěf-fu-jēē en-gi-neer en-jē-nēēr' rep-ar-tee rep-păr-tēē fi-nan-cier fin-năn-sēr' tam-ba-rine tăm-bã-1ẽne fric-as-see fric-ăs-sēē' un-der-neath ŭn-dūr-nēth gren-a-dier grěn-a-der' ad-ver-tise ăd-ver-tize dis-o-blige dis-o-blije' cir-cum-scribe sér-kům skribe'su-per-scribe sū-pěr-skribe' co-in-cide kõ-in-side' de-com-pose de-kom-poze' ev-er-more ěv-úr möre' dis-com-mode dís-kom-mode' in-com-mode, in-kom-mode dis-com-pose dis-kom-poze' in-ter-pose în-těr-poze' dis-em-bogue dis-ěm-bog' 0-ver-flow Ö-vŭr-flo' es-cri-toir ěs-kri-tor'
ro-que-laure rõk-e-lare' cir-cum-fusc sir-kum-füzet dis-a-buse
dis-a-buze clare-ob-scure kláre-ob-skūre'in-tro-duce în-tro-dūse'